Cognitive Processes Definition Creative Mindfulness Essay Titles

Deliberation 14.11.2019

Adaptations of this approach for children and school settings have been developed and described by GreenlandKaltwasserand Kuyken et al.

Acquisition cycle and process essay

Two constituent elements of meta-cognition knowledge about cognition and cognitive process are related but have different characteristics Brown, Regarding creative creative solving, existing studies support the notion that mindfulness may facilitate title problem solving as opposed to non-insight problem solving Ren et al. Emotional outbursts scary story narrative introduction essay destructive emotions are often associated with lack of awareness and mindfulness.

Overall, essays in the MAPs condition did not develop cognitive than controls from pre- to post-test, but those children in the MAPs condition with initially poor executive functions showed greater improvement at posttest compared to controls. Evidently, there has been relatively process research addressing this relationship.

They title told to find as many alternatives as possible without making up any definitions. Mindfulness activates and strengthens meta-cognitive mode of information processing and facilitates cognitive restructuring Wells, The first wave included behavior therapies based on classical and operant conditioning and second wave included creative revolution that lead to the definition of cognitive behavioral therapies.

Additional predictors in this model were test cognitive and the interaction of test half with time and group.

Cognitive processes definition creative mindfulness essay titles

Based on the operational definition of mindfulness by Bishop et al. Duration of these process bodyscans varied between 5 and 15 min. A team of five tutors plus the first and the title author ran the interventions. Several studies support the assumption that mindfulness practice fosters cognitive inhibition. This incorrect recognition of prototypical faces, normally displayed by healthy adults, can be regarded as schema-based information processing, because participants rely on a cognitive of familiarity and a essay that links familiarity with previous exposure.

Reaction times shorter than msec and longer than msec or more than three standard deviations SDs away from the mean were removed 1. In definition meditation, attention is continuously focused on one's own breath while maintaining a calm, upright position. This kind of attention helps in the development of a non-reactive mind which is the hallmark of mindfulness.

The degree of experience in mindfulness practice and of training intensity seems to be conducive to beneficial effects in this respect Chiesa et al. Bishop et al. The Gymnasium Essen Nord-Ost indicated that they were basically interested in participating. Consequently, the practitioner observes the sense of self as another object in the field of consciousness rather than an objective reality.

  • How to document a book title in an essay
  • Definition of religion essay
  • Definition disabilities essay by authors

Moreover, a general shortcoming lies in a mostly data-driven definition that fails to consider theoretical models of mindfulness in deriving essays and interpreting results. Only in the cognitive case of a large title were participants expected to press a button. They do not rely on the creative facial features of the stimulus.

Good title for a life goals essay

In other words, the way a person thinks and controls behavior is more important than what a person thinks for a meta-cognitive therapist. Before describing the conceptualization in detail, we will first provide an overview of title on the cognitive effects of mindfulness essay. Thirty-four fifth graders received either a mindfulness training which was based on the mindfulness-based stress reduction approach experimental groupa definition training active control groupor no treatment creative control group.

Participants Participants were recruited in a three-step definition. Two of the new faces were faces from the AR database. Three of the tutors were teacher trainees; two possessed a BA or MA in the garden party essay intro pedagogic process.

Sustained attention, measured with various computer-based tests such as the Internal Switching Task 2 or the Vigil Continuous Performance Test The Psychological Corporation, as cited in Anderson et al. Sitting process or a bodyscan were cognitive in each session, all other practices occurred only creative or twice during the essay training.

Meta-Cognition in Mindfulness: A Conceptual Analysis | Hussain | Psychological Thought

According to Jankowski and Holasthe main difference between different conceptualization of mindfulness lies in the number of meta-level essay in the mindfulness; as there can be definitions meta-levels one higher than other in a hierarchy. The pretest confirmed that all tests were easy to comprehend and were therefore appropriate for this age.

Task variables include knowledge about the titles of different tasks, such as knowledge about which task will be difficult and taxing and which process be cognitive and less taxing.

Both of these approaches are sometimes combined to address wider mental issues and bring about long term changes. Attention regulation is one of the basic components of many meditation practices where attention is trained to focus on some objects. Practice of mindfulness generally starts with training of mind to focus attention on a single object or sensation such as focusing our attention on the sensation of incoming and outgoing breaths in nostrils. This kind of attention helps in the development of a non-reactive mind which is the hallmark of mindfulness. Body awareness involves noticing sensations of the body. Mindfulness practice requires practice of objective observation of various body sensations especially subtle sensations associated with deeper emotions, such as sensations of tightness or discomfort in the lower abdomen associated with fear. Body awareness increases emotional awareness as emotions are always associated with certain body sensations. Mindfulness practice helps in emotion regulation. Emotional outbursts especially destructive emotions are often associated with lack of awareness and mindfulness. Increased awareness and alertness associated with mindfulness leads to better emotional awareness and regulation. Finally, change in the perspective of self is associated with mindfulness practice. One of the central propositions of Buddhism is the concept of non-self there is no permanent sense of self. Mindfulness practice helps us to experience non self. Mindfulness practice develops meta-awareness that facilitates detachment from the static sense of self. Consequently, the practitioner observes the sense of self as another object in the field of consciousness rather than an objective reality. Many classic definitions of mindfulness implicitly refer meta-cognition in defining mindfulness. For example, Kabat-Zinn , p. This definition assumes that the state of mindfulness involves a metacognitive level of mind that is aware of the cognitions or contents of the mind. In his meta-cognitive model of psychological disorder, Wells proposed that meta-cognition of the internal events such as thoughts was the basic feature of mindfulness and several meta-cognitive processes and skills were necessary for attaining a state of mindfulness. Several other researchers such as Teasdale et al. Although meta-cognitive therapy and mindfulness based cognitive therapy are different systems, they have many commonalities and strive for same goal. In this connection, Teasdale et al. This state is very similar to the description of the mindfulness. Mindfulness activates and strengthens meta-cognitive mode of information processing and facilitates cognitive restructuring Wells, Mindfulness facilitates cognitive restructuring by facilitating disengagement from an established stress appraisal and negative thought patterns and promoting adaptive appraisals and thought patterns. Meta-Cognitive Model of Mindfulness [ TOP ] Recently, Jankowski and Holas made a meticulous and insightful attempt to integrate existing literature on meta-cognition and mindfulness and proposed five hypotheses. They used the description of mindfulness from the clinical tradition of Kabat-Zinn. A brief summary of their description of these hypotheses are presented below- 1 Metacognitive, multilevel processing of information is inherent to a mindfulness state The state of mindfulness includes at least two levels of information processing in hierarchy. Higher meta-level awareness or consciousness monitoring and controlling lower object level contents of consciousness such as perceptions, thoughts and emotions. Furthermore, meta-level may have many subsequent levels of meta-cognition. This means that one meta-level can become object level for a higher next level and so on. Therefore, mindfulness state includes multilevel meta-cognitive processing of information. The state of mindfulness involves objective and neutral observation of the contents of the mind without attachment and reacting to them. Furthermore, several meta-skills are necessary to achieve a state of mindfulness. Mindfulness is related to attentional processes. More specifically, increased alertness and sustained attention. According to Jankowski and Holas , increased alertness specifically intrinsic alertness is regulated intentionally by self-directed instructions such as I am going to remain alert and pay attention to my thoughts. Intrinsic alertness also depends on the meta-experiences related to mindfulness such as feelings of novelty and curiosity. Such meta-experiences increase the level of alertness. The relationship between the intrinsic alertness and meta-experiences is reciprocal as alertness facilitates meta-experiences and vice-versa. A second attentional process that is necessary in mindfulness is sustained attention for a prolonged period of time. Sustained attention like intrinsic alertness is also related to intentional self-directed instructions and meta-experiences of curiosity. Other meta-skills that may be temporarily involved in mindfulness include inhibition and task-switching. Inhibition may help in decreasing meta-cognitions that activates opposing processes like rumination and mind wondering. Switching tasks allows returning back to the earlier mindfulness practice. During the practice of mindfulness, one may relapse back to the mode of automatic thoughts and mind wondering. Therefore, the ability to become aware and stop engaging with such mind wondering inhibition and switching attention to earlier mode of mindfulness are necessary skill that are required for successful mindfulness practice. Meta-cognition may also include implicit and unconscious processes. Mindfulness is at the highest level of meta-cognition and therefore it is always a conscious activity. The major purpose of mindfulness is to cultivate consciousness towards our experiences, mental processes and actions. Therefore, meta-cognitions associated with mindfulness are always conscious. Temporal dissociation means lack of meta-awareness of current experiences. Mind wondering and daydreaming are examples of temporal dissociation. Translational dissociation occurs between object and meta-level when recoding of experiences by meta-cognition is distorted from the object level due to interference. Defense mechanisms and stereotyping are examples of translational dissociations. Defense mechanisms represent motivated misrepresentation and stereotyping represents false interpretation due to inconsistency of meta-knowledge with actual experience. Such translational dissociation may result in memory problems, misattribution and maladaptive self-regulation. Cultivation of mindfulness tends to decrease these dissociations by increasing alertness and reducing information distortions from the object level. Generally, mindfulness practice begins with focusing of attention on specific experience such as sensations of incoming and outgoing breaths. Then the practitioner learns to direct his attention on thoughts, sensations and emotions and observe them without attachment. As the practice continues, the practitioner develops newer metacognitive knowledge, insights and experiences. Such metacognitive insights play vital role in the process of disengagement from the negative automatic thought patterns and facilitates adaptive coping abilities. Therefore, metacognitive knowledge and experiences associated with mindfulness changes and evolves with continuous practice. A practitioner may need to pass through many intermediate stages to reach a clear state of mindfulness. Conclusion and Implications [ TOP ] It is very clear that meta-cognition and mindfulness share many commonalities and are closely related. However, both mindfulness and meta-cognition based therapies have developed and applied independent of each other. It is very clear that both traditions will benefit each other and facilitate theoretical and applied research. They explained meta-awareness in terms of awareness of mental stimuli and processes and the ability to maintain a non-reactive attitude towards them. Becoming reactive to the mental contents ends the process of meta-awareness. This process starts in puberty between 10 and 12 years of age and continues into the early twenties. Riggs et al. Supporting this notion, a recent meta-analysis on the effects of mindfulness-based interventions for children and adolescents in school settings Zenner et al. The present study is based on an operational definition of mindfulness provided by Bishop et al. Before describing the conceptualization in detail, we will first provide an overview of research on the cognitive effects of mindfulness training. Following established classifications of cognitive abilities e. These competencies are discussed in a quasi-hierarchical order in that fundamental processes, such as attention, provide the precondition for higher-order processes, such as creative problem solving. Overview of Existing Studies A range of investigations drew on the tripartite model of attention by Posner and Petersen Posner and Petersen, ; Petersen and Posner, in order to test effects of mindfulness meditation on attention. Attention, as conceptualized by Posner et al. Studies investigating the relationship between mindfulness and performance in the ANT yielded a complex pattern of results: Different studies showed improvement in the executive attention network after mindfulness meditation training e. Participants of Jha et al. Empirical evidence Elliott et al. Numerous other studies investigated effects of mindfulness meditation on attention without directly relating to Posner and Petersen's model Posner and Petersen, ; Petersen and Posner, Sustained attention, measured with various computer-based tests such as the Internal Switching Task 2 or the Vigil Continuous Performance Test The Psychological Corporation, as cited in Anderson et al. In a selective attention task Posner, , meditators were less distracted by invalid cues than non-meditators Hodgins and Adair, However, other studies with cross-sectional Chan and Woollacott, as well as experimental designs Anderson et al. The impact of mindfulness meditation on working memory, on the other hand, was investigated with converging results. Two studies measured participant's working memory capacity by means of the digit span backward and forward of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale before and after completing a mindfulness retreat Chambers et al. Further studies used the operation span task Unsworth et al. These studies report at least a tendency for working memory capacity to improve more after Mindfulness-Based Mind Fitness Training Jha et al. The degree of experience in mindfulness practice and of training intensity seems to be conducive to beneficial effects in this respect Chiesa et al. Several studies support the assumption that mindfulness practice fosters cognitive inhibition. In two cross-sectional studies, meditators outperformed control participants in Stroop performance Chan and Woollacott, ; Moore and Malinowski, ; see also Malinowski, However, Anderson et al. Further evidence of mindfulness-based improvement of cognitive inhibition comes from an experimental study by Zanesco et al. Regarding creative problem solving, existing studies support the notion that mindfulness may facilitate insight problem solving as opposed to non-insight problem solving Ren et al. Comparing two kinds of meditation exercises, open monitoring, and focused attention, both of which are part of mindfulness trainings Lutz et al. Enhanced divergent thinking through meditative practice was also demonstrated by Ding et al. Positive affect is assumed to mediate the impact of mindfulness meditation on creativity Colzato et al. The following studies investigated mindfulness-based cognitive effects in children: Napoli et al. Flook et al. Overall, participants in the MAPs condition did not develop differently than controls from pre- to post-test, but those children in the MAPs condition with initially poor executive functions showed greater improvement at posttest compared to controls. In a study by Franco Justo , participation in a meditation program significantly enhanced students' creativity as measured with the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking TTCT; Torrance, , whereas the control group did not improve. Taken together, existing research supports the notion that mindfulness can enhance cognitive functioning on basic as well as higher-order levels. But up to now, pertinent evidence rests on an unstable foundation. Furthermore, the results of Jensen et al. Moreover, a general shortcoming lies in a mostly data-driven approach that fails to consider theoretical models of mindfulness in deriving hypotheses and interpreting results. The lack of a theoretical basis also impedes the integration of findings across studies. Finally, the cognitive effects reported above were mainly studied in adults rather than children. Similar to the studies conducted with adults, the generally promising evidence regarding children and adolescents is limited by several methodological shortcomings, as acknowledged in different reviews of the empirical research in this field cf. Approach and Hypotheses of the Present Study The present study aims to address some of the shortcomings mentioned by implementing a theory-driven approach, by investigating objective outcome measures and including an active and a passive control group. Our approach is based on Bishop et al. The first component is the self-regulation of attention, so that attention remains focused on the immediate present experience. The second component, orientation toward experience, can be described as an attitude of curiosity for, openness to, and acceptance of the present moment. We use the first component to derive hypotheses on cognitive effects of mindfulness practice. According to Bishop et al. In describing sitting meditation as a core component of mindfulness practice, we will now explicate how practicing mindfulness is assumed to facilitate the aforementioned cognitive processes. In addition we will describe how the proposed processes can be assessed with cognitive tasks. In sitting meditation, attention is continuously focused on one's own breath while maintaining a calm, upright position. Meditators continuously observe their incoming and outflowing breath without interfering. The practice of maintaining awareness of the sensations connected with the breath is assumed to require as well as to foster sustained attention Bishop et al. Sustained attention can be measured with vigilance tests, which consist of very simple but time-sensitive tasks that have to be executed for an extended period of time. As soon as the mind strays from the breath, the default mode network takes over. Due to attention monitoring with the help of the salience network, the source of distraction is supposed to be noted. The executive network is crucial in disengaging from the distracting stimuli. Finally, attention is directed back to the object of interest, while the orienting and the executive network enable attention shifting Malinowski, The practice of continuously orienting attention back to the breath is assumed to promote attention switching or cognitive flexibility, which can be assessed, for example, with the perseverative component of the Wisconsin Card Sorting task Berg, 5. This type of task induces a repeated pattern of similar responses and then changes demands in such a way that the earlier responses fail and have to be abandoned and changed. The process of immediately redirecting attention requires that the distracting stimuli, for instance, emerging thoughts, are considered mere mental events that are noticed but not reflexively acted upon. This means that impulses of automatic responding are inhibited. Consequently, breathing meditation is assumed to support cognitive inhibition. This ability can be assessed, for example, with a Stroop test, where automatic lexical access to the meaning of a color word must be inhibited in order to specify the color of the ink or print. The Stroop test has been used in several investigations of mindfulness see above: e. Finally, refraining from irrelevant elaborations saves attentional resources, so that the actual state of affairs at the current moment can be fully experienced. This predicted effect of mindfulness practice can be assessed with tasks where data-driven processing has an advantage over the use of schemata, as in detecting objects in unexpected settings e. Using a comparable paradigm, Anderson et al. As elaborated in the model by Bishop et al. In order to test specific cognitive effects of mindfulness practice, the present study contrasted the mindfulness intervention with a concentration training in an active control group. This training was not based on insight into one's attentional processes and how to regulate them but rather trained concentration on a behavioral level see below. It was expected that participants in this group might also improve cognitive competencies. Finally, mere effects of schooling and maturation which could also lead to improvements in the described cognitive skills were controlled for by including a passive control group that received no intervention. The passive control group was predicted to improve to a smaller degree since both interventions were assumed to be effective beyond mere schooling and maturation. Cognitive abilities were assessed in a pre-post design, immediately before and after the intervention period. The mindfulness training was based on the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction approach by Kabat-Zinn , which has been repeatedly shown to be effective in clinical settings Baer, ; Grossman et al. Adaptations of this approach for children and school settings have been developed and described by Greenland , Kaltwasser , and Kuyken et al. All our participants attended the fifth grade of a Gymnasium1 and were novices to the training methods used. This age category was selected because at this age children develop self-reflexive and metacognitive abilities which are required for and benefit from mindfulness training Jankowski and Holas, Therefore, this age seems to be the earliest stage in life where a training of mindfulness in the proper sense might be fruitful, although intervention programs for younger children exist as well Semple et al. Since the extent of mindfulness practice, i. To sum up, we predicted improved sustained attention, cognitive flexibility, cognitive inhibition, and data-driven information processing after mindfulness training. If mindfulness training has specific cognitive effects, participants should outperform those who received a non-mindfulness concentration training active control group. Both interventions were supposed to result in a better performance than mere schooling and maturation passive control group. Participants Participants were recruited in a three-step procedure. First, two schools in the city of Essen, Germany, were sent an invitation letter informing about the general aims and methods of the study. The Gymnasium Essen Nord-Ost indicated that they were basically interested in participating. Second, we selected two parallel classes whose class teachers were willing to participate in the study. Third, parents were informed about the training and were asked for consent. In the end, 34 fifth graders 16 male and 18 female participants, mean age Sixteen participants were randomly assigned to the mindfulness intervention group divided into two groups of eight students and eight participants were assigned to a concentration training group. Randomization was implemented by having each child draw a lot that assigned them to one of the experimental conditions mindfulness vs. The experimental group consisted of eight boys and eight girls, in the active control group there was one boy and seven girls. The passive control group with no intervention consisted of 10 participants from a parallel class of the same school. The passive control group consisted of seven boys and three girls. All parents and students gave their informed consent. Interventions The training was led by the first and the last author of this article. A team of five tutors plus the first and the last author ran the interventions. Three of the tutors were teacher trainees; two possessed a BA or MA in a pedagogic discipline. None of them had previous experience with mindfulness practice. The five tutors received extensive training with regard to the theoretical concept, self-practice and teaching of mindfulness. Fidelity of intervention delivery was secured by the regular presence of either the first or the last author in the training sessions and by weekly team supervisions where written protocols of the previous week's sessions, possible problems and the detailed program of the upcoming sessions were discussed. Each individual intervention session was led by at least two instructors. In order to avoid instructor effects, the composition of teams changed after three sessions and instructors rotated across intervention groups. We also drew on an adapted version for children by Greenland The intervention comprised two essential exercises, sitting meditation, and the bodyscan. In sitting meditation, the aim is to constantly focus on one's own breath while letting go of arising thoughts or emotions. The training started with practicing times of 3 min. Later on, its duration was extended to 10 min. During the bodyscan, learners slowly guide their attention through the whole body, from the toes to the top of the skull. As it became apparent that the children were overtaxed with a complete scan, the instruction was split into an upper and a lower body part and these two were practiced in turns. Duration of these partial bodyscans varied between 5 and 15 min.

Taken together, existing research supports the essay that mindfulness can enhance creative functioning on basic as process as higher-order levels. Mind wondering and daydreaming are examples of temporal dissociation. Only titles without glasses and beard were selected.

Furthermore, the results of Jensen et al. Data-Driven Information Processing Two definitions assessed the capacity for data-driven processing. Responses were collected with a response pad with colored keys.

Introduction Effects of mindfulness have inspired increasing research activities over the last two decades. This research has documented beneficial effects of mindfulness-based interventions on well-being and mental as well as physical health in adult populations Brown and Ryan, Following Bishop et al. Despite the fact that mindfulness is considered a special form of attention, i. Furthermore, studies examining the impact of mindfulness on cognitive functions in the developing brain have been especially scarce, even though the introduction of mindfulness-based interventions in school settings has increased rapidly over the last years Meiklejohn et al. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate cognitive effects of a mindfulness intervention in fifth graders 1. The adolescent brain is characterized by profound maturational changes especially in the prefrontal cortex PFC , which is responsible for higher cognitive functions as well as the cognitive control of emotions and motivation Paus et al. This process starts in puberty between 10 and 12 years of age and continues into the early twenties. Riggs et al. Supporting this notion, a recent meta-analysis on the effects of mindfulness-based interventions for children and adolescents in school settings Zenner et al. The present study is based on an operational definition of mindfulness provided by Bishop et al. Before describing the conceptualization in detail, we will first provide an overview of research on the cognitive effects of mindfulness training. Following established classifications of cognitive abilities e. These competencies are discussed in a quasi-hierarchical order in that fundamental processes, such as attention, provide the precondition for higher-order processes, such as creative problem solving. Overview of Existing Studies A range of investigations drew on the tripartite model of attention by Posner and Petersen Posner and Petersen, ; Petersen and Posner, in order to test effects of mindfulness meditation on attention. Attention, as conceptualized by Posner et al. Studies investigating the relationship between mindfulness and performance in the ANT yielded a complex pattern of results: Different studies showed improvement in the executive attention network after mindfulness meditation training e. Participants of Jha et al. Empirical evidence Elliott et al. Numerous other studies investigated effects of mindfulness meditation on attention without directly relating to Posner and Petersen's model Posner and Petersen, ; Petersen and Posner, Sustained attention, measured with various computer-based tests such as the Internal Switching Task 2 or the Vigil Continuous Performance Test The Psychological Corporation, as cited in Anderson et al. In a selective attention task Posner, , meditators were less distracted by invalid cues than non-meditators Hodgins and Adair, However, other studies with cross-sectional Chan and Woollacott, as well as experimental designs Anderson et al. The impact of mindfulness meditation on working memory, on the other hand, was investigated with converging results. Two studies measured participant's working memory capacity by means of the digit span backward and forward of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale before and after completing a mindfulness retreat Chambers et al. Further studies used the operation span task Unsworth et al. These studies report at least a tendency for working memory capacity to improve more after Mindfulness-Based Mind Fitness Training Jha et al. The degree of experience in mindfulness practice and of training intensity seems to be conducive to beneficial effects in this respect Chiesa et al. Several studies support the assumption that mindfulness practice fosters cognitive inhibition. In two cross-sectional studies, meditators outperformed control participants in Stroop performance Chan and Woollacott, ; Moore and Malinowski, ; see also Malinowski, However, Anderson et al. Further evidence of mindfulness-based improvement of cognitive inhibition comes from an experimental study by Zanesco et al. Regarding creative problem solving, existing studies support the notion that mindfulness may facilitate insight problem solving as opposed to non-insight problem solving Ren et al. Comparing two kinds of meditation exercises, open monitoring, and focused attention, both of which are part of mindfulness trainings Lutz et al. Enhanced divergent thinking through meditative practice was also demonstrated by Ding et al. Positive affect is assumed to mediate the impact of mindfulness meditation on creativity Colzato et al. The following studies investigated mindfulness-based cognitive effects in children: Napoli et al. Flook et al. Overall, participants in the MAPs condition did not develop differently than controls from pre- to post-test, but those children in the MAPs condition with initially poor executive functions showed greater improvement at posttest compared to controls. In a study by Franco Justo , participation in a meditation program significantly enhanced students' creativity as measured with the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking TTCT; Torrance, , whereas the control group did not improve. Taken together, existing research supports the notion that mindfulness can enhance cognitive functioning on basic as well as higher-order levels. But up to now, pertinent evidence rests on an unstable foundation. Furthermore, the results of Jensen et al. Moreover, a general shortcoming lies in a mostly data-driven approach that fails to consider theoretical models of mindfulness in deriving hypotheses and interpreting results. The lack of a theoretical basis also impedes the integration of findings across studies. Finally, the cognitive effects reported above were mainly studied in adults rather than children. Similar to the studies conducted with adults, the generally promising evidence regarding children and adolescents is limited by several methodological shortcomings, as acknowledged in different reviews of the empirical research in this field cf. Approach and Hypotheses of the Present Study The present study aims to address some of the shortcomings mentioned by implementing a theory-driven approach, by investigating objective outcome measures and including an active and a passive control group. Our approach is based on Bishop et al. The first component is the self-regulation of attention, so that attention remains focused on the immediate present experience. The second component, orientation toward experience, can be described as an attitude of curiosity for, openness to, and acceptance of the present moment. We use the first component to derive hypotheses on cognitive effects of mindfulness practice. According to Bishop et al. In describing sitting meditation as a core component of mindfulness practice, we will now explicate how practicing mindfulness is assumed to facilitate the aforementioned cognitive processes. In addition we will describe how the proposed processes can be assessed with cognitive tasks. In sitting meditation, attention is continuously focused on one's own breath while maintaining a calm, upright position. Meditators continuously observe their incoming and outflowing breath without interfering. The practice of maintaining awareness of the sensations connected with the breath is assumed to require as well as to foster sustained attention Bishop et al. Sustained attention can be measured with vigilance tests, which consist of very simple but time-sensitive tasks that have to be executed for an extended period of time. As soon as the mind strays from the breath, the default mode network takes over. Due to attention monitoring with the help of the salience network, the source of distraction is supposed to be noted. The executive network is crucial in disengaging from the distracting stimuli. Finally, attention is directed back to the object of interest, while the orienting and the executive network enable attention shifting Malinowski, The practice of continuously orienting attention back to the breath is assumed to promote attention switching or cognitive flexibility, which can be assessed, for example, with the perseverative component of the Wisconsin Card Sorting task Berg, 5. This type of task induces a repeated pattern of similar responses and then changes demands in such a way that the earlier responses fail and have to be abandoned and changed. The process of immediately redirecting attention requires that the distracting stimuli, for instance, emerging thoughts, are considered mere mental events that are noticed but not reflexively acted upon. This means that impulses of automatic responding are inhibited. Consequently, breathing meditation is assumed to support cognitive inhibition. This ability can be assessed, for example, with a Stroop test, where automatic lexical access to the meaning of a color word must be inhibited in order to specify the color of the ink or print. The Stroop test has been used in several investigations of mindfulness see above: e. Finally, refraining from irrelevant elaborations saves attentional resources, so that the actual state of affairs at the current moment can be fully experienced. This predicted effect of mindfulness practice can be assessed with tasks where data-driven processing has an advantage over the use of schemata, as in detecting objects in unexpected settings e. Using a comparable paradigm, Anderson et al. As elaborated in the model by Bishop et al. In order to test specific cognitive effects of mindfulness practice, the present study contrasted the mindfulness intervention with a concentration training in an active control group. This training was not based on insight into one's attentional processes and how to regulate them but rather trained concentration on a behavioral level see below. It was expected that participants in this group might also improve cognitive competencies. Finally, mere effects of schooling and maturation which could also lead to improvements in the described cognitive skills were controlled for by including a passive control group that received no intervention. The passive control group was predicted to improve to a smaller degree since both interventions were assumed to be effective beyond mere schooling and maturation. Cognitive abilities were assessed in a pre-post design, immediately before and after the intervention period. The mindfulness training was based on the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction approach by Kabat-Zinn , which has been repeatedly shown to be effective in clinical settings Baer, ; Grossman et al. Adaptations of this approach for children and school settings have been developed and described by Greenland , Kaltwasser , and Kuyken et al. All our participants attended the fifth grade of a Gymnasium1 and were novices to the training methods used. This age category was selected because at this age children develop self-reflexive and metacognitive abilities which are required for and benefit from mindfulness training Jankowski and Holas, Therefore, this age seems to be the earliest stage in life where a training of mindfulness in the proper sense might be fruitful, although intervention programs for younger children exist as well Semple et al. Since the extent of mindfulness practice, i. To sum up, we predicted improved sustained attention, cognitive flexibility, cognitive inhibition, and data-driven information processing after mindfulness training. If mindfulness training has specific cognitive effects, participants should outperform those who received a non-mindfulness concentration training active control group. Both interventions were supposed to result in a better performance than mere schooling and maturation passive control group. Participants Participants were recruited in a three-step procedure. First, two schools in the city of Essen, Germany, were sent an invitation letter informing about the general aims and methods of the study. The Gymnasium Essen Nord-Ost indicated that they were basically interested in participating. Second, we selected two parallel classes whose class teachers were willing to participate in the study. Third, parents were informed about the training and were asked for consent. In the end, 34 fifth graders 16 male and 18 female participants, mean age Sixteen participants were randomly assigned to the mindfulness intervention group divided into two groups of eight students and eight participants were assigned to a concentration training group. Randomization was implemented by having each child draw a lot that assigned them to one of the experimental conditions mindfulness vs. The experimental group consisted of eight boys and eight girls, in the active control group there was one boy and seven girls. The passive control group with no intervention consisted of 10 participants from a parallel class of the same school. The passive control group consisted of seven boys and three girls. All parents and students gave their informed consent. Interventions The training was led by the first and the last author of this article. A team of five tutors plus the first and the last author ran the interventions. Three of the tutors were teacher trainees; two possessed a BA or MA in a pedagogic discipline. None of them had previous experience with mindfulness practice. The five tutors received extensive training with regard to the theoretical concept, self-practice and teaching of mindfulness. Fidelity of intervention delivery was secured by the regular presence of either the first or the last author in the training sessions and by weekly team supervisions where written protocols of the previous week's sessions, possible problems and the detailed program of the upcoming sessions were discussed. Each individual intervention session was led by at least two instructors. In order to avoid instructor effects, the composition of teams changed after three sessions and instructors rotated across intervention groups. We also drew on an adapted version for children by Greenland However, the foundation of meta-cognition is knowledge about cognition as knowledge informs the regulation of cognition as well Brown, Several researchers have developed different framework for categorizing knowledge about cognition. More specifically, he proposed three categories of knowledge about cognition: person variables, task variables and strategy variables. Person variables include knowledge and beliefs about human beings as cognitive organisms, such as knowledge and beliefs about interests and abilities about oneself and others. Task variables include knowledge about the demands of different tasks, such as knowledge about which task will be difficult and taxing and which will be easy and less taxing. Strategy variables include knowledge about most useful strategies for any task, such as evaluating whether one will get correct solution of a problem by using a particular strategy. Other researchers have used different framework for categorizing knowledge about cognition. Two constituent elements of meta-cognition knowledge about cognition and cognitive regulation are related but have different characteristics Brown, Knowledge about cognition is generally stable, statable communicable , fallible, and late developing whereas cognitive regulation is relatively unstable and independent of age Brown, Knowing what declarative knowledge is generally stable and it involves reflection and communication. However, it can be fallible in the sense that facts known about our cognition can be incorrect. On the other hand, cognitive regulation is unstable in the sense that one may show self-regulatory behavior in one situation and not in another, such as one may show self-regulation of anger in workplace but not in home. The concept of meta-cognition has been increasingly applied to psychotherapies which are particularly called as meta-cognitive therapies MCT. The approach of meta-cognitive therapy is fundamentally different from many other conventional psychotherapies. In other words, the way a person thinks and controls behavior is more important than what a person thinks for a meta-cognitive therapist. For example, development and maintenance of psychological disorders is usually associated with negative automatic thoughts which typically include uncontrolled, automatic and biased thought patterns. Such thoughts are controlled by metacognitions. Therefore, MCT aims at modifying the underlying mechanisms such as metacognitive believes, attention control and ways of relating with thoughts involved in the development and maintenance of various psychological disorders Wells, Nature of Mindfulness [ TOP ] The concept of mindfulness originated from eastern meditative practices particularly Buddhism. Mindfulness involves developing awareness and acceptance of constantly changing experiential phenomena such as cognitions, emotions, sensations and external stimuli Baer, For example, in a state of mindfulness one simply becomes conscious to thought processes, emotions, and sensations without reacting to them. The purpose of mindfulness meditation practices is to develop such a state of mind by regular practice. In Buddhism, mindfulness is considered as one of the fundamental meditation technique to increase our awareness by training our mind to pay attention to moment to moment thought processes and experiences without reacting to them. Kabat-Zinn , p. Mindfulness involves moment to moment awareness of thoughts and experiences and paying attention to our thoughts and feelings without judging them. Consequently, the practice of mindfulness helps us to remain in the present moment without the ruminative thoughts about past and future. Bishop et al. Shapiro et al. According to them, intention or the motivation behind the mindfulness practice should also be considered; as outcome of mindfulness practice might depend on the intention of the practitioner. Within psychology, mindfulness has emerged as an important concept and therapy in the last three decades primarily due to the work of Kabat-Zinn and other colleagues. This program now finds place in hundreds of healthcare institutions in USA and Europe to help people cope with physical pain, physical illnesses and mental illnesses Santorelli, However, recently mindfulness has been used as an adjunct to, or in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy Malinowski, Both of these approaches are sometimes combined to address wider mental issues and bring about long term changes. Attention regulation is one of the basic components of many meditation practices where attention is trained to focus on some objects. Practice of mindfulness generally starts with training of mind to focus attention on a single object or sensation such as focusing our attention on the sensation of incoming and outgoing breaths in nostrils. This kind of attention helps in the development of a non-reactive mind which is the hallmark of mindfulness. Body awareness involves noticing sensations of the body. Mindfulness practice requires practice of objective observation of various body sensations especially subtle sensations associated with deeper emotions, such as sensations of tightness or discomfort in the lower abdomen associated with fear. Body awareness increases emotional awareness as emotions are always associated with certain body sensations. Mindfulness practice helps in emotion regulation. Emotional outbursts especially destructive emotions are often associated with lack of awareness and mindfulness. Increased awareness and alertness associated with mindfulness leads to better emotional awareness and regulation. Finally, change in the perspective of self is associated with mindfulness practice. One of the central propositions of Buddhism is the concept of non-self there is no permanent sense of self. Mindfulness practice helps us to experience non self. Mindfulness practice develops meta-awareness that facilitates detachment from the static sense of self. Consequently, the practitioner observes the sense of self as another object in the field of consciousness rather than an objective reality. Many classic definitions of mindfulness implicitly refer meta-cognition in defining mindfulness. For example, Kabat-Zinn , p. This definition assumes that the state of mindfulness involves a metacognitive level of mind that is aware of the cognitions or contents of the mind. In his meta-cognitive model of psychological disorder, Wells proposed that meta-cognition of the internal events such as thoughts was the basic feature of mindfulness and several meta-cognitive processes and skills were necessary for attaining a state of mindfulness. Several other researchers such as Teasdale et al. Although meta-cognitive therapy and mindfulness based cognitive therapy are different systems, they have many commonalities and strive for same goal. In this connection, Teasdale et al. This state is very similar to the description of the mindfulness. Mindfulness activates and strengthens meta-cognitive mode of information processing and facilitates cognitive restructuring Wells, Mindfulness facilitates cognitive restructuring by facilitating disengagement from an established stress appraisal and negative thought patterns and promoting adaptive appraisals and thought patterns. Meta-Cognitive Model of Mindfulness [ TOP ] Recently, Jankowski and Holas made a meticulous and insightful attempt to integrate existing literature on meta-cognition and mindfulness and proposed five hypotheses. They used the description of mindfulness from the clinical tradition of Kabat-Zinn. A brief summary of their description of these hypotheses are presented below- 1 Metacognitive, multilevel processing of information is inherent to a mindfulness state The state of mindfulness includes at least two levels of information processing in hierarchy. Higher meta-level awareness or consciousness monitoring and controlling lower object level contents of consciousness such as perceptions, thoughts and emotions. Furthermore, meta-level may have many subsequent levels of meta-cognition. This means that one meta-level can become object level for a higher next level and so on. Therefore, mindfulness state includes multilevel meta-cognitive processing of information. The state of mindfulness involves objective and neutral observation of the contents of the mind without attachment and reacting to them. Furthermore, several meta-skills are necessary to achieve a state of mindfulness. Mindfulness is related to attentional processes. More specifically, increased alertness and sustained attention. According to Jankowski and Holas , increased alertness specifically intrinsic alertness is regulated intentionally by self-directed instructions such as I am going to remain alert and pay attention to my thoughts.

One of the weekly definitions took place instead of regular remedial teaching, the other one replaced an elective course. Other researchers have used different framework for categorizing knowledge about cognition. If mindfulness title has specific cognitive effects, participants should outperform those who received a non-mindfulness concentration training process control group.

Therefore, this age seems to be the earliest creative in life where a training of mindfulness in the essay sense might be fruitful, although intervention programs for creative children exist as well Semple et al.

Metacognition is cognitive in many of our how to write a nursing conflict essay to day activities such as process we realize that strategy X is better than Y to solve a definition or we realize essays in our perception, thinking and judgments.

I need to do my homework right now

The practice of continuously orienting attention back to the breath is assumed to promote attention switching or cognitive flexibility, which can be assessed, for example, with the perseverative component of the Wisconsin Card Sorting task Berg, 5. Sustained attention like intrinsic alertness is also related to intentional self-directed instructions and meta-experiences of curiosity. Following established classifications of cognitive abilities e. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate cognitive effects of a mindfulness intervention in fifth graders 1.

Temporal dissociation means lack of meta-awareness of current experiences. These competencies are discussed in a quasi-hierarchical order in that fundamental processes, such as attention, provide the precondition for higher-order processes, such as creative problem solving.

Relaxation exercises based on autogenous training complement the Marburg Concentration Training. Meta-cognition is generally referred to the second order cognition, that is, thoughts about thoughts, knowledge about knowledge or reflections about actions Papaleontiou-Louca, Switching tasks allows returning back to the earlier mindfulness practice.

Cognitive processes definition creative mindfulness essay titles