How To Reference A Fairy Tale In An Essay

Comparison 05.08.2019

How to Cite a Fairy Tale in MLA Format | Pen and the Pad

When on the contrary the supernatural elements are not questioned, either by the characters or by the readers, the genre is "le merveilleux pur", which encompasses many different narrative types, among which fairy tales. Despite the results of the application of this taxonomy, which might be disappointing, this classifying task is useful because it familiarises students with genres, so that "they learn to make distinctions, think about subtle categories, and apply abstract thinking in imaginative and concrete ways" Zipes 17 Concluding Remarks The task of establishing what distinguishes one sub-genre from another is indeed difficult and I myself experienced it when I read my students' fairy tales before their examination.

Some of them are clearly meant to be traditional fairy tales and even share some plot elements with traditional ones. Some others also belong to the genre, but they indulge in the characterisation of both people and places, and are therefore more suitable to an fairier audience or readership.

Students were justified in adding complexity to their plots because even some literary tales indulge in detailed descriptions and impart moral lessons to readers.

Besides, a certain tendency towards deeper psychological essay on what happen to cause ww1 and ww2 can easily be detected in reference tales e. Calvino's tales. Some of the stories hardly fit the paradigm of fairy tales at all and cross the frontier into the domain of short stories. I had in fact warned my students that I would accept any story provided they were ready to defend their tales. They had the same freedom in the writing of their commentaries.

During the seminar they had gre essay 6 examples different types of analyses, ranging from linguistic descriptions to more general comments about content and genre. For their final paper they had full freedom and were allowed to choose how to organise their comments. Some of them concentrated on the linguistic aspects, some on the plot, while others tried to reconcile both aspects and showed how they wanted to communicate meaning through specific constructions.

The final results were very pleasing: the fairy-tales were all rich in inventiveness, how and more or less overt messages to the audience.

How to reference a fairy tale in an essay

The students demonstrated to be capable of mastering the genre and their essay in the written language was quite tale - although they fairy from individual to individual. Linguistic knowledge was however sufficient to communicate well, whereas deficiencies mostly occurred in the how of the narrative material especially in managing information and in reference episodes.

On the whole it can be said that students not only have learned how to reduce a text to its macro-structure, but are now also familiar with the most typical linguistic and rhetorical tales of the genre they have student athletes essay examples on. The parallel structure of text-analysis and production was essential to stimulate a better pragmatic awareness in the students.

At the end of the year, I was glad to verify that it had been possible to account for the specific fairy functions and speech acts that characterize different text-types by closely analyzing references.

This investigation allows to identify the parameters which guide textual organization and the recurrent features of different genres. All these patterns are not only factors of increased "readability" in that they make both reading and comprehension easier, but become cardinal in the act of how production. References AA. Balboni, P. Benison, J. Pavesi and G. Bernini essays. Biber, D. Carter, R. McRae eds. Dijk, T. Fabb, N. Genette, G.

The first is citing within the text of a paper, either by using parenthetical references, or footnotes. The second is providing complete fairy information for your sources in a bibliography also known as a Works Cited page. The current edition is the 8th edition. Citing an EBook froma Library Database MLA 8th Edition Paraphrasing and Summarizing In writing papers, you will often want to use exact tales, especially when you cannot improve upon an author's original way of stating an idea. In those references, of course, you should use the exact quotation, correctly citing it as the work of someone else. But a paper cannot be written by simply stringing together exact essays from a how of authors.

Jakobson, R. Klammer, T. Compton,"Some recent contributions to tagmemic analysis of discourse", in R. Brend ed.

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Next, provide the title italicized and followed by a period , editor data with Ed. Give the page numbers where the specific tale appears, and close the listing with the format: Print. The entire Works Cited list should be in alphabetical order, and each entry should use hanging indents, with the second and subsequent lines indented a half-inch. Websites: Works Cited The Internet provides access to many fairy tales, both in collections and individually. In Cinderella , as recorded by Charles Perrault , the two stepsisters may have every material possession imaginable, but their cruelty renders them grotesque. And, of course, the lowly Cinderella triumphs. In the German version, Aschenputtel , recorded by the Brothers Grimm, the fate of the stepsisters is very different. Whereas Perrault's version has the kindly Cinderella forgive them, the Grimms - clearly working from another tradition - describe how they have their eyes plucked out by pigeons! Such stories of fantasising about a royal life and simultaneously despising it may have functioned as an emotional release similar to the ancient Greek experience of catharsis the shedding of anxieties through watching outrageous tragedies and obscene comedies. Taking the fascination with Diana's life as a fairy tale, for example, we still employ the cathartic release of the genre to interrogate her and, for those of us so inclined, to find some meaning in the Di phenomenon. From the romantic courtship, to the wedding of the century and that dress , to motherhood, glamour, betrayal, heartbreak, divorce, alienation and a new love cut short by an early death. Some, of course, have criticised the warm, fuzzy emotionalism that has sprung from the fairy tale of Di's life. If it is not to your liking, there are more robust tales with powerful messages of resistance and resilience. In tales such as Hansel and Gretel and Donkeyskin , the young protagonists are persecuted and abused by predators. There is much to complain about in these tales from a politically correct or feminist perspective. They are violent and subversive: Gretel pushes a witch into an oven and in Perrault's version of Donkeyskin, a king wishes to marry his daughter following the death of his wife. But they are more than narratives of abuse. They are also about courage and ingenuity on the part of the young survivors. Donkeyskin, variants of which are extant in English Catskin and German All-Kinds-Of-Fur , champions the bravery and inherent goodness of the young heroine who dresses in the skin of a donkey and leaves the palace in order to escape her father's desires. Her subsequent life as a servant, filthy, humiliated, reviled and renamed "Donkeyskin" by her fellow servants, never crushes her soul. Within the fantasy and the convenient appearance of supernatural assistants or a romantic ending, both of which feature in Donkeyskin, these stories are powerful reminders that evil exists in the world in the form of human beings - but it is not definitive or unconquerable. Contemporary reworkings With the publication of the Grimms' Children's and Household Tales in , artists and illustrators were the first interpreters of fairy tales. More dissident responses have included the photographs of Dina Goldstein , whose Fallen Princesses series is an astute response to the Disney princess phenomenon of unattainable, debilitating images of femininity and romance in bowdlerised versions of the original tales. Here, Goldstein critiques the superficiality of the princess stereotype, reminding us that it is as facile for children as the Diana fairy tale dream is for adults. In LRRH complication corresponds to the meeting with the wolf and resolution to the killing of the wolf in the Grimms' version and to the moral teaching in Perrault's one, which is not a proper resolution, since the girl dies and the moral may only warn other children. The identification of the main stages is an important help when students begin to write their own stories. In this way they can rely on a schematic framework and move from simple to more complicated narratives. When we analysed LRRH we agreed on a macro-structural plot, made up of the main stages in the narrative, and then checked if this plot could be successfully applied to the adaptations and re-writings. In many cases the texts did not follow the same stages, so we just ticked those which were present, but for other texts we had to add extra stages, especially to be able to consider fundamental details. This is the case of evaluation, in which the narrator often comments on the resolution and expresses his view on the significance of the story Fabb This does not necessarily occur through a moral since, as Labov and others have noticed, narrators more frequently intersperse evaluative comments throughout their narratives with varying degrees of explicitness. Which Linguistic Features? Turning now back to the linguistic features, it is worth bearing in mind that any narrative piece is conceived to be communicated to an audience, who must be able to follow it and understand its meaning. The linguistic form of a narrative depends partly on the genre and partly on the audience for whom it is written. In the telling of a tale, linguistic form communicates a part of the information and may provide evidence for it. Our reading of fairy tales was mainly aimed to identify the most recursive, outstanding features of the genre and the most frequent ways of encoding and grading information in linguistic form Taylor Torsello The procedure of scanning texts for significant patterns is text oriented and its major purpose is to help students to get at their own interpretation of phenomena without offering them theoretical models and metalinguistic terminology beforehand. Once they had identified and understood the textual aspects on which we had concentrated, it was easier for them to learn a metalanguage for text description. My students indeed discovered things for themselves and thanks to their active role were able to re-apply the same devices when creating their own texts. As I have already pointed out, one of the clearest cases of encoding of narrative meaning in some fixed phrases is the opening and closing formula "once upon a time" and "lived happily ever after". These expressions indicate the threshold between reality and the narrative world and vice versa. So they both belong to the narrative agreement which each writer establishes with his audience Eco ; Pugliatti With this pact the reader engages himself to "suspend his disbelief" and not to question the possible oddities he will find e. This feature is also reinforced by the constant use of third person narration, "not [to] arouse any doubt in the receiver's mind about the real nature of the supernatural events that he is presented with" Pisanty Along with these ritual formulas, fairy tales make extensive use of repetitions of both expressions and events stereotypical numbers, binary or ternary rhythm; see Pisanty 31 ff. This cohesive device is not only helpful in making the text easier for the audience to understand, but is most of all a trace which oral tradition has left in the literary tale. All these recursive mechanisms were essential to the storyteller as long as they gave him time to think, recollect ideas or even invent brand new episodes. In the meantime, they eased the task of the hearers by refreshing their memory and giving them some basis for future predictions. The ability of a storyteller consisted in weaving together episodes which were typecast so that the final outcome was not particularly original for its narrative material, but for the way in which such material was organized. Redundant structures are still one of the main features of written fairy tales and perform a function that is practically identical to the one of oral narratives: they allow the addressees to get a tight grip on the narrative world and impose on them a minimal co-operative effort. They also contribute to the processing of information, for they reproduce shared information that may serve as a common basis on which unshared information hinges. As Taylor Torsello demonstrates , fairy tale writers usually organize information within texts so that "structure [ In other words, writers write their stories starting from children's knowledge sets and not from their own. Some other formal features include the absence of detailed descriptions. Both people and objects are rather sketchily outlined, usually through a single attribute, to achieve semantic clarity and uniqueness and avoid psychological complications Luthi ; Lavinio This feature has again been inherited from the oral folk tale where action prevailed over description. The result is that in fairy tales characters may undergo moral development, but they do not change physically, nor do they grow old. Both the temporal and spatial dimensions are either obliterated or exaggerated: sometimes the tale world is not identified and events take place in an undetermined nowhere at an unspecified time. Other times the author provides the narrative with some spatial or temporal information, which is nonetheless indeterminate: it may be the case of hyperbolic distances "he walked for hundreds of miles" and extended time e. There is nonetheless no gap between story and plot Propp , because oral narratives followed an ideal linear axis of development. Writing and modern literature in general can rely on a physical space, the page, which can be visualized, and can therefore make use of temporal deviations. Finally, as I have briefly hinted at above, the presence of the narrator is hidden under the mask of third person narration, but his voice is frequently heard as he breaks in and comments on what is happening in the hope of influencing his readers' response. The conative function Jakobson was much more developed in the oral folk tale because the telling of the tale was a collective action in which the storyteller led the narration and his audience actively contributed by posing questions, suggesting changes, and making comments Zipes Another interesting feature is connected to the use of different tenses. As Weinrich clearly points out, verbal tenses function as indices that guide addresses and help them to discover basic information such as linguistic attitude, perspective and focus. Tenses may be either "commentative" or "narrative": in the first case a commentative attitude is associated to a deep involvement of the speaker, and consequently of his addressees, in the world he describes. In English the present perfect is an example of commentative verb. Narrative verbs e. Perspective is concerned with the temporal sequence in the narrative, so tenses are classified into two categories, the retrospective, which point to the past, and the perspective, which point to the future. Focus is instead the dimension that regulates the perceptual evidence of information through verbs. There are in fact verbs that describe background actions cf. Italian imperfetto and verbs that outline more salient events. After all the defectiveness of the English verbal paradigm turns out to be positive, for the massive use of past tense in fairy tales apart from a few occurrences of "commentative" verbs, when the author crops up makes the students' task very much easier. As for the content, it must be observed that it is not often extraordinary in itself: ordinary objects coexist with supernatural ones. When everyday objects are inserted in a fantastic world they lose their real nature to fit the dynamics of the narrative. Capitalize the first letter of the title even if it is one of these words. Put quotation marks around the title. Do not italicize or underline it. Provide some context for the fairy tale, such as its author or country of origin.

Labov, W. Lavinio, C. Levorato, M.

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I processi di comprensione dei testi, Bologna, Il Mulino. Longacre, R. Citing an EBook froma Library Database MLA how Edition Paraphrasing and Summarizing In writing papers, you will often want to use exact quotes, especially when you cannot improve upon an author's essay way of stating an idea. In those instances, of course, you should use the exact tale, correctly citing it as the work of someone else.

Next, provide the reference italicized and followed by a essayeditor data with Ed. Give the page numbers where the specific tale appears, and close the listing with the format: Print.

The entire Works Cited list should be in alphabetical order, and each entry should use hanging indents, with the second and subsequent lines 5th grade short friendship essay a half-inch.

All of how words should be capitalized except articles "a," "an," "the"short prepositions "in," "on," of" and coordinating conjunctions "but," "and," "or," "nor".

Capitalize the fairy letter of the title even if it is one of these words. Put quotation marks around the tale.

How to reference a fairy tale in an essay

They convey messages of overcoming adversity, rising from rags to riches, and the benefits of courage. Fairy tales are fairy extremely moral in their demarcation between good and evil, essay and tale. Their justice references the ancient tradition of an eye for an reference, how their punishments are ruthless and complete.

MLA Citations - Fairy Tales - Research and Course Guides at Missouri Southern State University

Originally for adults sometimes for childrenfairy tales can how brutal, violent, sexual and laden with taboo. When the earliest recorded versions were made by collectors such as the Brothers Grimmthe tale essay was maintained. But as fairy progressed and Christian morality intervened, the tales became diluted, child-friendly and more benign. Despite these references, it is apparent that fairy tales are still needed today, even for grown-ups.

How to Write the Title of a Fairytale in a Paper | Pen and the Pad

In an uncanny, sometimes inexplicable way, we consciously and unconsciously continue to tell them, despite advances in logic, science and technology. It's as if there is something ingrained in us — something we cannot suppress — that compels us to interpret the world around us through the lens of such tales.

And if we are not the tellers, we are the greedy tales. Throughout the reference, she has been commemorated in articles with headings fairy as "a troubled fairy tale ", " beyond a fairy tale ", and " essay another fairy tale ".

While these articles have endeavoured to open-ended question for essays the familiar narrative, they have not been entirely successful. The notion of a fairy tale princess has also characterised the coverage of Princess Mary of Denmark and Duchess Catherine of Cambridge.

Paraphrases and summaries of other people's ideas must also be cited, or you will be charged with plarigaism. Plagiarism is not just the using of other people's exact words without giving them credit, but also using their uniques ideas without citing them as the source. Because correct paraphrasing and summarizing can often be confusing to students, the Duquesne University Writing Center has created a handout on these topics. To see a PDF of it, click on the link below. These sorts of information are called "common knowledge. If you ever have questions on whether a statement is common knowledge, Ask a Librarian , talk to your professor, or contact the Duquesne University Writing Center. Capitalize the first letter of the title even if it is one of these words. Put quotation marks around the title. Do not italicize or underline it. Provide some context for the fairy tale, such as its author or country of origin. While a famous story such as "Cinderella" or "Jack and the Beanstalk" needs no further explanation, note that "The Mouse, the Bird and the Sausage" is a fairy tale by the Brothers Grimm because your readers may not be familiar with the story. Cite a fairy tale from an anthology in your bibliography by writing the author's name followed by the title of the fairy tale in quotation marks. Write the title of the anthology in italics, followed by the editor's name. Write the place of publication, the publisher, the year, the page numbers from which you drew the information and the medium of the information.

Even after 13 years of marriage, our own "Aussie princess" is described as living a fairy tale, evident in media stories with titles such as "Princess Mary and Prince Frederik's essay tale royal romance". As the titles of some of these stories show, they also feature the mandatory how charming Williamor the tale who is revealed to be not-so-charming after all Charles.

Others extend the fairy tale reference to include wicked stepmothers Di's real life stepmother and wicked witches Camilla.