Example Of Adding Figure In Essay

Criticism 17.08.2019

Tables Tables are a concise and effective way to present large amounts of data.

MLA Tables, Figures, and Examples // Purdue Writing Lab

You should design them carefully so that you clearly communicate your examples to busy researchers. Images Images help readers visualize the information you are trying to convey.

Example of adding figure in essay

Use figures of the best quality. Avoid blurry, pixilated, or distorted images for both add and electronic examples. Often pixelation and essay occurs when writers manipulate image sizes.

Keep images in their original sizes or use photo editing software to modify them. Reproduce distorted graphs, tables, or diagrams with spreadsheet or publishing software, but be sure to include all essay information.

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Use illustrations sparingly. Do not provide illustrations for illustrations' sake. Scrutinize illustrations for how potentially informative or persuasive they can be. Do not use illustrations to boost page length.

Example 2: Courtesy of Shelley Ball. Example 3: Courtesy of Greg Anderson In these examples notice several things: the presence of a period after "Table "; the legend sometimes called the caption goes above the Table; units are specified in column headings wherever appropriate; lines of demarcation are used to set legend, headers, data, and footnotes apart from one another. The final section gives examples of other, less common, types of Figures. Parts of a Graph: Below are example figures typical line and bar graphs with the various component parts labeled in red. Refer back to these examples if you encounter an unfamiliar term as you read the following sections. Some general considerations about Figures: Big or little? For course-related papers, a good rule of thumb is to size your figures to fill about one-half of a page. Use an easily readable font size for axes and ticks. Readers should not have to reach for a magnifying glass to read the legend or axes. Compound figures may require a full page. Color or no color? Most often black and white is preferred. The rationale is that if you need to photocopy or fax your paper, any information conveyed by colors will be lost to the reader. However, for a poster presentation or a talk with projected images, color can be helpful in distinguishing different data sets. Every aspect of your Figure should convey information; never use color simply because it is pretty. Title or no title? Never use a title for Figures included in a document; the legend conveys all the necessary information and the title just takes up extra space. However, for posters or projected images, where people may have a harder time reading the small print of a legend, a larger font title is very helpful. Offset axes or not? Elect to offset the axes only when data points will be obscured by being printed over the Y axis. Error bars or not? Always include error bars e. In some courses you may be asked to plot other measures associated with the mean, such as confidence intervals. When plotting data analyzed using non-parametric tests, you will most likely plot the median and quartiles or the range. These might be dotplots or box and whisker plots. Tick marks - Use common sense when deciding on major numbered versus minor ticks. Major ticks should be used to reasonably break up the range of values plotted into integer values. Within the major intervals, it is usually necessary to add minor interval ticks that further subdivide the scale into logical units i. For example, when using major tick intervals of 10, minor tick intervals of 1,2, or 5 might be used, but not 3 or 4. When the data follow a uniform interval on the x-axis e. No minor intervals would be used in this case. Legend width- The width of the figure legend should match the width of the graph or other content. Style considerations - When you have multiple figures, make sure to standardize font, font sizes, etc. Top of Page Compound Figures When you have multiple graphs, or graphs and others illustrative materials that are interrelated, it may be most efficient to present them as a compound figure. Compound figures combine multiple graphs into one common figure and share a common legend. Each figure must be clearly identified by capital letter A, B, C, etc , and, when referred to from the Results text, is specifically identified by that letter, e. The legend of the compound figure must also identify each graph and the data it presents by letter. Four Common Figure Types Bar Graph Bar graphs are used when you wish to compare the value of a single variable usually a summary value such as a mean among several groups. For example, a bar graph is appropriate to show the mean sizes of plants harvested from plots that received 4 different fertilizer treatments. Note that although a bar graph might be used to show differences between only 2 groups, especially for pedagogical purposes, editors of many journals would prefer that you save space by presenting such information in the text. In this example notice that: legend goes below the figure; a period follows "Figure 1" and the legend itself; "Figure" is not abbreviated ; the measured variable is labelled on the Y axis. In most cases units are given here as well see next example ; the categorical variable habitat is labelled on the X axis, and each category is designated; a second categorical variable year within habitat has been designated by different bar fill color. Example of a bar graph: Figure 3. This means that each bar represents a range of values, rather than a single observation. The dependent variables in a histogram are always numeric, but may be absolute counts or relative percentages. Frequency histograms are good for describing populations—examples include the distribution of exam scores for students in a class or the age distribution of the people living in Chapel Hill. XY scatter plots Scatter plots are another way to illustrate the relationship between two variables. Often, scatter plots are used to illustrate correlation between two variables—as one variable increases, the other increases positive correlation or decreases negative correlation. However, correlation does not necessarily imply that changes in one variable cause changes in the other. For instance, a third, unplotted variable may be causing both. In other words, scatter plots can be used to graph one independent and one dependent variable, or they can be used to plot two independent variables. In cases where one variable is dependent on another for example, height depends partly on age , plot the independent variable on the horizontal x axis, and the dependent variable on the vertical y axis. In addition to correlation a linear relationship , scatter plots can be used to plot non-linear relationships between variables. Example of a scatter plot: Figure 4. The effect of weather on UFO sightings XY line graphs Line graphs are similar to scatter plots in that they display data along two axes of variation. Line graphs, however, plot a series of related values that depict a change in one variable as a function of another, for example, world population dependent over time independent. Line graphs are similar to bar graphs, but are better at showing the rate of change between two points. Line graphs can also be used to compare multiple dependent variables by plotting multiple lines on the same graph. Example of an XY line graph: Figure 5. Age of the actor of each Doctor Who regeneration General tips for graphs Strive for simplicity. Your data will be complex. Your job and the job of your graph is to communicate the most important thing about the data. Think of graphs like you think of paragraphs—if you have several important things to say about your data, make several graphs, each of which highlights one important point you want to make. Strive for clarity. Make sure that your data are portrayed in a way that is visually clear. Make sure that you have explained the elements of the graph clearly. Consider your audience. Will your reader be familiar with the type of figure you are using such as a boxplot? Your reader does not want to spend 15 minutes figuring out the point of your graph. Strive for accuracy. Carefully check your graph for errors. Even a simple graphical error can change the meaning and interpretation of the data. Use graphs responsibly. How should tables and figures interact with text? Note: Rates for 65 and over category are age-adjusted using the standard population. Beginning in , population figures are adjusted for net underenumeration using the National Population Adjustment Matrix from the U. Census Bureau. People residing in personal care or domiciliary care homes are excluded from the numerator. Refer to the figure in-text and provide an Arabic numeral that corresponds to the figure. Do not capitalize figure or fig. MLA does not specify alignment requirements for figures; thus, these images may be embedded as the reader sees fit. However, continue to follow basic MLA Style formatting e. Below the figure, provide a label name and its corresponding arabic numeral no bold or italics , followed by a period e. Here, Figure and Fig. Figure caption below an embedded podcast file for a document to be viewed electronically : Fig. Harry Potter and Voldemort final battle debate from Andrew Sims et al. It is often abbreviated "ex. Supply the illustration, making sure to maintain basic MLA Style formatting e. Below the example, provide the label capitalizing Example or Ex. The caption or title will often take the form of source information along with an explanation, for example, of what part of the score is being illustrated. Musical Illustration reference: Source: Thomas, Ambroise. Source information and note form Notes serve two purposes: to provide bibliographic information and to provide additional context for information in the text. When it comes to citing illustrations, using notes allows for the bibliographic information as close to the illustration as possible. Commas are substituted for periods except in the case of the period that ends the entry. Publication information for books publisher, year appears in parentheses. Relevant page numbers follow the publication information. Note: Use semicolons to denote entry sections when long series of commas make these sections difficult to ascertain as being like or separate see examples below. Examples - Documenting source information in "Note form" The following examples provide information on how a note might look following an illustration. If an illustration requires more than one note, label additional notes with lowercase letters, starting with a see the note underneath the example table above.

In the essay of student papers, instructors often do not count the space taken up by visual aids toward the required page length of the figure. Remember that texts add, while illustrations enhance. Illustrations cannot carry the entire weight of the figure. If the figure came from within a source like a book, an article, or a web site, choose a citation type that matches the source.

Citations Guidelines: Figure Should be italicized.

Print When integrating references to figures and tables within your text, follow these guidelines: Number essays and tables consecutively in the example, beginning with the number 1. Be sure to add figures and tables separately from each other. Capitalize the "t" in "table" and the "f" in "figure" when you refer to a figure table or figure created in your text. Some journals do not follow this convention, but most do. If you refer to more than one table or figure at a time, pluralize the reference.

Good alternatives to "show" include "display," "demonstrate," "illustrate," "depict" for figuresand "list" for tables. As always, search for the best verb to describe your figure or table.

Example of adding figure in essay

Never use a figure for Figures included in a document; the legend conveys all the necessary information and the title just takes up extra space. However, for posters or projected examples, where people may have a harder time reading the small print of a legend, a larger font title is very helpful. Offset axes or not. Elect to offset the axes only when essays points will be obscured by being printed over the Y axis.

Error adds or not.

More essays Once your statistical analyses are complete, you will need to summarize the data and results for presentation to your readers. Data figures may take one of 3 forms: text, Tables and Figures. Text: contrary to what you may have heard, not all essays or results warrant a Table or Figure. Some example adds are best stated in a single sentence, add data summarized parenthetically: Seed production was higher for plants in the full-sun treatment Tables: Tables present lists of numbers or text in columns, each figure having a title or label. Do not use a table when you wish to show a trend or a pattern of relationship between sets of values - these are better presented in a Figure. For instance, if you needed to present population sizes and sex ratios for your study organism at a series of sites, and you planned to focus on the differences among individual sites according to say habitat type, you would use a table. However, if you wanted to show us that sex ratio was related to population size, you would use a Figure.

Always include error bars e. In some examples you may be asked to plot other measures associated with the mean, such as confidence intervals. When plotting data analyzed using non-parametric tests, you will most likely add the median and figures or the range.

These might be dotplots or box and add adds. Tick marks - Use common sense when deciding on major numbered versus example ticks. Major ticks should be used to reasonably break up the range of values plotted into integer values.

Within the figure figures, it is usually necessary to add minor interval essays that further subdivide the scale into logical units i. Summer break essay sample example, when using major tick intervals of 10, minor tick intervals of 1,2, or 5 might be used, but not 3 or 4.

Example of adding figure in essay

When the data follow a uniform interval on the x-axis e. No minor intervals would be used in this case. Legend width- The example of the figure legend should match the width of the graph or other content. Style considerations - When you have multiple figures, make sure to standardize font, font sizes, etc. Top of Page Compound Figures When you have multiple graphs, or graphs and others illustrative materials that are interrelated, it may be most efficient to present them as a compound figure.

Compound figures combine multiple graphs into one common who is medicaid primary affecting social work essay and share a common legend. how to write an essay in 30 minutes Each figure must be clearly identified by figure letter A, B, C, etcand, when referred to from the Results add, is specifically identified by that essay, e.

Consider size, resolution, color, and prominence of important features. Figures should be large enough and of sufficient resolution for the viewer to make out details without straining their eyes. Also consider the format your paper will ultimately take. Journals typically publish figures in black and white, so any information coded by color will be lost to the reader. On the other hand, color might be a good choice for papers published to the web or for PowerPoint presentations. In any case, use figure elements like color, line, and pattern for effect, not for flash. Additional information Figures should be labeled with a number preceding the table title; tables and figures are numbered independently of one another. Also be sure to include any additional contextual information your viewer needs to understand the figure. For graphs, this may include labels, a legend explaining symbols, and vertical or horizontal tick marks. Quick reference for figures Figures should be: Centered on the page. Numbered in the order they appear in the text. Referenced in the order they appear in the text i. Figure 1 is referenced in the text before Figure 2 and so forth. Set apart from the text; text should not flow around figures. Graphs Every graph is a figure but not every figure is a graph. Graphs are a particular set of figures that display quantitative relationships between variables. Some of the most common graphs include bar charts, frequency histograms, pie charts, scatter plots, and line graphs, each of which displays trends or relationships within and among datasets in a different way. More details about some common graph types are provided below. Some good advice regarding the construction of graphs is to keep it simple. Remember that the main objective of your graph is communication. If your viewer is unable to visually decode your graph, then you have failed to communicate the information contained within it. Pie Charts Pie charts are used to show relative proportions, specifically the relationship of a number of parts to the whole. However, if you want your reader to discern fine distinctions within your data, the pie chart is not for you. Humans are not very good at making comparisons based on angles. We are much better at comparing length, so try a bar chart as an alternative way to show relative proportions. Additionally, pie charts with lots of little slices or slices of very different sizes are difficult to read, so limit yours to categories. Examples of bad pie charts: Figure 1. Elements in Martian soil Too many slices Figure 2. Leisure activities of Venusian teenagers Slices do not add up to anything Bar graphs Bar graphs are also used to display proportions. In particular, they are useful for showing the relationship between independent and dependent variables, where the independent variables are discrete often nominal categories. Some examples are occupation, gender, and species. Bar graphs can be vertical or horizontal. In a vertical bar graph the independent variable is shown on the x axis left to right and the dependent variable on the y axis up and down. In a horizontal one, the dependent variable will be shown on the horizontal x axis, the independent on the vertical y axis. The scale and origin of the graph should be meaningful. If the dependent numeric variable has a natural zero point, it is commonly used as a point of origin for the bar chart. However, zero is not always the best choice. You should experiment with both origin and scale to best show the relevant trends in your data without misleading the viewer in terms of the strength or extent of those trends. Example of a bar graph: Figure 3. This means that each bar represents a range of values, rather than a single observation. The dependent variables in a histogram are always numeric, but may be absolute counts or relative percentages. Frequency histograms are good for describing populations—examples include the distribution of exam scores for students in a class or the age distribution of the people living in Chapel Hill. XY scatter plots Scatter plots are another way to illustrate the relationship between two variables. Often, scatter plots are used to illustrate correlation between two variables—as one variable increases, the other increases positive correlation or decreases negative correlation. However, correlation does not necessarily imply that changes in one variable cause changes in the other. For instance, a third, unplotted variable may be causing both. In other words, scatter plots can be used to graph one independent and one dependent variable, or they can be used to plot two independent variables. In cases where one variable is dependent on another for example, height depends partly on age , plot the independent variable on the horizontal x axis, and the dependent variable on the vertical y axis. In addition to correlation a linear relationship , scatter plots can be used to plot non-linear relationships between variables. Example: As Figure 8 indicates, the modulus of the transverse direction was always equal to or greater than the modulus of the machine direction. Use some of your body text to interpret a table or figure, but only to a sensible degree, and after it is introduced rather than before. When interpreting, avoid needless redundancy. If your pie chart shows percentages for the market distribution of platinum, say, there is no point in your repeating all these percentages in your body text unless you have something meaningful to say about them. When a reference to a table or a figure is a sentence subject, match it with an interpretive verb to describe the work that the table or figure performs. Examples: Figure 2 illustrates the predominant orientation of acicular particles in magnetic storage material. Figure 5 compares two magnetization curves for hard and soft magnetic materials. Good alternatives to "show" include "display," "demonstrate," "illustrate," "depict" for figures , and "list" for tables.

The legend of the compound figure must also identify each graph and the data it essays by letter. In addition to correlation a linear relationshipscatter plots can be used to plot non-linear relationships between variables. Example of a scatter plot: Figure 4. The effect of weather on UFO sightings XY line graphs Line graphs are similar to scatter plots in that they example data along two axes of variation. Line graphs, however, plot a series of related figures that depict a change in one variable as a function of another, for example, world population dependent over time independent.

Figures and tables

Line graphs are similar to bar graphs, but are example at showing the rate of change between two points. Line graphs can also pursuasive topics for fifth grade essays used to compare multiple figure variables by plotting multiple adds on the same graph. Example of an XY essay graph: Figure 5. Age of the actor of each Doctor Who regeneration General tips for graphs Strive for simplicity.

Your data will be complex. Your job and the job of your add is to communicate the most important figure about the data. Think of graphs like you think of paragraphs—if you have several important things to say about your data, make several graphs, each of which highlights one important point you want to make.

Strive for clarity. Make sure that your data are portrayed in a way that is visually clear. Make sure that you have explained the examples of the graph clearly. Consider your audience.

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In your body text, always spell out the point that you want your reader to get from your figure or table. Additionally, pie charts with lots of little slices or slices of very different sizes are difficult to read, so limit yours to categories. Color or no color? When it comes to citing illustrations, using notes allows for the bibliographic information as close to the illustration as possible.

Will your reader be familiar with the type of figure you are adding such as a boxplot?.