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This was because his performances were fluent, while his expressions of music ideas and stylistic characteristics were pleasing. The targeted weakness was his vocal technique, in specific areas, although he met the Performing criterion specified in the syllabus very capably.
The analysis of his technique indicated that articulation, diction and breath control required work. In particular, he could not apply music elements of diction and vocal projection. The solution to the problem was not simply in adjusting an incorrect mouth position and increasing breath support, but also in providing scaffolding for the solitary and repetitive nature of the practice.
I set up a table in which Student B was asked to record the exercise and the length of time given to some basic exercises I modelled for him. As one vocal technique was mastered, another could be added so as to build a rehearsal repertoire. I talked with Student B about the benefits of solitary practice and the improved results it could bring in the specific areas needing attention.
That conversation was very much about convincing the student of the benefits of putting in the time and effort, as well as working towards a goal. This was made explicit because Student B worked from a text titled Successful Warmups, Book 1 Telfer, in which I identified a vocal exercise for each day.
There was the option of practicing one particular exercise for any length of time, such as a day or a week. Modelling of the exercises helped Student B to understand how to practise, as well as demonstrating the benefits in a practical way.
What was most pleasing was that this student joined the local suburban male choir. He has continued to apply deliberate practice to improve his vocal technique. It would seem that the benefits are providing continued motivation for further effort and goal-setting. What we learned Deliberate practice is not an approach limited to the subject Music, nor to musicians. However, it is particularly appropriate for a student of Music, if the student is taken through the stages of a scaffolded process.
First, an error or problem can be identified and analysed; second, a solution is modelled; third, benefits are made evident; fourth, the identified skills are demonstrated with some level of confidence by the student; fifth, they engage in solitary, sustained deliberate practice; and finally, there is subsequent evaluation, which may or may not suggest refocussing on a stage of the process.
What emerged from this investigation was that students can change mindsets about what is necessary to demonstrate a skilled performance. Clearly improved results — a necessary aspect of the evidence — assisted the change in mindset. Such results encourage the teachers at Craigslea to continue implementing the strategy of deliberate practice in their classrooms, but the best result was that the students gained personal satisfaction from their creativity and performance, as well as commitment to ongoing learning as musicians.
References Black, D. Alfred's drum method. Book 1. It is the bass part of a collection of 20 songs, and is attributed to Wynkyn de Worde, the successor of Caxton. The typography is identical with that of Petrucci, already mentioned as being produced by means of two impressions. John Day of Aldersgate, in , published the Church Service in four and three parts in an improved style of typography, and in the whole Book of Psalms. And Thomas Vautrollier in published the Cantiones of Tallis and Byrd under a patent from Queen Elizabeth, the first of the kind granting a monopoly or sole right of printing music.
To them succeeded Thomas Este—who changed his name to Snodham—John Windet, William Barley, and others who were the assignees of Byrd and Morley, under the patents respectively granted to them for the sole printing of music. The notes were of lozenge shape, and the stave lines not very well joined together, the whole being inelegant though very legible, after this fashion. But the expense of two printings was saved.
See Help:Sheet music for formatting instructions These men followed the practice of the foreign printers, and no improvement was made until the time of John Playford in the reign of Charles II.
Until his time, the quavers and semiquavers, however numerous in succession, were all distinct; but in he introduced the 'new tied note,' forming them into groups of four or six. The Dutch, French, and Germans followed his example; but Marcello's Psalms, published at Venice in a splendid edition in , were printed after the old manner.
From the time of Charles II. The notes and the stave were represented on the punch, consequently the whole was printed at once. These types he used himself, as well as selling them to Pierre Attaignant and other printers.
Hautin printed as late as Nicholas Duchemin printed music at one printing in the years to Robert Granjon printed music at Lyons about The works of Claude Le Jeune were printed in France by Pierre Ballard in and ; the beauty and elegance of the characters employed showing that the French had greatly the advantage of their neighbours. About this time also madrigals were printed at Antwerp by Phalesio, and sold at his shop, the sign of King David. The above-named eminent house of Ballard in Paris was established in the middle of the 16th century by Robert Ballard and his son-in-law Adrien Le Roy, and continued from father to son for two centuries, enjoying a royal privilege or patent until the time of the Revolution of The 'Musical Miscellany,' printed by John Watts, London , has the stave lines fairly joined, although the notes are not elegant in form [App.
Fournier Paris published a 'Manuel typographique,' the musical specimens in which are very good and clear. But still finer are the types cut by J. Fleischman of Nuremberg in The stave and notes are equal to any plate-music for clearness and beauty. These types now belong to J. For Fougt 's patent see Appendix. The modern system is therefore very similar to this. Clowes, the eminent London printer, did much to improve music types. The 'Harmonicon' —33 , the 'Musical Library' , and the 'Sacred Minstrelsy' , are excellent specimens of the art, the stave lines being more perfectly united than before.
The words were set up in ordinary types, then stereotyped and inserted in grooves in one of the blocks. His patent is dated April 5, , and numbered In Scheurman's process the notes, set up in type, were impressed on a wax mould and the stave lines superadded to the same mould, from which a stereotype cast was taken.
But the double operation was difficult, and the mould liable to damage; and the plan was abandoned. The old system, however, of using separate types has been so much improved upon by Messrs. This result, as has been justly observed by Mr.For Fougt 's patent see Appendix. All this teaching and learning ensured that there was sufficient scaffolding for Student A to be able to practice with intent by himself. As early as it was found that pewter plates were cheaper and easier to stamp than copper. Page Tractatus 2dus p.
Palestrina's Masses were printed in parts at Rome in , with a coarse but very legible type.
There was the option of practicing one particular exercise for any length of time, such as a day or a week. These types now belong to J.
The characters see reduced fac-simile annexed represent the consonances of Pythagoras. It is not unusual for teachers of Music to form a close working relationship in secondary schools. If these were used to print a large edition, they would soon be damaged; and even if this were not the case, it would never pay the publisher to keep such a mass of type set up against the time when a fresh edition might be required. There are several ways in which an unlimited number of copies of designs or characters may be produced. As one vocal technique was mastered, another could be added so as to build a rehearsal repertoire.
Clowes, the eminent London printer, did much to improve music types.