An alternative paradigm for educational research. Even more exactly, Erickson pointed out, "analysis actually begins while in the field. There are several problems preventing the straightforward application of quantitative models in such studies.
Have these in-service sessions had an impact?
After careful selection of subjects, focus on them, transcribing their words and actions precisely, and just as precisely, pertinent words, actions and reactions of others. Except in unusual circumstances, findings from case studies are not generalizable to a larger population Stake, Case-study research was an appropriate choice for Evanciew and Rojewski's study-as well as for several other recent industrial-education studies-not only because these studies seek to investigate a topic in depth, but also because they investigate an area in which little prior research has been done; thus, they are exploratory. Krathwohl also suggested these characteristics of problems suitable for qualitative analysis: a "well-grounded explanation of a phenomenon" is desired; "the focus of the study is on a process…more than on a product;" and "side effects or unexpected consequences may be important" p. Production of written language requires both linguistic knowledge and content knowledge.
Krathwohl identified several types of educational problems appropriately addressed via qualitative methods. The comments were further condensed and factors of importance began to emerge from the text. Several of these topics lend themselves to case-study research. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 18, 7—
While this would not be impossible, the cost and effort would be colossal, even when compared to a multi-observer longitudinal case study using ethnographic methods. As Jansen and Peshkin put it, "those in qualitative research who have become comfortable with subjectivity…are reconciled to phenomena that they perceive, interpret, and construct and that they take as ambiguous, protean, and complex" p. Finally, upon completion of the writing activity, the participants were presented an open-ended questionnaire asking them to reflect on their experience of mobile learning. Assistance for English composition.
Content aside, is there a difference between constructivism and using ESTE as a delivery method, as suggested by Todd and Hutchinson ?
If we stick to tried and true paradigms, the consequence is that certain key kinds of questions will not be asked or answered.
She first wrote narratives describing each of her ten cases, then examined these for "tentative assertions, common themes, and discrepancies" p.
Thus ethnography and qualitative methods are often treated simultaneously in the literature e. Krathwohl identified several types of educational problems appropriately addressed via qualitative methods. Choosing which events or persons to record involves making initial analytic decisions" p.
Searching for and studying what he called the "typical" case is often an attempt at the randomization or adequate sampling expectations in qualitative research. Kinney also consulted a nationally recognized expert to help interpret the data. Available: www. Preissle Eds.
To analyze written data, Hall recommended the following procedure: read and re-read the data; code the data based on similarities; categorize the coded data; do a "reality check" of the categorization; and triangulate the data. Dunleavy, M. Mitchell noted the usefulness of case studies in demonstrating "how general principles deriving from some theoretical orientation manifest themselves in some given set of particular circumstances" p. Therefore, when the participants wrote their essays, they were able to use the obtained vocabulary and information. Journal of Online Education, 1, 5. What works with technology education materials in middle schools: An evaluation of Synergistic Systems in classroom settings.