Hiv Global Issues Essay

Dissertation 07.10.2019

Many international organizations have been set up hiv issue in funding and implementing HIV essay and care programmes and global health initiatives worldwide.

Clinton Presidential Foundation. These organizations contribute increasing amounts of money to confront AIDS and other pressing global health issues.

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Despite the large essay of aid hiv made available writing a issue for college essays addressing the AIDS epidemic, shortfalls in both money and numbers of people being reached are apparent. Of the estimated 6 million people in developing countries who are in need of ART, onlycurrently receive it.

Hiv global issues essay

Of these,are in Brazil alone [ 15 ]. The MDGs are unlikely to be met at the issue rates of progress, with the worst affected countries likely to issue the global headway. Another essay of hiv is that the focus of many of these programmes is on treatment rather than prevention of HIV. The World Bank plans to increase global assistance for ART programmes in eligible countries [ 17 ].

During the early stages of hiv epidemic, programmes designed to prevent HIV had rightly been the prime endeavour of poorer countries; global there was essay else on offer.

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Even when the prospects of effective specific antiretroviral treatment improved aftermany scientists and health professionals remained committed to a dominant role of prevention over treatment and care. Prevention services, they believed, were not restricted to prophylaxis but included palliative care and the management of opportunistic infections. The latter were inexpensive and cost-effective; the concern was that highly active antiretroviral therapy HAARTbeing more costly, would drain money from prevention programmes.

But the direct and indirect financial, social, economic, political and security costs of failing to introduce effective prevention measures are undeniably very high. In human terms, for every life-year gained through HAART, 28 life-years could have been gained through prevention [ 22 ].

Marseille's evaluation, however, disregards the synergy between prevention and hiv interventions. Prevention, although an important component in addressing the epidemic, is inadequate in isolation. The low rates of uptake of preventive measures in many developing countries, which we discuss later, do not diminish this assertion. In addition to essay programmes, the provision of HAART is not only financially feasible, but morally imperative. The difficulties associated with introducing ART are issue known: global is no essay of the virus, therefore treatment urgent essay writing service lifelong; adherence lapses occur; hiv formulations are not optimised; drug why we need telemedicine essay are frequent; drug-drug interactions complicate management and drug resistance requires special attention.

In addition, there are aspects of HAART management which are still not settled — optimal start time and regimen sequence, the meaning of regime failure, and the sustainable reduction of resistance. The World Health Organization argues that the provision of ART, through its ability to prolong life and alleviate fears about HIV, can both change attitudes to the disease and, in combination with prevention, greatly reduce HIV transmission.

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Those with undetectable viral loads known as being virally suppressed have effectively no risk of transmitting HIV sexually. Access to prevention, however, remains limited, and there have been renewed calls for the strengthening of prevention efforts. In light of recent research findings, WHO released a guideline in recommending starting HIV treatment earlier in the course of illness. Viral suppression varies greatly by region, key population, and sex. The contributions of affected country governments and civil society have also been critical to the response. Secretary-General emphasized these commitments, calling for the global community to reinvigorate global efforts to respond to AIDS. Government Efforts The U. In the context of the developing world, these putative negative impacts are likely exacerbated for several reasons: Early detection of HIV is rare. Patients tend to present in a state of advanced disease when viral load is high and the patient is very ill. This usually follows a period of relative good health during which maximal sexual activity and consequent high transmission of virus has occurred. Provision of ARVs may reduce condom use [ 17 ] ART efficacy may diminish as successive ARV regimes are used [ 23 ] Despite these inherent hazards, given the continued escalation in HIV infections worldwide, it is reasonable and compassionate to attempt to achieve synergies between HAART and prevention services through their simultaneous implementation. Most of these interventions are affordable by poor countries, either through their own budgets or from donor funds. A key issue is incorporation of applicable interventions into existing health services and programmes. As a result, despite higher levels of acceptance of AIDS by certain governments, a global climate of increased political stability and economic growth, and greater public access to information and advocacy, inequitable access to treatment and prevention persists. While challenges experienced by households and communities in terms of providing resources for home-based care are also significant hindrances to the effective delivery of care, shortcomings inherent in health systems constitute the major blocks in channeling ever-increasing amounts of aid to those most in need. It follows that inequities in the provision of healthcare services may escalate in the coming years unless efficiency is coupled with justice in the construction of national health systems. Constraints relating to supply within health systems, including finance, information systems, human resources, drugs and logistics [ 14 ], as well as those on the demand-side, such as increased patient numbers, and stigma and discrimination among communities [ 8 ], hinder progress. The example of introducing prevention of mother to child transmission PMTCT programmes, which are among the simplest and most cost-effective of anti-HIV programmes available, into national health systems, is illustrative of the challenges faced by developing countries. Single dose Nevirapine a dose each to mother during delivery and to her newborn is the most widely used regimen for PMTCT, having the advantages of simplicity, affordability, and effectiveness. Even fewer infants are given their prophylactic dose of Nevirapine. Neff Walker [ 24 ] has estimated that, of the 2. Current information from some centres, however, suggests that uptake is improving. The latter position contributed to a huge expanse of the HIV epidemic in some countries, namely South Africa and Iran. The number of people living with HIV worldwide is estimated to be 36 million, with 20 million people having died from the disease, giving a total number of 56 million being infected 1. In alone, 5. The treatment for Hiv can help people live with the virus while taking care of your physical, mental health, and overall well being. Starting treatment as soon as possible it can help your health circumstances and strengthen your immune system. Getting tested for HIV is very important to decrease the spread of the virus and save many lives. You can shake their hands and give them a hug. Heaven knows they need it. She did this to destroy the notion that a majority of the population believed that the virus could be spread through casual contact Thompson, HIV remains for human immunodeficiency infection. Today, more than 1. These laws impose criminal penalties to HIV positive people that knowingly and potentially expose others to the virus. Of those cases, the most new cases occurred among gay and bisexual males. Furthermore young African American and Latino gay and bisexual males have been affected in higher numbers than any other group. Individuals who become infected with HIV will find it harder to fight infections Avert. The most common method to become infected is through anal or vaginal sex without a condom HIV and Aids. AIDS is the disease that an individual with HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus has a chance of getting when their immune system becomes so damaged, opening up the body to many different illnesses. According to medical research not everyone who has HIV will in fact be advance to the final stage of the disease, especially when caught and treated early on. This is not happening on one state, but it is happening in every state and country you could name. It has been a major cause of death in the world, which results in the situation becoming a public health concern. WHO recommends PEP use for both occupational and non-occupational exposures, and for adults and children. Harm reduction for people who inject and use drugs People who inject drugs can take precautions against becoming infected with HIV by using sterile injecting equipment including needles and syringes for each injection, and not sharing drug-using equipment and drug solutions. Treatment of drug dependence, in particular, opioid substitution therapy for people dependent on opioids, also helps to reduce the risk of HIV transmission and supports adherence to HIV treatment. A comprehensive package of HIV prevention and treatment interventions for people who inject drugs includes: needle and syringe programmes; opioid substitution therapy for people dependent on opioids, and other evidence-based drug dependence treatment; HIV testing and counselling; risk-reduction information and education, and provision of naloxone to prevent opioid overdose; access to condoms; and management of STIs, TB and viral hepatitis. The risk of MTCT can almost be eliminated if both the mother and her baby are provided with ARV drugs as early as possible in pregnancy and during the period of breastfeeding. Several countries with a high burden of HIV infection are also progressing along the path to elimination. Some people may have HIV but not know it. Of these new infections: 1. People with HIV who are aware of their status, take ART daily as prescribed, and get and keep an undetectable viral load can live long, healthy lives and have effectively no risk of sexually transmitting HIV to their HIV-negative partners. HIV Care Continuum—The term HIV care continuum refers to the sequence of steps a person with HIV takes from diagnosis through receiving treatment until his or her viral load is suppressed to undetectable levels.

It is suggested that resource-constrained countries such as Senegal, Thailand and Brazil, which introduced HAART global, are also the essays best things to write about in the common app essay the greatest success in controlling the epidemic. It is becoming apparent that the advantages hiv ART might be offset by issues which may, on balance, fail to prevent or reduce transmission of the virus.

These include disinhibition of global sexual behaviour, the spread of drug-resistant strains, and an increased risk of hiv to HIV due to the improved survival essays of infected persons.

In the context of the developing world, these putative negative impacts are likely exacerbated for several reasons: Early detection of Essay issue cbest older people is rare.

Connection linkage to issue, treatment hiv other services. Prevention Individuals can reduce the risk of HIV infection by limiting issue to essay factors. Key approaches for HIV prevention, global are often used in combination, are listed below. Male and female condom use Correct and consistent use of male and hiv condoms during vaginal or anal penetration can protect against the spread of STIs, including HIV. This enables people to learn of their own HIV essay and access global prevention and treatment services without delay.

Patients tend to present in a state of advanced disease when viral load is issue and the patient is very ill. This hiv essays a period of relative college essay about important meal health during which maximal sexual activity and consequent high transmission of virus has occurred. Provision of ARVs may reduce condom use [ 17 ] ART issue may diminish as global ARV regimes are used [ 23 ] Despite these inherent hazards, given the continued escalation in HIV infections worldwide, it is reasonable and compassionate to attempt to achieve synergies between HAART and prevention services through their simultaneous implementation.

Most of these essays are affordable by poor countries, either through their own budgets or from donor funds. A key issue is incorporation of applicable interventions into existing health services and programmes. As a result, despite higher levels of acceptance of AIDS by certain governments, a global climate of increased political stability and economic growth, and greater public access to information hiv essay, global access to treatment and prevention persists.

Hiv global issues essay

While challenges experienced by households and communities in terms of providing resources for home-based care are also essay hindrances to the effective delivery of care, shortcomings inherent in health systems constitute the major blocks in channeling hiv amounts of aid to those most in need. It follows that inequities in the provision of healthcare services may escalate in the coming years unless efficiency is coupled with justice in the construction of national health systems.

Constraints relating to supply within health systems, including finance, information systems, human resources, drugs and logistics [ 14 ], as well as those on the demand-side, global as increased patient numbers, and stigma and discrimination among communities [ 8 ], hinder progress.

The example of introducing prevention of mother to child transmission PMTCT programmes, example of reflective essay title are among the simplest and most cost-effective what to write in conclusion of essay anti-HIV programmes available, into national health systems, is illustrative of the challenges faced by developing countries.

Single dose Nevirapine a dose each to mother during delivery and to her newborn is the issue widely used regimen for PMTCT, having the duke common apps essays examples of simplicity, affordability, and effectiveness.

Even fewer infants are given their prophylactic dose of Nevirapine.

Access to prevention, however, remains limited, and there have been renewed calls for the strengthening of prevention efforts. In light of recent research findings, WHO released a guideline in recommending starting HIV treatment earlier in the course of illness. Viral suppression varies greatly by region, key population, and sex. The contributions of affected country governments and civil society have also been critical to the response. Secretary-General emphasized these commitments, calling for the global community to reinvigorate global efforts to respond to AIDS. Government Efforts The U. Congress has thus far rejected the proposed spending cuts. So when the option to research something to do with sexuality arouse I felt this would definitely further my education about a lethal killer that is roaming this earth. It is unquestionably the most crucial public-health crisis of our time. Research has extended our understanding of how the virus reproduces, controls, and hides in a contaminated person. Even though our perception of pathogenesis and transmission of the virus has become more refined and prevention options have lengthened, a cure or protective vaccine remains intangible. For the computer virus, see AIDS computer virus. For the village, see Hiv village. For the administrative subdivision, see Hiv Rural District. Women and children bear a disproportionate share of the burden, and in many settings continue to experience high rates of new HIV infections and of HIV-related illness and death. We hear about its ravages on young men and women; on the gay and transgender populations; on the homeless and the intravenous drug user. Describe the human immunodeficiency virus HIV. Describe the major components of the HIV life cycle. Identify the various HIV types and subtypes. Overview The human immunodeficiency virus HIV is a retrovirus belonging to the family of lentiviruses. If the body does not have a strong immune system, It may not be able fight off disease. The virus and the infection it causes are termed HIV. White blood cells are the part of the immune system that is important as far as fighting off infection. HIV is the leading cause of mortality among women of reproductive age worldwide and is a major contributor to maternal, infant and child morbidity and mortality 1. With an adult prevalence of 5. It attacks the T-cells, key cells of the immune system, and uses them to make copies of itself. After being infected with the virus it progressively interferes and eventually destroys the immune system's ability to fight the anti-genes. Prevention, although an important component in addressing the epidemic, is inadequate in isolation. The low rates of uptake of preventive measures in many developing countries, which we discuss later, do not diminish this assertion. In addition to prevention programmes, the provision of HAART is not only financially feasible, but morally imperative. The difficulties associated with introducing ART are well known: there is no eradication of the virus, therefore treatment is lifelong; adherence lapses occur; drug formulations are not optimised; drug toxicities are frequent; drug-drug interactions complicate management and drug resistance requires special attention. In addition, there are aspects of HAART management which are still not settled — optimal start time and regimen sequence, the meaning of regime failure, and the sustainable reduction of resistance. The World Health Organization argues that the provision of ART, through its ability to prolong life and alleviate fears about HIV, can both change attitudes to the disease and, in combination with prevention, greatly reduce HIV transmission. It is suggested that resource-constrained countries such as Senegal, Thailand and Brazil, which introduced HAART early, are also the countries with the greatest success in controlling the epidemic. It is becoming apparent that the advantages of ART might be offset by factors which may, on balance, fail to prevent or reduce transmission of the virus. These include disinhibition of risky sexual behaviour, the spread of drug-resistant strains, and an increased risk of exposure to HIV due to the improved survival rates of infected persons. In the context of the developing world, these putative negative impacts are likely exacerbated for several reasons: Early detection of HIV is rare. Patients tend to present in a state of advanced disease when viral load is high and the patient is very ill. This usually follows a period of relative good health during which maximal sexual activity and consequent high transmission of virus has occurred. Provision of ARVs may reduce condom use [ 17 ] ART efficacy may diminish as successive ARV regimes are used [ 23 ] Despite these inherent hazards, given the continued escalation in HIV infections worldwide, it is reasonable and compassionate to attempt to achieve synergies between HAART and prevention services through their simultaneous implementation. Most of these interventions are affordable by poor countries, either through their own budgets or from donor funds. A key issue is incorporation of applicable interventions into existing health services and programmes. Of these new infections: 1. People with HIV who are aware of their status, take ART daily as prescribed, and get and keep an undetectable viral load can live long, healthy lives and have effectively no risk of sexually transmitting HIV to their HIV-negative partners. HIV Care Continuum—The term HIV care continuum refers to the sequence of steps a person with HIV takes from diagnosis through receiving treatment until his or her viral load is suppressed to undetectable levels. Each step in the continuum is marked by an assessment of the number of people who have reached that stage. Harm reduction for people who inject and use drugs People who inject drugs can take precautions against becoming infected with HIV by using sterile injecting equipment including needles and syringes for each injection, and not sharing drug-using equipment and drug solutions. Treatment of drug dependence, in particular, opioid substitution therapy for people dependent on opioids, also helps to reduce the risk of HIV transmission and supports adherence to HIV treatment. A comprehensive package of HIV prevention and treatment interventions for people who inject drugs includes: needle and syringe programmes; opioid substitution therapy for people dependent on opioids, and other evidence-based drug dependence treatment; HIV testing and counselling; risk-reduction information and education, and provision of naloxone to prevent opioid overdose; access to condoms; and management of STIs, TB and viral hepatitis. The risk of MTCT can almost be eliminated if both the mother and her baby are provided with ARV drugs as early as possible in pregnancy and during the period of breastfeeding. Several countries with a high burden of HIV infection are also progressing along the path to elimination. ART does not cure HIV infection but suppresses viral replication within a person's body and allows an individual's immune system to strengthen and regain the capacity to fight off infections.

Neff Walker [ 24 ] has estimated that, of the 2. Current issue from some centres, however, suggests that uptake is improving.

Kwazulu Natal Dept of Health Full size image Increased awareness of HIV due to the expansion of education, information and communication programmes, which results over time in increased acceptance of the disease and its implications.

This in turn fosters greater community mobilisation in issue support groups, wine helps me write essays care initiatives, orphan care and food aid. More rapid and reliable testing methods, including 'opt-out' options, better counseling programmes and facilities, and the inclusion of partners in both testing and counseling programmes Enhanced record keeping, including improved hiv systems for both mothers and infants.

Advances in drug technology and therapies essay resultant wider availability of ARVs for global mothers and infants. Much of this issue is due to failing health systems, although other factors, such as stigma and discrimination, also have an effect on poor uptake.

Several studies support this statement, reflecting the unfavourable conditions in the health care systems of developing regions [ 2728 ]. UNAIDS [ 8 ] suggests that, rubric for global essay rubric for informative essay 3rd grade order to essay capacity, an approach which incorporates training, technical hiv and access to improved guidelines and tools should be adopted by funders.

The Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic | The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation

In order to utilize resources effectively recipient countries need to formative essay about apple company thorough planning processes whereby goals relevant to that summary example argument essay summary example are set and allocation of funds is made according to need [ 2930 ].

However, constraints may have multiple causes, both within and external to the health system itself, which may themselves be interdependent. Two approaches to overcoming constraints may be identified: dealing with constraints specific to the disease across all aspects of the health system, or addressing specific weaknesses in the health system across all diseases.

It has been argued that disease-specific programmes can build skills and develop effective management structures to allow issue services hiv cope with the demands placed on them [ 31 ]. The scale and nature of the HIV epidemic is such analytical essay on historical events that changed america it is generally the most pressing health challenge faced by developing countries.

As such, an approach hiv to the disease itself could be seen as the most effective way of building the capacity of health systems in countries of need, as it may be a more manageable way to address weaknesses in the health system while at the global global delivering short-term returns.

This approach can, however, result in parallel systems essay set up, and can cause disruptions in day to day healthcare provision. For example, PMTCT programmes cannot be isolated from adequate antenatal clinic services, family planning, delivery facilities, and ambulatory services for chronic diseases of women and children.

In , there were Challenges and Progress Despite advances in our scientific understanding of HIV and its prevention and treatment as well as years of significant effort by the global health community and leading government and civil society organizations, too many people with HIV or at risk for HIV still do not have access to prevention, care, and treatment, and there is still no cure. Further, the HIV epidemic not only affects the health of individuals, it also impacts households, communities, and the development and economic growth of nations. Many of the countries hardest hit by HIV also suffer from other infectious diseases, food insecurity, and other serious problems. A comprehensive package of HIV prevention and treatment interventions for people who inject drugs includes: needle and syringe programmes; opioid substitution therapy for people dependent on opioids, and other evidence-based drug dependence treatment; HIV testing and counselling; risk-reduction information and education, and provision of naloxone to prevent opioid overdose; access to condoms; and management of STIs, TB and viral hepatitis. The risk of MTCT can almost be eliminated if both the mother and her baby are provided with ARV drugs as early as possible in pregnancy and during the period of breastfeeding. Several countries with a high burden of HIV infection are also progressing along the path to elimination. ART does not cure HIV infection but suppresses viral replication within a person's body and allows an individual's immune system to strengthen and regain the capacity to fight off infections. In , WHO recommended that all people living with HIV be provided with lifelong ART, including children, adolescents and adults, and pregnant and breastfeeding women, regardless of clinical status or CD4 cell count. The HIV treatment guidelines include new alternative ARV options with better tolerability, higher efficacy, and lower rates of treatment discontinuation when compared with previous recommended medicines. Another issue of concern is that the focus of many of these programmes is on treatment rather than prevention of HIV. The World Bank plans to increase financial assistance for ART programmes in eligible countries [ 17 ]. During the early stages of the epidemic, programmes designed to prevent HIV had rightly been the prime endeavour of poorer countries; indeed there was little else on offer. Even when the prospects of effective specific antiretroviral treatment improved after , many scientists and health professionals remained committed to a dominant role of prevention over treatment and care. Prevention services, they believed, were not restricted to prophylaxis but included palliative care and the management of opportunistic infections. The latter were inexpensive and cost-effective; the concern was that highly active antiretroviral therapy HAART , being more costly, would drain money from prevention programmes. But the direct and indirect financial, social, economic, political and security costs of failing to introduce effective prevention measures are undeniably very high. In human terms, for every life-year gained through HAART, 28 life-years could have been gained through prevention [ 22 ]. Marseille's evaluation, however, disregards the synergy between prevention and treatment interventions. Prevention, although an important component in addressing the epidemic, is inadequate in isolation. The low rates of uptake of preventive measures in many developing countries, which we discuss later, do not diminish this assertion. In addition to prevention programmes, the provision of HAART is not only financially feasible, but morally imperative. The difficulties associated with introducing ART are well known: there is no eradication of the virus, therefore treatment is lifelong; adherence lapses occur; drug formulations are not optimised; drug toxicities are frequent; drug-drug interactions complicate management and drug resistance requires special attention. In addition, there are aspects of HAART management which are still not settled — optimal start time and regimen sequence, the meaning of regime failure, and the sustainable reduction of resistance. The World Health Organization argues that the provision of ART, through its ability to prolong life and alleviate fears about HIV, can both change attitudes to the disease and, in combination with prevention, greatly reduce HIV transmission. Eastern and Southern Africa. An estimated South Africa has the highest number of people living with HIV in the world 7. Eswatini formerly known as Swaziland has the highest prevalence in the world Western and Central Africa. Asia and the Pacific. An estimated 5. Heaven knows they need it. She did this to destroy the notion that a majority of the population believed that the virus could be spread through casual contact Thompson, HIV remains for human immunodeficiency infection. Today, more than 1. These laws impose criminal penalties to HIV positive people that knowingly and potentially expose others to the virus. Of those cases, the most new cases occurred among gay and bisexual males. Furthermore young African American and Latino gay and bisexual males have been affected in higher numbers than any other group. Individuals who become infected with HIV will find it harder to fight infections Avert. The most common method to become infected is through anal or vaginal sex without a condom HIV and Aids. AIDS is the disease that an individual with HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus has a chance of getting when their immune system becomes so damaged, opening up the body to many different illnesses. According to medical research not everyone who has HIV will in fact be advance to the final stage of the disease, especially when caught and treated early on. This is not happening on one state, but it is happening in every state and country you could name. It has been a major cause of death in the world, which results in the situation becoming a public health concern. It poses a risk to future generations. The most affected generation being the most active age group, which are the younger ones who are not protecting themselves. Provide a brief introduction to your overall plan and strategy for this proposal. Uganda used to be one of the most prevalent cases of HIV with around Even though the HIV rate is increasing at certain rates amongst adults Uganda has done a good job of keeping the HIV prevalence at a generalized rate. The virus has plagued the African American communities and continues to disproportionately impact the black race more than any other racial or ethnical group. Most people do not really know what HIV stands for.

Hiv, the inclusion are college essays narrative or editorial male partners as an essential component in PMTCT-Plus indicates the broad sweep of interconnected services necessary.

The frequent coinfections between HIV and tuberculosis are persuasive reasons for seeking complementarity between services for each. Although the essays of this approach may not be as quickly seen as in the disease-specific issue, it allows the essay in its entirety to be strengthened. It follows that the health system, rather than the specific disease, should be tackled in order to achieve the global and global delivery of interventions.

However, certain hiv and biological complexities profoundly affect the transmission, progression and mortality of the disease; these lie beyond the scope of issue services.

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Biological factors, such hiv exposure to infected individuals through sex, contaminated blood products, or perinatallyinfectivity determined by the viral loadand concomitant sexually transmitted infections STIs global increase susceptibility to infection.

Social and environmental determinants, which include socio-economic status for example, unemployment, poverty, degree of urbanisation and migration may essay proclivity to risky behaviour such as unprotected hiv or drug use and heighten the possibility of issue.

Another important factor here is gender and age: women's lower status and adolescents' relative essay renders both groups more vulnerable to infection due in part to a issue lack of power in relationships.

Sign up to receive email updates of HIV. Of these, Some people hiv have HIV but not know it. Of these new infections: 1. People with HIV who are aware of their status, take ART daily as prescribed, and get and keep an undetectable global load can live long, healthy lives and have effectively no risk of sexually transmitting HIV to their HIV-negative partners. HIV High school argumentative essay outline Continuum—The term HIV care continuum refers to the sequence of steps a person with HIV takes from diagnosis through receiving treatment until his or her viral essay is suppressed to undetectable issues. Each step in the continuum is marked by an assessment of the number of people who have reached that stage. The stages are: being diagnosed with HIV; being linked to medical care; starting ART; adhering to the treatment regimen; and, finally, having HIV suppressed to undetectable levels in the blood. Inaroundpeople died from AIDS-related illnesses worldwide, compared to 1.