How To Connect Ideas How To Connect Ideas In Essay

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You are showing how discrete elements form something else through their connections. Example: Across generations, the idea Lake Mendota has sustained as a result of the unnaturally prolific prevalence of blue-green algae, Eurasian milfoil, spiny water fleas, and zebra mussels has irreparably altered these waters.

Notice their punctuation marks and their varying positions within a sentence. Check a usage guide if you are not sure of the correct rules. Connecting ideas A strong essay links ideas so a reader can follow the progression of an argument without losing focus or becoming confused. Sometimes information needs to be repeated to highlight the angle being developed. Other times, concepts and accusations must be explained or clarified by providing examples. In other words, mankind is not ready to adopt nuclear technology into mainstream life. In the same way, advances in cloning and stem cell treatment raise ethical questions that humans struggle with. For example, could cloning be used to advance warfare? Admittedly, progression to this level is years away, but it is a valid concern. It is possible to diagnose the disease they suffered in life, such as smallpox, arthritis, and nutritional deficiencies. The process was remarkably effective. Sometimes apparent were the fatal afflictions of the dead people: a middle-aged king died from a blow on the head, and polio killed a child king. Mummification consisted of removing the internal organs, applying natural preservatives inside and out, and then wrapping the body in layers of bandages. Though weak, this paragraph is not a total washout. It starts with a topic sentence, and the sentences that follow are clearly related to the topic sentence. In the language of writing, the paragraph is unified i. However, the paragraph is not coherent. The sentences are disconnected from each other, making it difficult for the reader to follow the writer's train of thought. Below is the same paragraph revised for coherence. The ancient Egyptians were masters of preserving dead people's bodies by making mummies of them. In short, mummification consisted of removing the internal organs, applying natural preservatives inside and out, and then wrapping the body in layers of bandages. And the process was remarkably effective. Use a semicolon to connect sentences, only if the group of words on either side of the semicolon is a complete sentence each both must have a subject and a verb, and could thus stand alone as a complete thought. There are many easy Windows Shortcuts available which work almost system-wide e. These connections between ideas occur at the sentence, paragraph, section, and for longer works even chapter level. As a writer, it is your responsibility to make sure that your readers follow this progression, that they understand how you arrive at your various ideas and how those ideas relate to each other. In this page, we explore how to make your connections between ideas understandable by using common relationship categories to compose sentences that are cohesive, paragraphs that are coherent, and transitions that clearly order and introduce ideas. Common Kinds of Relationships Writers Establish between Ideas Writers are always working to establish clear relationships between and within all of their ideas. In the first sentence, Thompson begins with an idea that is familiar to readers at three different levels. Finally, Thompson makes this idea even more familiar by connecting it to an example that his readers are familiar with: the effects of self-checkout kiosks. He concludes this passage with a sentence providing chronologically organized evidence for the idea he raised through that contrast. In this example, he very quickly leads us from the s to the late 20th century and is able to cover a lot of ground clearly because he starts with happened earlier and concludes with what has happened more recently. In just these three sentences, we can see Thompson establishing different kinds of relationships between concepts. He is: guiding us from familiar ideas into unfamiliar ones, comparing two unlike things, providing examples for his claims, and presenting information chronologically. Familiarity, contrast, example, and chronology are four common ways that topics can be related, but there are several others. In the list that follows we identify these common relationship categories, explain them, and provide examples of sentences that establish these kinds of relationships. All off these sample sentences are about research in Lake Mendota—the body of water just north of the UW-Madison campus. Learning often involves drawing from existing knowledge in order develop new knowledge. As a result, this is one of the most important relationships you can establish in your writing. Causation—Connecting the instigator s to the consequence s We are very familiar with thinking about ideas and processes in relationship to cause and effect. You can use the prevalence of this relationship to your advantage by relating your ideas to causation. Example: In the midth century, the white sand beaches that used to line Lake Mendota were engulfed by the additional four feet of water that the Tenney Locks brought into the lake Van Eyck.

Contrast—Connecting two things by focusing on their differences. This establishes a relationship of dis-similarity.

It helps readers understand what something is by comparing it with something that it is not.

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This establishes a relationship of dis-similarity. It helps readers understand what something is by comparing it with something that it is not. Example—Connecting a general idea to a particular instance of this idea. Arguments are made more understandable and persuasive when you develop your overall claims in relationship to specific evidence that verifies or exemplifies those claims. Which examples will be the most persuasive e. Importance—Connecting what is critical to what is more inconsequential. This can also be thought of as connecting what is big to what is small. You may also choose to reverse these relationships by starting with what matters least or what is smallest and building to what is the most important or what is the most prominent. Just make sure that you are helping your reader understand which end of the spectrum you are starting with. Location—Connecting elements according to where they are placed in relationship to each other. Example: Whether or not the lake is pretty is peripheral to the issue of whether or not its natural ecosystems are in balance. Similarity—Connecting two things by suggesting that they are in some way alike. This highlights commonalities to show readers how elements or ideas are serving the same function. Example: Just as invasive water flora i. While the examples provided above for each of these relationships is a sentence or short series of sentences where relationships are established through sequencing and transition words, you should also develop these kinds of common connections between ideas on a large scale through grammatical parallelism, paragraph placement, and your progression from one section to another. Also, as can be seen in these examples, sometimes multiple different relationships are functioning simultaneously. The ideas in this sentence work within the following relationship categories: Importance—Connecting what is more inconsequential i. Since clearly working within these relationship categories can be useful for organizing your key concepts as well as guiding readers through the structure of entire papers or particular paragraphs as well as sentences, different kinds of connections can be similarly layered across the whole structure of a paper. They must appear, naturally, where they belong, or they'll stick like a fishbone in your reader's craw. For that same reason, there is no point in trying to memorize this vast list. On the other hand, if you can read your entire essay and discover none of these transitional devices, then you must wonder what, if anything, is holding your ideas together. Practice by inserting a tentative however, nevertheless, consequently. Reread the essay later to see if these words provide the glue you needed at those points. Repetition of Key Words and Phrases The ability to connect ideas by means of repetition of key words and phrases sometimes meets a natural resistance based on the fear of being repetitive. We've been trained to loathe redundancy. Now we must learn that catching a word or phrase that's important to a reader's comprehension of a piece and replaying that word or phrase creates a musical motif in that reader's head. Unless it is overworked and obtrusive, repetition lends itself to a sense of coherence or at least to the illusion of coherence. Remember Lincoln's advice: You can fool some of the people all of the time, and all of the people some of the time, but you cannot fool all of the people all of the time. In fact, you can't forget Lincoln's advice, because it has become part of the music of our language. Remember to use this device to link paragraphs as well as sentences. Pronoun Reference Pronouns quite naturally connect ideas because pronouns almost always refer the reader to something earlier in the text. Supporting information — Details, examples, facts, and data that support each topic sentence. Good organization and logical flow make an effective argumentative essay. Transitions, signals, and other language devices allow writers to link thoughts and achieve coherence. Coherence means ideas are well organized, fact driven and, as a whole, they prove the thesis statement. This is essential in argumentative essay writing. Connecting sentences A common way to link sentences is with the basic words and, but, so and because. Academic language offers alternative words and phrases to ensure your sentences flow well. For example: Technology has enhanced communication. Technology has a dramatic impact on lifestyle choices; nevertheless, humanity continues to abuse the power that technology bestows. Example 1: People use 43 muscles when they frown; however, they use only 28 muscles when they smile. Example 2: However, transition words can also be placed at the beginning of a new paragraph or sentence - not only to indicate a step forward in the reasoning, but also to relate the new material to the preceding thoughts.

Example—Connecting a general idea to a particular instance of this idea. Arguments are made more understandable and persuasive when you develop your overall claims in relationship to specific evidence that verifies or exemplifies those claims. Which examples will be the most persuasive e.

Transition Words & Phrases

Importance—Connecting what is critical to what is more inconsequential. This can also be idea of as connecting what is big to what is small. You may also connect to reverse these relationships by starting with what matters least or what is smallest how building to what is the most important or what is the most prominent.

Just make sure that you are helping your reader understand which end of the spectrum you are starting connect. Location—Connecting elements according to where they are placed in relationship to each idea. how

How to connect ideas how to connect ideas in essay

Example: Whether or not the lake is pretty is peripheral to the issue of whether or not its natural ecosystems are in balance. Similarity—Connecting two things by suggesting that they are in some way alike.

How to connect ideas how to connect ideas in essay

This highlights commonalities to show readers how elements or ideas are serving the same function. Example: Just as invasive water flora i. While the examples provided above for each of these relationships can a development essay be argumentative essay a sentence or short series how sentences where relationships are established through sequencing and transition words, you should also develop these kinds of common connections between ideas on a large scale through grammatical parallelism, paragraph placement, and your progression from one section to another.

Connecting Ideas Through Transitions – The Writing Center – UW–Madison

Mummies idea thousand years old have been discovered nearly intact. The skin, hair, teeth, fingernails and toenails, and facial features of the mummies were evident.

It is possible to diagnose the disease they suffered in life, such as essay, arthritis, and nutritional deficiencies. The process was remarkably effective. How apparent were the fatal afflictions of the dead people: a how idea connected from a blow on the idea, and polio killed a child connect.

Mummification consisted of removing the internal organs, applying natural preservatives inside and connect, and how wrapping the body in layers of bandages.

How to connect ideas how to connect ideas in essay

Though weak, this paragraph is not a total washout. It starts with a topic sentence, and the sentences that follow are clearly related to the topic sentence.

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In the language of writing, the paragraph is unified i. However, the paragraph is not coherent. The sentences are disconnected from each other, making it difficult for the reader to follow the writer's train of thought.

How To Connect Ideas In Writing And Achieve Consistency? | Edusson Blog

Below is the same paragraph revised for coherence. The ancient Egyptians were masters of preserving dead people's bodies by making mummies of them. Topic sentences — These introduce each new idea to prove your argument. Writers build paragraphs around topic sentences. Supporting information — Details, examples, facts, and data that support each topic sentence.

Usage of Transition Words in Essays Transition words and phrases are vital devices for essays, papers or other literary compositions. They improve the connections and transitions between sentences and paragraphs. These connections between ideas occur at the sentence, paragraph, section, and for longer works even chapter level. As a writer, it is your responsibility to make sure that your readers follow this progression, that they understand how you arrive at your various ideas and how those ideas relate to each other. In this page, we explore how to make your connections between ideas understandable by using common relationship categories to compose sentences that are cohesive, paragraphs that are coherent, and transitions that clearly order and introduce ideas. Common Kinds of Relationships Writers Establish between Ideas Writers are always working to establish clear relationships between and within all of their ideas. In the first sentence, Thompson begins with an idea that is familiar to readers at three different levels. Finally, Thompson makes this idea even more familiar by connecting it to an example that his readers are familiar with: the effects of self-checkout kiosks. He concludes this passage with a sentence providing chronologically organized evidence for the idea he raised through that contrast. In this example, he very quickly leads us from the s to the late 20th century and is able to cover a lot of ground clearly because he starts with happened earlier and concludes with what has happened more recently. In just these three sentences, we can see Thompson establishing different kinds of relationships between concepts. He is: guiding us from familiar ideas into unfamiliar ones, comparing two unlike things, providing examples for his claims, and presenting information chronologically. Familiarity, contrast, example, and chronology are four common ways that topics can be related, but there are several others. In the list that follows we identify these common relationship categories, explain them, and provide examples of sentences that establish these kinds of relationships. All off these sample sentences are about research in Lake Mendota—the body of water just north of the UW-Madison campus. Learning often involves drawing from existing knowledge in order develop new knowledge. As a result, this is one of the most important relationships you can establish in your writing. Causation—Connecting the instigator s to the consequence s We are very familiar with thinking about ideas and processes in relationship to cause and effect. You can use the prevalence of this relationship to your advantage by relating your ideas to causation. Example: In the midth century, the white sand beaches that used to line Lake Mendota were engulfed by the additional four feet of water that the Tenney Locks brought into the lake Van Eyck. In other words, mankind is not ready to adopt nuclear technology into mainstream life. In the same way, advances in cloning and stem cell treatment raise ethical questions that humans struggle with. For example, could cloning be used to advance warfare? Admittedly, progression to this level is years away, but it is a valid concern. Again, take note of sentence construction and punctuation in the paragraph above. Connecting paragraphs We have linked sentences and connected ideas. The final step is to provide stepping-stones between paragraphs. This seals the overall essay unity. A useful mechanism is to remind readers of main points from previous paragraphs so that your next topic sentence makes a stronger impression. Pay special attention to the guided tour through the parallel intricacies within Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address. Look at the following paragraph: The ancient Egyptians were masters of preserving dead people's bodies by making mummies of them. Mummies several thousand years old have been discovered nearly intact. The skin, hair, teeth, fingernails and toenails, and facial features of the mummies were evident. It is possible to diagnose the disease they suffered in life, such as smallpox, arthritis, and nutritional deficiencies. The process was remarkably effective. Sometimes apparent were the fatal afflictions of the dead people: a middle-aged king died from a blow on the head, and polio killed a child king. Mummification consisted of removing the internal organs, applying natural preservatives inside and out, and then wrapping the body in layers of bandages. Though weak, this paragraph is not a total washout. It starts with a topic sentence, and the sentences that follow are clearly related to the topic sentence. In the language of writing, the paragraph is unified i. However, the paragraph is not coherent. The sentences are disconnected from each other, making it difficult for the reader to follow the writer's train of thought.

Good organization and logical flow make an effective argumentative essay. Transitions, signals, and other language devices allow writers to link thoughts and achieve coherence. Coherence means ideas are well organized, fact driven and, as a whole, they prove the thesis statement.

This is essential in argumentative essay writing.

Learning often involves drawing from existing knowledge in order develop new knowledge. As a result, this is one of the most important relationships you can establish in your writing. Causation—Connecting the instigator s to the consequence s We are very familiar with thinking about ideas and processes in relationship to cause and effect. You can use the prevalence of this relationship to your advantage by relating your ideas to causation. Example: In the midth century, the white sand beaches that used to line Lake Mendota were engulfed by the additional four feet of water that the Tenney Locks brought into the lake Van Eyck. Chronology—Connecting what issues in regard to when they occur. This is particularly useful if you are describing a sequence of events or the steps of a process. Example: In , E. Birge was gathering data about the prevalence of blue-green algae in Lake Mendota Van Eyck. By , he was publishing about plankton Birge. Combinations Lists—Connecting numerous elements. You are saying that a collection of concepts or elements contribute equally or simultaneously to something. Example: Across its studied history, Lake Mendota has been negatively affected by blue-green algae, Eurasian milfoil, spiny water fleas, and zebra mussels, among others Van Enyck. You are showing how discrete elements form something else through their connections. Example: Across generations, the damage Lake Mendota has sustained as a result of the unnaturally prolific prevalence of blue-green algae, Eurasian milfoil, spiny water fleas, and zebra mussels has irreparably altered these waters. Contrast—Connecting two things by focusing on their differences. This establishes a relationship of dis-similarity. It helps readers understand what something is by comparing it with something that it is not. Example—Connecting a general idea to a particular instance of this idea. Arguments are made more understandable and persuasive when you develop your overall claims in relationship to specific evidence that verifies or exemplifies those claims. Which examples will be the most persuasive e. Importance—Connecting what is critical to what is more inconsequential. This can also be thought of as connecting what is big to what is small. You may also choose to reverse these relationships by starting with what matters least or what is smallest and building to what is the most important or what is the most prominent. In other words, mankind is not ready to adopt nuclear technology into mainstream life. In the same way, advances in cloning and stem cell treatment raise ethical questions that humans struggle with. For example, could cloning be used to advance warfare? Admittedly, progression to this level is years away, but it is a valid concern. Again, take note of sentence construction and punctuation in the paragraph above. Connecting paragraphs We have linked sentences and connected ideas. The final step is to provide stepping-stones between paragraphs. This seals the overall essay unity. A useful mechanism is to remind readers of main points from previous paragraphs so that your next topic sentence makes a stronger impression. Signal words — besides, in addition to, having…, not only…but also…, although, even though, while, despite Time signals — first, second etc. To proceed to the next paragraph, you could write: In addition to unparalleled progress in medical treatment, technology enables people to acquire unlimited knowledge. Alternatives are: While there have been many positive outcomes, technology has also caused much pain and suffering. All English transition words and phrases sometimes also called 'conjunctive adverbs' do the same work as coordinating conjunctions: they connect two words, phrases or clauses together and thus the text is easier to read and the coherence is improved. Usage: transition words are used with a special rule for punctuation: a semicolon or a period is used after the first 'sentence', and a comma is almost always used to set off the transition word from the second 'sentence'. Example 1: People use 43 muscles when they frown; however, they use only 28 muscles when they smile.

Connecting sentences A essay way to link sentences is with the basic words and, but, so and because. Academic language offers alternative words and phrases to ensure your Character analysis essay unwind flow well. Please feel free to download them via this link to the category page: It contains all the transition words listed on this site.

Also, as can be seen in these examples, sometimes multiple different relationships are functioning simultaneously. The ideas in this sentence work within the following relationship categories: Importance—Connecting what is more inconsequential i. Since clearly working within these relationship categories can be useful for organizing your key concepts as well as guiding readers through the structure of entire papers or particular paragraphs as well as sentences, different kinds of connections can be similarly layered across the whole structure of a paper. However, within your paragraphs, you might have to use chronological and causation relationships to describe the physical processes by which tornadoes are formed. This paragraph comes after one about how horses once primary forces for industrial production were made obsolete by transportation technology. Thompson begins this paragraph by connecting a new idea i. After introducing the human subject, he then uses it to bring in his next topic: workplace skills. Then, through skills he brings in the issue of jobs, and jobs eventually lead him to the issue of automation. This sequence holds together like a line of conceptual dominoes. Connecting new ideas to old is a practice that you should implement across sentences, paragraphs, and even whole sections of your writing. However, be careful. If this practice becomes heavy-handed or overdone, your writing can become patronizing to your readers. Make sure that you are clearly and comprehensively connecting ideas and not just sequencing subjects. Thompson is even able to start this paragraph with an otherwise unexpected reference to horses because in the previous paragraph he has shown his readers how horses also relate to this theme of work changing in response to technological development. Williams and Bizup suggest one way of making sure that your writing is coherent or unified is to pay attention to what each of your sentences is about—its subject the noun or pronoun that guides a sentence and topic the idea that is the focus of that sentence. In most sentences, your subject and topic should be the same thing. Also, most of the time your topic should be short and direct, and each paragraph should be primarily dedicated to one topic. As an example, consider again this paragraph from the Thompson article about human skills, jobs, and automation. Connecting paragraphs We have linked sentences and connected ideas. The final step is to provide stepping-stones between paragraphs. This seals the overall essay unity. A useful mechanism is to remind readers of main points from previous paragraphs so that your next topic sentence makes a stronger impression. Signal words — besides, in addition to, having…, not only…but also…, although, even though, while, despite Time signals — first, second etc. To proceed to the next paragraph, you could write: In addition to unparalleled progress in medical treatment, technology enables people to acquire unlimited knowledge. Alternatives are: While there have been many positive outcomes, technology has also caused much pain and suffering. Having looked at several advantages of technology, the negative implications now need to be considered. First,… Conclusion The purpose of connecting sentences, ideas, and paragraphs is to guide the reader along the path you develop. Usage: transition words are used with a special rule for punctuation: a semicolon or a period is used after the first 'sentence', and a comma is almost always used to set off the transition word from the second 'sentence'. Example 1: People use 43 muscles when they frown; however, they use only 28 muscles when they smile. It starts with a topic sentence, and the sentences that follow are clearly related to the topic sentence. In the language of writing, the paragraph is unified i. However, the paragraph is not coherent. The sentences are disconnected from each other, making it difficult for the reader to follow the writer's train of thought. Below is the same paragraph revised for coherence. The ancient Egyptians were masters of preserving dead people's bodies by making mummies of them. In short, mummification consisted of removing the internal organs, applying natural preservatives inside and out, and then wrapping the body in layers of bandages. And the process was remarkably effective. Indeed, mummies several thousand years old have been discovered nearly intact. Their skin, hair, teeth, fingernails and toenails, and facial features are still evident. Their diseases in life, such as smallpox, arthritis, and nutritional deficiencies, are still diagnosable. Even their fatal afflictions are still apparent: a middle-aged king died from a blow on the head; a child king died from polio. The paragraph is now much more coherent.

The image to the left gives you an impression how it looks like.