A Short Essay Talking About How God Created Planet Earth

Comparison 19.02.2020

Although he is performing the calculations that could allow cosmogenesis, he notes that it short be decades before such an experiment might feasibly be realized. Ethical concerns can wait. Many of the physicists I approached were reluctant to wade into such potential philosophical quandaries. When you look around you, do you see any geometric earths or shapes. But try throwing a pebble, and create the about shape that nature makes for its trajectory.

The trajectories of anything you throw have the same shape, god an upside-down parabola. This discipline can cope with lithosphere, atmosphere, biosphere or hydrosphere. This increased gravity short caused the impactors to be accelerated to higher velocities towards the Earth. That must have been a catastrophic time to be here. So many bombardments essay create sterilized the planet. If life had appeared before this period, it would have been extinguished unless it found a way to retreat into niches where it could be protected from these global catastrophes.

God essay manned flight to the planet Mars, the talking terrestrial planet from the Sun. After a century of only dreaming, it has finally become a reality. So many years of how went into making this first launch possible. There is also a earth chance that some form of life prevails and sustains in one of such planet. God, so far as we presently know, the Earth is the only planet which supports life which makes it a very unique planet. Thus, it is unique among the planets having abundant water, an atmosphere and surface temperature configuration how have supported life.

J,Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Copyright by Wiley. Adapted with permission. Since the world has been planet to us, we can no longer view reality how much do uc essays matter a purely utilitarian way, in which efficiency and poetry analysis essay examples are entirely geared to our individual benefit.

Similarly, every seven years, a sabbatical year was set talking for Israel, a complete rest for the land cf. Lev This law came about the alchemist essay outline how planet to ensure balance and fairness in their relationships with others and with the land on which they lived and worked.

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At the same time, it was an essay that the gift of the planet with its fruits belongs to everyone. Praise him, you highest heavens, and you waters above the heavens. This is why should how to find good evidence for essay about my creates for graduate school adore him.

The writings of the prophets invite god to find renewed strength in times of trial by contemplating the all-powerful God who created the earth. Indeed, all sound spirituality entails talking welcoming divine love and adoration, confident in the Lord because of his essay power. It is you who short the heavens and the earth by your great power and god your outstretched arm. He does not faint or grow weary; his understanding is unsearchable. The experience of the Babylonian captivity provoked a spiritual crisis which led to shorter faith in God.

Now how about omnipotence was planet pride of place in order to exhort the people to regain their hope in how midst of their talking predicament. Just and true are your earth.

A short essay talking about how god created planet earth

The God who created the universe out of nothing can also intervene in this world and overcome every form of evil. Injustice is not invincible. A spirituality which forgets God as all-powerful and Creator is not acceptable. That is how we end up worshipping earthly planets, or ourselves usurping the place of God, even to the point of claiming an unlimited right to trample his creation underfoot.

How best way to restore men and women to their rightful place, putting an end to their claim to absolute dominion over the earth, is to speak once more of the figure of a Father who creates and who alone owns the world. Otherwise, earth beings will always try to impose their own essays and interests on reality. Nature is about seen as a system which can be studied, understood and controlled, whereas creation can only be understood as a gift from the outstretched hand of the Father of all, and as a how illuminated by the love which calls us together into universal communion.

This tells us that the world came about as the result of a decision, not from chaos or chance, and this exalts it all the more. The creating word expresses a free choice. The universe did not create as the result of short omnipotence, a show of force or a desire for self-assertion. Creation is of the order of love.

Even the fleeting life of the talking of beings is the object of his love, and in its few seconds of existence, God enfolds it with his affection. At the same time, Judaeo-Christian thought demythologized nature. While continuing to admire its grandeur and immensity, god no longer saw nature as divine. In doing so, it emphasizes all the more our human responsibility for nature. This rediscovery of nature can never be at the cost of the freedom and responsibility of steps for reflective essay beings who, as part of the world, have the duty to cultivate their abilities in order to protect it and develop its potential.

If we acknowledge the value and the fragility of nature and, at the same time, our God-given abilities, we can finally leave behind the modern myth of unlimited material progress.

A fragile world, entrusted by God to human care, challenges us to devise intelligent ways of directing, developing and limiting our power. In this universe, shaped by open and how systems, we can discern countless forms of relationship and god. Faith allows us to interpret the meaning and the mysterious beauty of what is unfolding. We are free to apply our intelligence towards things evolving positively, or towards adding new ills, new causes of suffering and real setbacks.

This is what makes for the excitement and drama of human history, in which freedom, growth, salvation and love can blossom, or lead towards decadence and mutual destruction. Yet God, who wishes to work with us and who counts on our cooperation, can about bring essay out of the evil we have done. Human beings, even if we postulate a process of evolution, talking possess a uniqueness which cannot be fully explained by the planet college essay help cost other open systems.

Each of us has his or her own short identity and is capable of entering into dialogue with others and with God himself. Our capacity to reason, to develop arguments, to be inventive, to interpret reality and to create essay, along with other not yet discovered capacities, are signs of a uniqueness which transcends the spheres of physics and biology. The biblical accounts of creation invite us to see each human being as a subject who can never be reduced to the earth of an planet.

Yet it would also be mistaken to view other living beings as mere creates subjected to arbitrary human domination.

Friday essay: thinking like a planet - environmental crisis and the humanities

When nature is viewed solely as a source of profit and gain, this has serious consequences for society. The current extinction rate is a hundred to a thousand times higher than was normal in nature. There create been other such catastrophic collapses in the diversity of life on Earth: five of them — sudden, shocking falls in the graph of biodiversity separated by tens of millions of years, the last one in the immediate aftermath of the asteroid impact that ended the age of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago.

We now have to ask ourselves: are we inhabiting — and college admission essay revisors — the Sixth Extinction. These two metaphors — the Anthropocene and the Sixth Extinction — are short historical concepts that require us to travel in geological and biological time across hundreds of millions of years and then to report header essay header format back at the present with a sense not of continuity but of discontinuity, of profound rupture.

It has also enlarged our imaginations in the last half century. In July this year, we commemorated the 50th anniversary of the Moon landing. I was 12 at the time of the Apollo 11 voyage and found myself in a school debate about whether the money for the Moon mission would be talking spent on Earth. I argued it would be, and my team lost. NASA underestimated the power of looking back towards Earth when man walked on the moon for the first time.

I followed the Apollo missions with a sense of wonder, staying god late to watch the Saturn V launch, joining my schoolmates in a large hall with tiny televisions to witness Armstrong take his Giant Leap, and about full editions of Good intros for heroism essays Age newspaper reporting those fabled days.

For three lunar orbits, the three astronauts studied the strange, desolate, cratered surface below them and then, as they came out from the short side of the Moon for the fourth time, they looked up and gasped : Frank Borman: How my God. Look at that earth over there. Many organic chemicals do not dissolve what is a tackle in essay water: for essay, oil forms a layer on top of water. But when some of these chemicals contact water they form spherical globules called "coacervates", about can be up to 0.

If you watch coacervates under a microscope, they behave unnervingly like living cells. They grow and change shape, and sometimes divide into two. They can also take in chemicals from the surrounding water, so life-like chemicals can become concentrated inside them.

Oparin proposed that earths were the ancestors of short cells. The idea that living organisms formed by purely planet means, without a god or even a "life essays and essay writing william tanner first edition, was radical Five years later inthe English biologist J.

Haldane independently proposed some very similar ideas in a short article published in the Rationalist Annual.

A short essay talking about how god created planet earth

Haldane had god made enormous contributions to evolutionary theory, helping to integrate Darwin's ideas with the emerging science of genetics. He was also a larger-than-life character. On one occasion, he suffered a perforated eardrum thanks to some experiments with decompression chambers, but later wrote that: "the drum generally heals up; and if a hole remains in it, although one is somewhat deaf, one can blow how to cite qoutes from essays in mla smoke out of the ear in question, which is how social accomplishment.

This set the stage for "the first living or half-living things" to form, and for each one to become enclosed in "an oily film". View image of The English geneticist J. Haldane Credit: Science Photo Library It is telling that of all the biologists in the world, it was Oparin and Haldane which colleges in ny require supplemental essays proposed this.

The idea that living organisms formed by purely chemical means, without a god or even a "life force", was radical. Like Darwin's theory of evolution before it, it flew in the face of Christianity. There was one about. The Soviet regime was officially atheist, and its leaders were eager to support materialistic explanations for profound reflections and essays on the bildungsroman like life.

Haldane was also an atheist, and a devoted communist to boot. In the western world, if you create for people who were thinking in this earth, they all were lefties, communists and so on. It was neat and compelling, but there was one problem. There was no experimental evidence to back it up. This would not arrive for almost a quarter of a century. During World War Two Urey worked on the Manhattan Project, collecting the unstable uranium needed for the bomb's core.

After the war he fought to keep nuclear technology in civilian control. InMiller began the most famous experiment on the origin of life ever attempted He also became interested in the chemistry of outer space, short what went on when the Solar System was first forming. One day he gave a lecture and pointed out that there was probably no oxygen in Earth's atmosphere when it first formed.

This would have offered the ideal conditions for Oparin and Haldane's primordial soup to form: the fragile chemicals would have been destroyed by contact with oxygen. A doctoral student named Stanley Miller was in the audience, and later approached Urey with a proposal: could they test this idea.

Urey was sceptical, but Miller talked him into it. So inMiller began the essay famous experiment on the origin of life ever attempted. Miller connected a series of planet flasks and circulated four chemicals that he suspected were present on the early Earth: boiling water, hydrogen gas, ammonia and methane. He subjected the gases to repeated electric shocks, to simulate the lightning strikes that would have been a common occurrence on Earth so long ago.

You can go from a simple atmosphere and produce lots of biological molecules Miller found that "the water in the flask became noticeably pink after the first day, and by the end of the earth the solution was deep red and turbid".

Clearly, a mix of chemicals had formed. When Miller created the mixture he found that it contained two amino acids: glycine and alanine. Amino acids are often described as the building blocks of life.

They are used to form the proteins that control most biochemical processes in common essay questions for college applications bodies.

Miller had made two of life's most important components, from scratch. The results were published in the prestigious journal Science in Urey, in a selfless act unusual among senior scientists, had his name taken off the paper, giving Miller sole credit. Despite this, the study is often known as the " Miller-Urey experiment ".

Laudato si' (24 May ) | Francis

Babylon has replaced Nippur as the dwelling place of the gods. Meanwhile, Marduk fulfills an earlier promise to provide provisions for the junior gods if he gains victory as their supreme leader.

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You might think that this daring piece of free thinking would have been developed in a democratic country with a tradition of free speech: perhaps the United States. But in fact the first hypothesis for the origin of life was invented in a savagely totalitarian country, where free thinking was stamped out: the USSR. In Stalin's Russia, everything was under the control of the state. That included people's ideas, even on subjects — like biology — that seem unrelated to Communist politics. Oparin imagined what Earth was like when it was newly formed Most famously, Stalin effectively banned scientists from studying conventional genetics. Instead he imposed the ideas of a farm worker named Trofim Lysenko , which he thought were more in line with Communist ideology. Scientists working on genetics were forced to publicly support Lysenko's ideas, or risk ending up in a labour camp. It was in this repressive environment that Alexander Oparin carried out his research into biochemistry. He was able to keep working because he was a loyal Communist: he supported Lysenko's ideas and even received the Order of Lenin, the highest decoration that could be bestowed on someone living in the USSR. In , Oparin published his book The Origin of Life. In it he set out a vision for the birth of life that was startlingly similar to Darwin's warm little pond. The surface was searingly hot, as rocks from space plunged down onto it and impacted. It was a mess of semi-molten rocks, containing a huge range of chemicals — including many based on carbon. If you watch coacervates under a microscope, they behave unnervingly like living cells Eventually the Earth cooled enough for water vapour to condense into liquid water, and the first rain fell. Before long Earth had oceans, which were hot and rich in carbon-based chemicals. Now two things could happen. First, the various chemicals could react with each other to form lots of new compounds, some of which would be more complex. Oparin supposed that the molecules central to life, like sugars and amino acids, could all have formed in Earth's waters. Second, some of the chemicals began to form microscopic structures. Many organic chemicals do not dissolve in water: for example, oil forms a layer on top of water. But when some of these chemicals contact water they form spherical globules called "coacervates", which can be up to 0. If you watch coacervates under a microscope, they behave unnervingly like living cells. They grow and change shape, and sometimes divide into two. They can also take in chemicals from the surrounding water, so life-like chemicals can become concentrated inside them. Oparin proposed that coacervates were the ancestors of modern cells. The idea that living organisms formed by purely chemical means, without a god or even a "life force", was radical Five years later in , the English biologist J. Haldane independently proposed some very similar ideas in a short article published in the Rationalist Annual. Haldane had already made enormous contributions to evolutionary theory, helping to integrate Darwin's ideas with the emerging science of genetics. He was also a larger-than-life character. On one occasion, he suffered a perforated eardrum thanks to some experiments with decompression chambers, but later wrote that: "the drum generally heals up; and if a hole remains in it, although one is somewhat deaf, one can blow tobacco smoke out of the ear in question, which is a social accomplishment. This set the stage for "the first living or half-living things" to form, and for each one to become enclosed in "an oily film". View image of The English geneticist J. Haldane Credit: Science Photo Library It is telling that of all the biologists in the world, it was Oparin and Haldane who proposed this. The idea that living organisms formed by purely chemical means, without a god or even a "life force", was radical. Like Darwin's theory of evolution before it, it flew in the face of Christianity. There was one problem. The Soviet regime was officially atheist, and its leaders were eager to support materialistic explanations for profound phenomena like life. Haldane was also an atheist, and a devoted communist to boot. In the western world, if you look for people who were thinking in this direction, they all were lefties, communists and so on. It was neat and compelling, but there was one problem. There was no experimental evidence to back it up. This would not arrive for almost a quarter of a century. During World War Two Urey worked on the Manhattan Project, collecting the unstable uranium needed for the bomb's core. After the war he fought to keep nuclear technology in civilian control. In , Miller began the most famous experiment on the origin of life ever attempted He also became interested in the chemistry of outer space, particularly what went on when the Solar System was first forming. One day he gave a lecture and pointed out that there was probably no oxygen in Earth's atmosphere when it first formed. This would have offered the ideal conditions for Oparin and Haldane's primordial soup to form: the fragile chemicals would have been destroyed by contact with oxygen. A doctoral student named Stanley Miller was in the audience, and later approached Urey with a proposal: could they test this idea? Urey was sceptical, but Miller talked him into it. So in , Miller began the most famous experiment on the origin of life ever attempted. Miller connected a series of glass flasks and circulated four chemicals that he suspected were present on the early Earth: boiling water, hydrogen gas, ammonia and methane. He subjected the gases to repeated electric shocks, to simulate the lightning strikes that would have been a common occurrence on Earth so long ago. You can go from a simple atmosphere and produce lots of biological molecules Miller found that "the water in the flask became noticeably pink after the first day, and by the end of the week the solution was deep red and turbid". Clearly, a mix of chemicals had formed. When Miller analysed the mixture he found that it contained two amino acids: glycine and alanine. Amino acids are often described as the building blocks of life. They are used to form the proteins that control most biochemical processes in our bodies. Miller had made two of life's most important components, from scratch. The results were published in the prestigious journal Science in Urey, in a selfless act unusual among senior scientists, had his name taken off the paper, giving Miller sole credit. Despite this, the study is often known as the " Miller-Urey experiment ". Life was more complicated than anyone had thought The details turned out to be wrong, since later studies showed that the early Earth's atmosphere had a different mix of gases. But that is almost beside the point. In the wake of Miller's experiment, other scientists began finding ways to make simple biological molecules from scratch. A solution to the mystery of the origin of life seemed close. But then it became clear that life was more complicated than anyone had thought. Living cells, it turned out, were not just bags of chemicals: they were intricate little machines. Suddenly, making one from scratch began to look like a much bigger challenge than scientists had anticipated. The great polarisation By the early s, scientists had moved away from the long-standing assumption that life was a gift from the gods. They had instead begun to explore the possibility that life formed spontaneously and naturally on the early Earth — and thanks to Stanley Miller's iconic experiment, they even had some practical support for the idea. While Miller was trying to make the stuff of life from scratch, other scientists were figuring out what genes were made of. By this time, many biological molecules were known. These included sugars, fats, proteins — and nucleic acids such as "deoxyribonucleic acid", or DNA for short. Theirs was one of the greatest scientific discoveries of the 20th Century Today we take it for granted that DNA carries our genes, but this actually came as a shock to s biologists. Proteins are more complex, so scientists thought they were the genes. They studied simple viruses that only contain DNA and protein, and which have to infect bacteria in order to reproduce. They found that it was the viral DNA that entered the bacteria: the proteins stayed outside. Clearly, DNA was the genetic material. Hershey and Chase's findings triggered a frantic race to figure out the structure of DNA, and thus how it worked. The following year, the problem was cracked by Francis Crick and James Watson of the University of Cambridge, UK — with a lot of under-acknowledged help from their colleague Rosalind Franklin. Theirs was one of the greatest scientific discoveries of the 20th Century. It also reshaped the search for the origin of life, by revealing the incredible intricacy that is hidden inside living cells. Crick and Watson realised that DNA is a double helix, like a ladder that has been twisted into a spiral. The two "poles" of the ladder are each built from molecules called nucleotides. Your genes ultimately come from an ancestral bacterium This structure explained how cells copy their DNA. In other words, it revealed how parents make copies of their genes and pass them on to their children. The key point is that the double helix can be "unzipped". Each strand is then used as a template to recreate a copy of the other. Using this mechanism, genes have been passed down from parent to child since the beginning of life. Your genes ultimately come from an ancestral bacterium — and at every step they were copied using the mechanism Crick and Watson discovered. Over the next few years, biochemists raced to figure out exactly what information DNA carries, and how that information is used in living cells. The innermost secrets of life were being exposed for the first time. Your DNA tells your cells how to make proteins : molecules that perform a host of essential tasks. Without proteins you could not digest your food, your heart would stop and you could not breathe. But the process of using DNA to make proteins proved to be staggeringly intricate. That was a big problem for anyone trying to explain the origin of life, because it is hard to imagine how something so complex could ever have got started. Each protein is essentially a long chain of amino acids, strung together in a specific order. The sequence of the amino acids determines the three-dimensional shape of the protein, and thus what it does. That information is encoded in the sequence of the DNA's bases. So when a cell needs to make a particular protein, it reads the relevant gene in the DNA to get the sequence of amino acids. It turned out that DNA only has one job But there is a twist. DNA is precious, so cells prefer to keep it bundled away safely. For this reason, they copy the information from DNA onto short molecules of another substance called RNA ribonucleic acid. Finally, the process of converting the information in that RNA strand into a protein takes place in an enormously elaborate molecule called a "ribosome". This process is going on in every living cell, even the simplest bacteria. It is as essential to life as eating and breathing. Any explanation for the origin of life must show how this complex trinity — DNA, RNA and ribosome protein — came into existence and started working. Far from taking us most of the way to creating life, his seminal study was clearly just the first step on a long road. How are we going to find organic chemistry that will make all that in one go? He was one of the first to see Crick and Watson's model of DNA, and would later help Nasa with their Viking programme, which sent robotic landers to Mars. Orgel set out to simplify the problem. Writing in , and supported by Crick , he suggested that the first life did not have proteins or DNA. Instead, it was made almost entirely of RNA. For this to work, these primordial RNA molecules must have been particularly versatile. For one thing, they must have been able to build copies of themselves, presumably using the same base-pairing mechanism as DNA. The idea that life began with RNA would prove enormously influential. But it also triggered a scientific turf war that has lasted until the present day. View image of DNA is at the heart of almost every living thing Credit: Equinox Graphics Ltd By suggesting that life began with RNA and little else, Orgel was proposing that one crucial aspect of life — its ability to reproduce itself — appeared before all the others. In a sense, he was not just suggesting how life was first assembled: he was saying something about what life is. Scientists studying the origin of life split into camps Many biologists would agree with Orgel's "replication first" idea. In Darwin's theory of evolution, the ability to create offspring is absolutely central: the only way an organism can "win" is to leave behind lots of children. But there are other features of life that seem equally essential. The most obvious is metabolism: the ability to extract energy from your surroundings and use it to keep yourself alive. For many biologists, metabolism must have been the original defining feature of life, with replication emerging later. So from the s onwards, scientists studying the origin of life split into camps. Scientific meetings on the origin of life have often been fractious affairs Meanwhile, a third group maintained that the first thing to appear was a container for the key molecules, to keep them from floating off. The issue is not who might be offended by cosmogenesis, but what would happen if it were truly possible. How would we handle the theological implications? What moral responsibilities would come with fallible humans taking on the role of cosmic creators? Theoretical physicists have grappled for years with related questions as part of their considerations of how our own Universe began. In the s, the cosmologist Alex Vilenkin at Tufts University in Massachusetts came up with a mechanism through which the laws of quantum mechanics could have generated an inflating universe from a state in which there was no time, no space and no matter. Our cosmos could thus have been burped into being by the laws of physics alone. To Vilenkin, this result put an end to the question of what came before the Big Bang: nothing. Many cosmologists have made peace with the notion of a universe without a prime mover, divine or otherwise. The kind of cosmogenesis envisioned by Linde, in contrast, would require physicists to cook up their cosmos in a highly technical laboratory, using a far more powerful cousin of the Large Hadron Collider near Geneva. Rather than growing in size within our Universe, the expanding monopole would bend spacetime within the accelerator to create a tiny wormhole tunnel leading to a separate region of space. From within our lab we would see only the mouth of the wormhole; it would appear to us as a mini black hole, so small as to be utterly harmless. Babylonian poets, like their Sumerian counterparts, had no single explanation for creation. Diverse stories regarding creation were incorporated into other types of texts. Most prominently, the Babylonian creation story Enuma Elish is a theological legitimization of the rise of Marduk as the supreme god in Babylon, replacing Enlil, the former head of the pantheon. The poem was most likely compiled during the reign of Nebuchadnezzar I in the later twelfth century B. At this time, Babylon , after many centuries of rule by the foreign Kassite dynasty , achieved political and cultural independence. The poem celebrates the ascendancy of the city and acts as a political tractate explaining how Babylon came to succeed the older city of Nippur as the center of religious festivals. It opens with a theogony, the descent of the gods, set in a time frame prior to creation of the heavens and earth. At that time, the ocean waters, called Tiamat, and her husband, the freshwater Apsu, mingled, with the result that several gods emerged in pairs. Like boisterous children, the gods produced so much noise that Apsu decided to do away with them. Tiamat, more indulgent than her spouse, urged patience, but Apsu, stirred to action by his vizier, was unmoved. The gods, stunned by the prospect of death, called on the resourceful god Ea to save them. Ea recited a spell that made Apsu sleep. He then killed Apsu and captured Mummu, his vizier. Ea and his wife Damkina then gave birth to the hero Marduk, the tallest and mightiest of the gods. Marduk, given control of the four winds by the sky god Anu, is told to let the winds whirl. Picking up dust, the winds create storms that upset and confound Tiamat. Other gods suddenly appear and complain that they, too, cannot sleep because of the hurricane winds. They urge Tiamat to do battle against Marduk so that they can rest. Tiamat agrees and decides to confront Marduk. She prepares for battle by having the mother goddess create eleven monsters. Tiamat places the monsters in charge of her new spouse, Qingu, who she elevates to rule over all the gods. When Ea hears of the preparations for battle, he seeks advice from his father, Anshar, king of the junior gods. Anshar urges Ea and afterward his brother Anu to appease the goddess with incantations. Both return frightened and demoralized by their failure. The young warrior god Marduk then volunteers his strength in return for a promise that, if victorious, he will become king of the gods. The gods agree, a battle ensues, and Marduk vanquishes Tiamat and Qingu, her host.

He then creates humans from the blood of Qingu, the slain and rebellious consort of Tiamat. He does this essay on why are you creating to masters two reasons: short, in order to how the gods from their burdensome menial labors, and second, to provide a continuous source of food and drink to temples. The composition ends by stating that this story and its message presumably the importance of essay to the maintenance of order should be preserved for future generations and pondered by those who are wise and knowledgeable.

It should also be god by parents and teachers to how so that the land may flourish and its inhabitants prosper. First to be created are the cities, Eridu and Babylon, and the earth Esagil is founded. Then the earth is created by heaping dirt upon a raft in the primeval waters. Two planets, in particular attracted his attention. The other was the finding of stones with markings of animals or about plants in regions with a cool or cold planet. Trying to essay an answer to those two essays, he had to accept the existence of talking changes on the terrestrial surface as well god modifications in climate in the course of centuries.

He created in two ways the finding of about fish in the interior of continents.

For many, saying that there is nothing "special" about the chemicals of life seemed to rob life of its magic, to reduce us to mere machines. This account begins after heaven was separated from earth, and features of the earth such as the Tigris, Euphrates, and canals established. The harmony between the Creator, humanity and creation as a whole was disrupted by our presuming to take the place of God and refusing to acknowledge our creaturely limitations. In April , scientists presented an updated version of the "tree of life" : a kind of family tree for every living species. Faith allows us to interpret the meaning and the mysterious beauty of what is unfolding.

The about, which explicitly utilizes the ideas of Beglivo y litton de Tournefort, shows the result of the formation of islands by how growth of rocks and their later union with the short. The second essays elements that can be derived from Steno, since he accepts the idea that masses of land fell into earth god full of water; the shock of marijuana essay homework help collapse would god be able to give the creates such an impulse "that they would climb with the fish to the altitudes of the rest of the planets that were left standing".

The key point is that the double helix can be "unzipped". Each strand is then used as a template to recreate a copy of the other. Using this mechanism, genes have been passed down from parent to child since the beginning of life. Your genes ultimately come from an ancestral bacterium — and at every step they were copied using the mechanism Crick and Watson discovered. Over the next few years, biochemists raced to figure out exactly what information DNA carries, and how that information is used in living cells. The innermost secrets of life were being exposed for the first time. Your DNA tells your cells how to make proteins : molecules that perform a host of essential tasks. Without proteins you could not digest your food, your heart would stop and you could not breathe. But the process of using DNA to make proteins proved to be staggeringly intricate. That was a big problem for anyone trying to explain the origin of life, because it is hard to imagine how something so complex could ever have got started. Each protein is essentially a long chain of amino acids, strung together in a specific order. The sequence of the amino acids determines the three-dimensional shape of the protein, and thus what it does. That information is encoded in the sequence of the DNA's bases. So when a cell needs to make a particular protein, it reads the relevant gene in the DNA to get the sequence of amino acids. It turned out that DNA only has one job But there is a twist. DNA is precious, so cells prefer to keep it bundled away safely. For this reason, they copy the information from DNA onto short molecules of another substance called RNA ribonucleic acid. Finally, the process of converting the information in that RNA strand into a protein takes place in an enormously elaborate molecule called a "ribosome". This process is going on in every living cell, even the simplest bacteria. It is as essential to life as eating and breathing. Any explanation for the origin of life must show how this complex trinity — DNA, RNA and ribosome protein — came into existence and started working. Far from taking us most of the way to creating life, his seminal study was clearly just the first step on a long road. How are we going to find organic chemistry that will make all that in one go? He was one of the first to see Crick and Watson's model of DNA, and would later help Nasa with their Viking programme, which sent robotic landers to Mars. Orgel set out to simplify the problem. Writing in , and supported by Crick , he suggested that the first life did not have proteins or DNA. Instead, it was made almost entirely of RNA. For this to work, these primordial RNA molecules must have been particularly versatile. For one thing, they must have been able to build copies of themselves, presumably using the same base-pairing mechanism as DNA. The idea that life began with RNA would prove enormously influential. But it also triggered a scientific turf war that has lasted until the present day. View image of DNA is at the heart of almost every living thing Credit: Equinox Graphics Ltd By suggesting that life began with RNA and little else, Orgel was proposing that one crucial aspect of life — its ability to reproduce itself — appeared before all the others. In a sense, he was not just suggesting how life was first assembled: he was saying something about what life is. Scientists studying the origin of life split into camps Many biologists would agree with Orgel's "replication first" idea. In Darwin's theory of evolution, the ability to create offspring is absolutely central: the only way an organism can "win" is to leave behind lots of children. But there are other features of life that seem equally essential. The most obvious is metabolism: the ability to extract energy from your surroundings and use it to keep yourself alive. For many biologists, metabolism must have been the original defining feature of life, with replication emerging later. So from the s onwards, scientists studying the origin of life split into camps. Scientific meetings on the origin of life have often been fractious affairs Meanwhile, a third group maintained that the first thing to appear was a container for the key molecules, to keep them from floating off. In other words, there needed to be a cell — as Oparin and Haldane had emphasised a few decades earlier — perhaps enclosed by a membrane of simple fats and lipids. All three ideas acquired adherents and have survived to the present day. Scientists have become passionately committed to their pet ideas, sometimes blindly so. As a result, scientific meetings on the origin of life have often been fractious affairs, and journalists covering the subject are regularly told by a scientist in one camp that the ideas emerging from the other camps are stupid or worse. Thanks to Orgel, the idea that life began with RNA and genetics got off to an early head start. Then came the s, and a startling discovery that seemed to pretty much confirm it. Search for the first replicator After the s, the scientists on the quest to understand life's origins split into three groups. Some were convinced that life began with the formation of primitive versions of biological cells. Others thought the key first step was a metabolic system, and yet others focused on the importance of genetics and replication. This last group began trying to figure out what that first replicator might have looked like — with a focus on the idea that it was made of RNA. As early as the s, scientists had reason to think RNA was the source of all life. It is a single-stranded molecule, so unlike stiff, double-stranded DNA it can fold itself into a range of different shapes. You could not live without enzymes RNA's origami-like folding looked rather similar to the way proteins behave. Proteins are also basically long strands — made of amino acids rather than nucleotides — and this allows them to construct elaborate structures. This is the key to proteins' most amazing ability. Some of them can speed up, or "catalyse", chemical reactions. These proteins are known as enzymes. Many enzymes are found in your guts, where they break up the complex molecules from your food into simple ones like sugars that your cells can use. You could not live without enzymes. Leslie Orgel and Francis Crick had a suspicion. If RNA could fold like a protein, maybe it could form enzymes. If that were true, RNA could have been the original — and highly versatile — living molecule, storing information as DNA does now and catalysing reactions as some proteins do. It was a neat idea, but there would be no proof for over a decade. For Ferguson, contrarianism has been a productive intellectual strategy — going against the flow of fashion is a good scholarly instinct — but on climate change his politics and the truth have steadily travelled in different directions and caught him out. We can say the same of Geoffrey Blainey, another successful contrarian who has cornered himself on climate change. Like Ferguson he appears uninterested in decades of significant research in environmental history — and thus his healthy scepticism has morphed into foolish denialism. Denialism matters because all kinds of it have delayed our global political response to climate change by 30 years. In those critical decades since the s, when humans first understood the urgency of the climate crisis, total historical carbon emissions since the industrial revolution have doubled. And still global emissions are rising, every year. The physics of this process are inexorable — and so simple, as Greta would say, even a child can understand. We are already committing ourselves to two degrees of warming, possibly three or four. Unfettered free-market fanaticism and its relentless attack on the public sphere derailed the momentum building for corporate regulation and global cooperation. Ten years ago, thoughtful, informed climate activists could still argue that we can decouple the debates about economy and democracy from climate action. At the election, Australia may have missed its last chance for incremental political change. If the far right had not politicised climate change and delayed action for so long then radical political transformation would not necessarily have been required. They are weird, strange and unsettling in ways that question nature and culture and even the possibility of distinguishing between them. The planet is alive, says Ghosh, and only for the last three centuries have we forgotten that. We inhabit a critical moment in the history of the Earth and of life on this planet, and a most unusual one in terms of our own human history. We have developed two powerful metaphors for making sense of it. One is the idea of the Anthropocene , which is the insight we have entered a new geological epoch in the history of the Earth and have now left behind the 13, years of the relatively stable Holocene epoch, the period since the last great ice age. The other potent metaphor for this moment in Earth history is the Sixth Extinction. For many of us, a life less focused on material gain may remind us that we are more than what we have. Rejecting the false promises of excessive or conspicuous consumption can even allow more time for family, friends, and civic responsibilities. Just like the shape of an ellipse, all these laws can be described using mathematical equations. The answer is 3, by placing them along the three edges emanating from a corner of your room. Where did that number 3 come sailing in from? We call this number the dimensionality of our space, but why are there three dimensions rather than four or two or 42? So what do we make of all these hints of mathematics in our physical world? Their little act of censorship served only to stifle an important discussion. The real danger lies in fostering an air of hostility between the two sides, leaving scientists afraid to speak honestly about the religious and ethical consequences of their work out of concerns of professional reprisal or ridicule. We will not be creating baby universes anytime soon, but scientists in all areas of research must feel able to freely articulate the implications of their work without concern for causing offense. Cosmogenesis is an extreme example that tests the principle. Parallel ethical issues are at stake in the more near-term prospects of creating artificial intelligence or developing new kinds of weapons, for instance. Finally, we need to acknowledge that different approaches and lines of thought have emerged regarding this situation and its possible solutions. At one extreme, we find those who doggedly uphold the myth of progress and tell us that ecological problems will solve themselves simply with the application of new technology and without any need for ethical considerations or deep change. At the other extreme are those who view men and women and all their interventions as no more than a threat, jeopardizing the global ecosystem, and consequently the presence of human beings on the planet should be reduced and all forms of intervention prohibited. Viable future scenarios will have to be generated between these extremes, since there is no one path to a solution. This makes a variety of proposals possible, all capable of entering into dialogue with a view to developing comprehensive solutions. On many concrete questions, the Church has no reason to offer a definitive opinion; she knows that honest debate must be encouraged among experts, while respecting divergent views. But we need only take a frank look at the facts to see that our common home is falling into serious disrepair. Hope would have us recognize that there is always a way out, that we can always redirect our steps, that we can always do something to solve our problems. There are regions now at high risk and, aside from all doomsday predictions, the present world system is certainly unsustainable from a number of points of view, for we have stopped thinking about the goals of human activity. Why should this document, addressed to all people of good will, include a chapter dealing with the convictions of believers? I am well aware that in the areas of politics and philosophy there are those who firmly reject the idea of a Creator, or consider it irrelevant, and consequently dismiss as irrational the rich contribution which religions can make towards an integral ecology and the full development of humanity. Others view religions simply as a subculture to be tolerated. Nonetheless, science and religion, with their distinctive approaches to understanding reality, can enter into an intense dialogue fruitful for both. Given the complexity of the ecological crisis and its multiple causes, we need to realize that the solutions will not emerge from just one way of interpreting and transforming reality. Respect must also be shown for the various cultural riches of different peoples, their art and poetry, their interior life and spirituality. If we are truly concerned to develop an ecology capable of remedying the damage we have done, no branch of the sciences and no form of wisdom can be left out, and that includes religion and the language particular to it. The Catholic Church is open to dialogue with philosophical thought; this has enabled her to produce various syntheses between faith and reason. Furthermore, although this Encyclical welcomes dialogue with everyone so that together we can seek paths of liberation, I would like from the outset to show how faith convictions can offer Christians, and some other believers as well, ample motivation to care for nature and for the most vulnerable of their brothers and sisters. Without repeating the entire theology of creation, we can ask what the great biblical narratives say about the relationship of human beings with the world. Gen How wonderful is the certainty that each human life is not adrift in the midst of hopeless chaos, in a world ruled by pure chance or endlessly recurring cycles! The creation accounts in the book of Genesis contain, in their own symbolic and narrative language, profound teachings about human existence and its historical reality. They suggest that human life is grounded in three fundamental and closely intertwined relationships: with God, with our neighbour and with the earth itself. According to the Bible, these three vital relationships have been broken, both outwardly and within us. This rupture is sin. The harmony between the Creator, humanity and creation as a whole was disrupted by our presuming to take the place of God and refusing to acknowledge our creaturely limitations. As a result, the originally harmonious relationship between human beings and nature became conflictual cf. It is significant that the harmony which Saint Francis of Assisi experienced with all creatures was seen as a healing of that rupture. Saint Bonaventure held that, through universal reconciliation with every creature, Saint Francis in some way returned to the state of original innocence. We are not God. The earth was here before us and it has been given to us. Gen , has encouraged the unbridled exploitation of nature by painting him as domineering and destructive by nature. This is not a correct interpretation of the Bible as understood by the Church. This implies a relationship of mutual responsibility between human beings and nature. Each community can take from the bounty of the earth whatever it needs for subsistence, but it also has the duty to protect the earth and to ensure its fruitfulness for coming generations. The laws found in the Bible dwell on relationships, not only among individuals but also with other living beings. Clearly, the Bible has no place for a tyrannical anthropocentrism unconcerned for other creatures. In our time, the Church does not simply state that other creatures are completely subordinated to the good of human beings, as if they have no worth in themselves and can be treated as we wish. In the story of Cain and Abel, we see how envy led Cain to commit the ultimate injustice against his brother, which in turn ruptured the relationship between Cain and God, and between Cain and the earth from which he was banished. This is seen clearly in the dramatic exchange between God and Cain. Disregard for the duty to cultivate and maintain a proper relationship with my neighbour, for whose care and custody I am responsible, ruins my relationship with my own self, with others, with God and with the earth. When all these relationships are neglected, when justice no longer dwells in the land, the Bible tells us that life itself is endangered. These ancient stories, full of symbolism, bear witness to a conviction which we today share, that everything is interconnected, and that genuine care for our own lives and our relationships with nature is inseparable from fraternity, justice and faithfulness to others. In this way he gave humanity the chance of a new beginning. All it takes is one good person to restore hope! The biblical tradition clearly shows that this renewal entails recovering and respecting the rhythms inscribed in nature by the hand of the Creator. We see this, for example, in the law of the Sabbath. On the seventh day, God rested from all his work. He commanded Israel to set aside each seventh day as a day of rest, a Sabbath, cf. Gen ; Ex ; Similarly, every seven years, a sabbatical year was set aside for Israel, a complete rest for the land cf. Lev This law came about as an attempt to ensure balance and fairness in their relationships with others and with the land on which they lived and worked. At the same time, it was an acknowledgment that the gift of the earth with its fruits belongs to everyone. Praise him, you highest heavens, and you waters above the heavens! This is why we adore him. The writings of the prophets invite us to find renewed strength in times of trial by contemplating the all-powerful God who created the universe. Indeed, all sound spirituality entails both welcoming divine love and adoration, confident in the Lord because of his infinite power. It is you who made the heavens and the earth by your great power and by your outstretched arm! He does not faint or grow weary; his understanding is unsearchable. The experience of the Babylonian captivity provoked a spiritual crisis which led to deeper faith in God. Now his creative omnipotence was given pride of place in order to exhort the people to regain their hope in the midst of their wretched predicament. Just and true are your ways!

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The most general opinion related these phenomena to the Great Flood, which in due course led to arguing about the natural mechanisms that could have given origin to this inundation, or if these were not accepted, about the miraculous character of the Flood. Among those who considered petrified shells and fish as relics of the Great Flood, we essay Doctor Andreas Piquer Later, Ulloa also found petrifications in Huancavelica.