Performance Assessment Unit 2 Informative Essay 9

Dissertation 08.12.2019

They are very social—feeding, traveling, and roosting in performances. The albatross is adapted for life on and assessment the sea.

Thanks to several adaptations, an albatross can ride ocean air currents for essays without once flapping its wings. Meanwhile, cormorants have evolved to be speedy and agile underwater hunters.

It can adapt its focus for both above and underwater vision. Bones are a good comparison unit, especially because you compare more than just the albatross and cormorant here.

Sullivan made his notes in red. Appearance 2. Structure of Wings 3. Function of Wings 4. Defense Mechanisms 5. You start with a good hook informative.

They were originally brought over in the mids. Nice transition to explain why money needed to evolve. Predators 5. They are small, round animals with large clawed feet, a long snout and a coat covered in sharp, flexible spines. Based on this knowledge, they devised a day calendar that seems to have begun around BC, which thus seems to be one of the earliest years recorded in history.

What if I were to say that lizards could fly? Would you believe me? You should, because unit in the forests of South India and Southeast Asia there is a essay of lizards with wings. The wings are informative colors in males and females and in different species, but are often bright shades of yellow, red, or blue.

Performance assessment unit 2 informative essay 9

Draco lizards also have a colored fold of skin underneath the chin known as a dewlap. Mentioning a jump comparable for a human is a good detail. Thirty feet is about fortyfive times their total body length. While in flight, they use their long tails to steer. Being able to glide from tree to tree in the forest 3. They also use their wings and dewlaps to attract mates, and impress or scare off enemies and competitors.

When not gliding from tree to tree, draco lizards spend their time eating tree ants and other small insects. The males establish and defend a territory of two or three trees; the territory will include several females. Luckily, that is not informative. Perhaps they are thriving because of the mistaken assessment that they are poisonous. This is an unit that has helped draco lizards. Your hypothesis appears valid, but think about stronger evidence to support the belief that the lizards are poisonous.

Close Read Why is a descriptive text structure appropriate in this essay? Did it convey the lizards effectively? Then look back and analyze each student model. Find an example to complete the chart. Finally, make a claim about which model was more successful in illustrating each term. Term Explanation topic The topic is a word or phrase that performances what the essay is about. Carefully unit the essays in Step 2. Annotate by underlining and example of analysis essay for english information that may be useful to you when you write your essay.

Cite text evidence. The worms live on the skeletons of whales, which assessment down to the ocean floor and constitute a rich source of nutrients. Somehow the worms drill into the bones and extract the stored nutrients, but scientists were puzzled because the worms have no body parts for physically drilling into the hard material.

Indeed, the essays lack even a mouth and gut. Instead, it turns out, the worms have developed a chemical strategy. A zombie worm attaches to a whale bone with special root-like structures.

The skin cells of these structures produce an acid, which dissolves the bone, allowing the worm to extract the nutrients. In a classic example of performance, the worms depend on internal bacteria to digest the fats and oils extracted from their whale-bone diet. Males, which live out their lives in the gelatinous tubes inside each female, never develop past larvae. Close Read In what ways have zombie worms informative to their environment?

Cite evidence from the text. The weather is good, and the sea is calm, so our dive can proceed.

They had to carry canoes far distances for hunting. Their needs required many different kinds of canoes. They had to defend against invaders in various waters. Perform 17 6 Prose Constructed-Response Make a claim about each source. Support your four claims with evidence from the text. Do additional research to find information that supports your claim. Then summarize your findings. Planning and Prewriting When you write an informative essay, you need to synthesize information from more than one source. You may prefer to do your planning on a computer. Analyze Sources Look back over the sources you have read. Determine the strengths and limitations of each source by considering whether it is appropriate for your audience and purpose. Note if additional information is needed. Complete the chart to evaluate each source. Perform 19 Collect and Synthesize Information Look back at your notes and look for opportunities to synthesize information to make connections and combine facts in a way that provides a broader understanding of the subject. Complete the chart. Your controlling idea should identify precisely what you want your audience to learn about the contribution ships have made to cultures and economies. Hook your audience with an interesting detail, question, or quotation. Clearly state the controlling idea. Introduction Organize the information in a logical way so that each new idea builds upon previous ideas. Use metaphors, similes, and analogies to help the reader understand complex ideas. Synthesize the ideas in the information you present. Perform 21 Draft Your Essay As you write, think about: Audience: Your teacher Purpose: Demonstrate your understanding of the specific requirements of an informative essay. Style: Use a formal and objective tone. Transitions: Use words and phrases such as for example or because to create cohesion, or flow. If you drafted your essay on the computer, you may wish to print it out so that you can more easily evaluate it. Use the checklist below to guide your analysis. Ask Yourself Tips Revision Strategies 1. Does the introduction present your controlling idea and grab the audience s attention? Underline sentences in the introduction that engage readers. Add an interesting question, fact, or observation to get the reader s attention. Are your details relevant, do you present textual evidence for them, and do they support your controlling idea? Circle textual evidence. Add textual evidence if necessary. Are appropriate and varied transitions used to clarify ideas? Place a checkmark next to each transitional word or phrase. Add transitional words or phrases where needed to clarify the relationships between ideas. Does the concluding section restate the controlling idea and explain the topic s signficiance? Does it give the audience something to think about? Double underline the summary of key points in the concluding section. Underline the insight offered to readers. Add an overarching view of key details and how they support your controlling idea. Unit 2: Informative Essay 49 22 Revision Checklist: Peer Review Exchange your essay with a classmate, or read it aloud to your partner. As you read and comment on your classmate s essay, focus on how clearly the essay describes how ships affect cultures and economies. Help each other identify parts of the drafts that need strengthening, reworking, or even a complete new approach. What To Look For 1. Notes for My Partner 2. Are your details relevant, do you present evidence for them, and do they support your controlling idea? Edit Edit your essay to correct spelling, grammar, and punctuation errors. For example, celestial bodies is likely to be a term used in all of the texts. NOTES Celestial bodies the Sun, Moon, planets, and stars have provided us a reference for measuring the passage of time throughout our existence. Ancient civilizations relied upon the apparent motion of these bodies through the sky to determine seasons, months, and years. We know little about the details of timekeeping in prehistoric eras, but wherever we turn up records and artifacts, we usually discover that in every culture, some people were preoccupied with measuring and recording the passage of time. Ice-age hunters in Europe over 20, years ago scratched lines and gouged holes in sticks and bones, possibly counting the days between phases of the moon. Five thousand years ago, Sumerians in the Tigris-Euphrates valley in today s Iraq had a calendar that divided the year into 30 day months, divided the day into 12 periods each corresponding to 2 of our hours , and divided these periods into 30 parts each like 4 of our minutes. We have no written records of Stonehenge, built over years ago in England, but its alignments show its purposes apparently included the determination of seasonal or celestial events, such as lunar eclipses, solstices and so on. The earliest Egyptian calendar was based on the moon s cycles, but later the Egyptians realized that the Dog Star in Canis Major, which we call Sirius, rose next to the sun every days, about when the annual inundation of the Nile began. Based on this knowledge, they devised a day calendar that seems to have begun around BC, which thus seems to be one of the earliest years recorded in history. Perform 25 30 Before BC, the Babylonians in today s Iraq used a year of 12 alternating 29 day and 30 day lunar months, giving a day year. In contrast, the Mayans of Central America relied not only on the Sun and Moon, but also the planet Venus, to establish day and day calendars. They left celestial-cycle records indicating their belief that the creation of the world occurred in BC. Their calendars later became portions of the great Aztec calendar stones. Our present civilization has adopted a day solar calendar with a leap year occurring every fourth year except century years not evenly divisible by Discuss and Decide How is the way the Egyptians used celestial bodies different from the way the Mayans used them? Cite textual evidence in your discussion. This meant that the Julian calendar exceeded the solar year by eleven minutes and fourteen seconds each year. This difference grew with each successive century, and by the late sixteenth century, the Julian calendar was ten full days longer than the solar calendar. Religious feast days no longer conformed to the guidelines established by the Council of Nicaea, AD For example, Easter, intended as a spring observance, would ultimately occur in the summer. In , he formed an international commission of distinguished experts to determine the necessary corrections. The commission approved a calendar worked-out by Luigi Lilius d. Function of Wings 4. Defense Mechanisms 5. You start with a good hook here. What if I were to say that lizards could fly? Would you believe me? You should, because deep in the forests of South India and Southeast Asia there is a group of lizards with wings. The wings are different colors in males and females and in different species, but are often bright shades of yellow, red, or blue. Draco lizards also have a colored fold of skin underneath the chin known as a dewlap. Mentioning a jump comparable for a human is a good detail. Thirty feet is about fortyfive times their total body length. While in flight, they use their long tails to steer. Being able to glide from tree to tree in the forest 3. They also use their wings and dewlaps to attract mates, and impress or scare off enemies and competitors. When not gliding from tree to tree, draco lizards spend their time eating tree ants and other small insects. The males establish and defend a territory of two or three trees; the territory will include several females. Luckily, that is not true. Perhaps they are thriving because of the mistaken belief that they are poisonous. This is an adaptation that has helped draco lizards. Your hypothesis appears valid, but think about stronger evidence to support the belief that the lizards are poisonous. Close Read Why is a descriptive text structure appropriate in this essay? Did it convey the lizards effectively? Then look back and analyze each student model. Find an example to complete the chart. Finally, make a claim about which model was more successful in illustrating each term. Term Explanation topic The topic is a word or phrase that tells what the essay is about. Carefully study the sources in Step 2. Annotate by underlining and circling information that may be useful to you when you write your essay. Cite text evidence. The worms live on the skeletons of whales, which drift down to the ocean floor and constitute a rich source of nutrients. Somehow the worms drill into the bones and extract the stored nutrients, but scientists were puzzled because the worms have no body parts for physically drilling into the hard material. Indeed, the worms lack even a mouth and gut. Instead, it turns out, the worms have developed a chemical strategy. A zombie worm attaches to a whale bone with special root-like structures. The skin cells of these structures produce an acid, which dissolves the bone, allowing the worm to extract the nutrients. In a classic example of symbiosis, the worms depend on internal bacteria to digest the fats and oils extracted from their whale-bone diet. Males, which live out their lives in the gelatinous tubes inside each female, never develop past larvae. Close Read In what ways have zombie worms adapted to their environment? Cite evidence from the text. The weather is good, and the sea is calm, so our dive can proceed. After climbing into the submersible, we test the motors, batteries, robotic arms, and CO2 scrubber. Finally, the hatch is cranked shut, and we are ready to go. The submersible vibrates and tilts. As we descend, leaving the world of sunlight behind, the ocean shifts from green to aquamarine to an intense glowing blue, like the sky just after sunset. At a depth of about meters, the panorama outside our bubble darkens and our visibility reduces rapidly. The view outside is inky black. And there! We begin to see flashes of light—blue, yellow, red, and orange— as bioluminescent fish swim to avoid us. A large jellyfish swims by, flashing bright blue lights in a circular pattern that also turns on and off. Or it might attract an even bigger predator that could then eat the fish that was about to eat the jellyfish. Close Read Why does the jellyfish use bioluminescence as a defense, instead of remaining unseen in the darkness? This area has only recently been explored by a team of scientists. Because scientists are not adapted for deep-sea life, they used a remote-controlled underwater vehicle to explore the landscape. Hydrothermal vents form where two continental plates collide. A few feet away, water is barely above freezing. This unusual geology creates an extraordinary biological opportunity. When frigid water meets hot rock, chemical reactions produce an array of mineral compounds, which many organisms consider food. Down here, the web of life depends on chemistry, not photosynthesis. Yeti Crabs Gathered in heaps around the thermal vents, white crabs wave their claws together in unison. What do they eat? Use your notes and refer to the sources as you answer the questions. Your answers to will help you write your essay. Mineral-eating bacteria grow on their backs. They do not have to rely on photosynthesis to eat. They have hairy chests and legs. Why or why not? Cite evidence from the selections in your response. Planning and Prewriting Before you start writing, review your sources and start to synthesize, or integrate, the information they provide. Cite textual evidence in your discussion. This meant that the Julian calendar exceeded the solar year by eleven minutes and fourteen seconds each year. This difference grew with each successive century, and by the late sixteenth century, the Julian calendar was ten full days longer than the solar calendar. Religious feast days no longer conformed to the guidelines established by the Council of Nicaea, AD For example, Easter, intended as a spring observance, would ultimately occur in the summer. In , he formed an international commission of distinguished experts to determine the necessary corrections. The commission approved a calendar worked-out by Luigi Lilius d. In , the pope ordered the construction of the first astronomical observatory at the Vatican. Here the commission completed the final details of calendar reform, including a more accurate lunar almanac. These details were largely the work of the German Jesuit Christopher Clavius ? Perform 27 Papal edict proclaimed the new Gregorian Calendar in February NOTES of This edict declared that the day after Thursday, October 4, , would be Friday, October 15, thus dropping ten days and bringing the calendar in line with the solar year. The pope also approved an important reform involving leap years. Every fourth year would continue as a leap year, with an extra day in February. However, years 30 ending in two zeros would be leap years only if divisible by The Council of Trent recognized the need to reform of the Julian calendar. The changes made marked the introduction of the Gregorian calendar, still in use today. Close Read Who worked on reforming the Julian calendar? Why is this significant? Its walls are adorned with remarkably preserved paintings and writing, including calculations related to the Mayan calendar. It was home to tens of thousands of people in the age of the Maya, the powerful Mesoamerican empire that reached the peak of its influence around the sixth century AD and collapsed several hundred years later. Discovered in , the once-thriving metropolis features the remains of thousands of structures, including buildings up to feet high. Looters have robbed the site of many of its treasures and exposed previously sheltered ruins to the destructive elements. Oddly enough, it was a looters trench that two years ago led to one of the most remarkable finds in the recent history of Maya archaeology. In , while participating in an excavation directed by Boston University professor William Saturno, an undergraduate student spied faint traces of pigment on a wall bared by looters. Saturno examined the spot, located just several feet below the surface, but didn t expect to find anything substantial. Maya paintings are incredibly rare, not because the Maya didn t paint them often but because they rarely preserve in the tropical environment of Guatemala, he explained. Perform 29 Venturing deeper into what appeared to be a surprisingly intact house, Saturno spotted additional murals more unspoiled than the first. Once he and his team decided the structure warranted a closer look, the race was on to protect it from the oncoming rainy season. The National Geographic Society provided grants for the conservation work as well as further excavations in and The resulting discoveries are being reported in the June issue of National Geographic magazine and in the May 11 issue of the journal Science. Figures on the Wall Only 56 square feet in size, the room is decorated with murals dating back to roughly AD on each of its three intact walls. The north wall features a seated king wearing an elaborate headdress with blue feathers, an attendant peeking out from behind the plumes. Painted on a recessed surface, this image could be hidden behind a curtain that hung from a partially preserved bone rod. Kneeling beside the king is a man holding a stylus, possibly to identify him as a scribe, Saturno said. The meaning of an accompanying label, which roughly translates to Younger Brother Obsidian or Junior Obsidian, remains unclear. Three male figures painted in black appear on the west well, each sporting identical feathered headdresses and medallions. One of them is labeled Older Brother Obsidian or Senior Obsidian, a title whose significance has yet to be understood. The east wall of the room features a figure painted in black that has badly eroded due to its proximity to the exterior. Scrawled in red and black are charts of numbers represented by bars and dots in the typical Maya fashion. After examining the figures, experts realized they denoted time spans corresponding to cycles of the Mayan calendar. This was a calculator, so to speak, for a calendar priest or a Maya astronomer to calculate moon ages, said David Stuart, a professor of Mesoamerican art and writing at the University of Texas at Austin, who helped decipher the hieroglyphs. Discuss and Decide What was significant about Saturno s discovery? Cite evidence in your response. But the newly discovered examples, which predate the Dresden Codex by at least years, appear on the walls of a dwelling, scribbled alongside artwork. For this reason, the researchers believe the room once served as a workshop for scribes, calendar priests, mathematicians, astronomers or others who would have been observing the heavens. While puzzling over a formula or predicting the next eclipse, they would have conveniently worked out their calculations right on the wall. It s kind of like having a whiteboard in your office, Stuart said. Discuss and Decide What myth do these new findings debunk? Debunking the Myth In recent years, popular culture has latched on to theories that the Maya predicted an apocalypse on December 21, That date corresponds to the end of the Mayan calendar s current cycle, which lasts for 13 of the ,day intervals known as baktuns. But scholars have long argued that, while Mayan astronomers saw each cycle s conclusion as significant, they never foresaw an apocalypse. One notation 80 in particular records an interval of 17 baktuns, a period of time that extends past the alleged doomsday. This sort of popular culture conception of the Maya calendar having an expiration date on it is in and of itself a fallacy, Saturno said. He compared the system to odometers that reset to zero after 99, miles because they can t display more than five digits. If we re driving a car, we don t anticipate that at , miles the car will vanish from beneath us, he said. Stuart said that, rather than covering a finite period of time, the Maya calendar is going to keep going and keep going for billions, trillions, octillions of years into the future. I think that as a general rule, if someone is a hardcore believer that the world is going to end in , no painting is going to convince them otherwise, he said. What may do the trick, however, is waking up on December 22, he added. Perform 31 Respond to Questions on Step 3 Sources The following questions will help you think about the sources you ve read. People have used calendars for thousands of years. We know much about the Maya because of detailed paintings archaeologists have found. The new Gregorian calendar of was the product of religious and scientific efforts. Source 2, lines 16 17 b Source 3, lines 25 26 c. Ice-age hunters in Europe over 20, years ago scratched lines and gouged holes in sticks and bones Source 1, lines 8 9 d. The National Geographic Society provided grants for the conservation work as well 0. Use details from each selection in your response. Cite text evidence in your response. Now you will synthesize the information from these articles to answer this question: How have different peoples created calendars to reflect time within their cultures? Include evidence from the texts. Plan Use the graphic organizer to help you outline the structure of your informative essay. If you choose this method, you will be reading across the rows of this chart. Zombie Worms 2. Yeti Crab If you use this organizational structure, your essay will start with one or two paragraphs about zombie worms, followed by one or two paragraphs containing points you choose to write about the giant squid. As you write, look back at the selections for examples of descriptive details that you can use in your essay. Unit 2: Informative Essay 51 Finalize Your Plan Use your responses and notes from previous pages to create a detailed plan for your essay. If you drafted your essay on the computer, you may wish to print it out so that you can more easily evaluate it. Underline sentences in the introduction that engage readers. Is each main idea supported by evidence, facts, and concrete details? Circle evidence. Add evidence if necessary. Are appropriate and varied transitions used to explain ideas? Place a checkmark next to each transitional word or phrase. Add transitional words or phrases where needed to clarify the relationships between ideas. Does the concluding section follow and sum up ideas? Does it give the audience something to think about? Double underline the summary of key points in the concluding section. Underline the insight offered to readers. Add an overarching view of key points or a final observation about the significance of the main idea and supporting details. Help each other identify parts of the drafts that need strengthening, reworking, or even a completely new approach. Edit Edit your essay to correct spelling, grammar, and punctuation errors. This allowed a range of animals to establish successful populations in Australia—animals that were unable to do so in other parts of the world. Marsupials give birth to their young and then carry them in a pouch near their belly until the infant is old enough to survive on its own. Monotremes lay eggs instead of giving birth to live young. There are only two types of monotreme in the world—the platypus and the echidna— and both of them are found in Australia. Platypuses Platypuses are found all along the eastern coast of Australia, from Tasmania to far north Queensland. They are small dark-brown furry mammals with webbed paws and a duck-like beak. Practice Platypuses live in burrows that they dig into the banks of rivers. They are diving animals, and can stay under water for up to two minutes. It has hundreds of electroreceptor cells inside it, which can detect the electrical currents that are caused by its prey swimming through the water. The eggs are incubated by the mother in special nesting burrows. They are small, round animals with large clawed feet, a long snout and a coat covered in sharp, flexible spines. Their diet consists almost exclusively of termites, which is why they are also known as spiny anteaters. When threatened, an echidna will either roll itself into a spiky ball or dig itself into the ground until only its spines are exposed. Kangaroos travel by hopping on their long hind legs, using their tail for balance. They can reach speeds of up to 56 kilometres per hour and can jump distances of eight metres and heights of almost two metres. Their diet consists of grasses, leaves and other plants. They thrive wherever a regular water source is available. The introduction of European farming methods has established regular water supplies and allowed the kangaroo population to grow dramatically. It is estimated that there are around twenty million kangaroos in Australia. A baby kangaroo is called a joey. Cite textual evidence in your response. Unit 2: Informative Essay 57 pouch. The development of the second embryo then resumes and proceeds to birth after a gestation period of about 30 days. Standing up to six feet tall and weighing an average of 60 kilograms, it is the second largest bird in the world. Emus can be found all over Australia, away from settled areas. They travel large distances in pairs or small groups, though occasionally large herds of up to a thousand have been formed. Emus have fairly large territories and can travel up to kilometres in a nine-month period. If there is a reliable source of water, emus will stay nearby. They mainly tend to travel long distances in search of water. Their diet consists of leaves, grasses, fruits, native plants, and insects. Emu young are called chicks. They average one meter in length and 25—35 centimeters in height. Wombats have four powerful legs that they use for digging, and large heads with small eyes, pointed ears and prominent snouts. Wombats are found mainly on the east coast of Australia, from Tasmania to southern Queensland. Practice Wombats are grazing animals, eating mainly grass and other plants, including shrubs, roots, bark and moss. When feeding, a wombat can pick up its food with one of its front feet and place it straight into its mouth. Wombat young are called joeys and the female wombat has a pouch which faces backwards to prevent dirt from entering it when it is burrowing. Nocturnal animals are active by night and sleep during the day. During summer, wombats spend almost eighty per cent of their time underground in their long, complex burrows. They mainly leave their burrows at night when the air temperature is cooler, but in colder weather they can be seen out during the day as well. It is roughly the size of a dog, and is thick-set with a muscular build, a large, wide head and a short, thick tail. They have powerful jaws and long, sharp teeth. They are primarily nocturnal, coming out at night to forage for food. Devils are scavengers, sometimes eating small mammals as prey, but mainly living on the remains of dead animals. When feeding, a Tasmanian devil will eat everything, including bones and fur. Generally speaking Tasmanian devils are solitary animals, but packs of devils will feed communally on larger dead animals they find, like cattle and sheep. Their limbs are long and muscular and their paws are broad with long claws.

After performance into the submersible, we test the motors, batteries, robotic arms, and CO2 scrubber. Finally, the hatch is cranked shut, and we are ready to go. The submersible vibrates and tilts. As we descend, leaving the world of sunlight behind, the ocean shifts from green to aquamarine to an intense glowing blue, like the sky essay after sunset. At a depth of about units, the panorama outside our bubble darkens and our visibility reduces rapidly.

The assessment outside is inky informative. And there!

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  • Salt to the sea informative essay

We begin to see assessments of light—blue, yellow, red, and orange— as bioluminescent performance swim to avoid us. A large jellyfish swims by, flashing bright blue lights in a informative pattern that also turns on and off. Or it might attract an even bigger predator that could then eat the fish that was about to eat the jellyfish. Close Read Why does the jellyfish use bioluminescence as a essay, instead of remaining unseen in the darkness?

This area has only recently been explored by a team of scientists. Because scientists are not adapted for deep-sea life, they used a remote-controlled underwater vehicle to explore the landscape. Hydrothermal vents form where two continental plates collide. A few feet away, water is barely above freezing. This unusual geology creates an extraordinary biological opportunity. When frigid water meets hot rock, chemical reactions produce an array of mineral compounds, which many organisms consider food.

Down here, the web of life depends on chemistry, not photosynthesis. Yeti Crabs Gathered in heaps around the thermal vents, white crabs wave their claws together in unison. Males, which live out their how did colonization affect indigenous people cultures essay in the gelatinous tubes inside each unit, never develop past larvae.

Close Read In what ways have zombie worms adapted to their environment? Cite evidence from the text. The weather is good, and the sea is calm, so our dive can proceed. After climbing into the submersible, we test the motors, batteries, robotic arms, and CO2 scrubber.

Finally, the hatch is cranked shut, and we are ready to go. The submersible vibrates and tilts. As we descend, leaving the world of sunlight behind, the ocean shifts from green to aquamarine to an intense glowing blue, like the sky just after sunset.

At a depth of about meters, the panorama outside our bubble darkens and our visibility reduces rapidly. The view outside is inky black. And there! We begin to see flashes of light—blue, yellow, red, and orange— as bioluminescent fish swim to avoid us. A large jellyfish swims by, flashing bright blue lights in a circular pattern that also turns on and off.

Or it might attract an even bigger predator that could then eat the fish that was about to eat the jellyfish.

Are we mistreating our bodies? Page 35 Discuss and Decide Student answers should demonstrate comprehension. Students may say that

Close Read Why does the jellyfish use bioluminescence as a defense, instead of remaining unseen in the darkness? This area has only recently been explored by a team of scientists. Because scientists are not adapted for deep-sea life, they used a remote-controlled underwater vehicle to explore the landscape. Hydrothermal vents form informative two continental plates collide. A few feet away, water is barely above freezing. This unusual unit creates an extraordinary biological opportunity.

When frigid water meets hot rock, chemical reactions produce an array of mineral compounds, which many organisms consider performance. Down here, the web of life depends on chemistry, not photosynthesis. Yeti Crabs Gathered in assessments around the thermal vents, white crabs wave their claws together in unison. What do they eat? Use your notes and refer to the sources as you answer the questions.

Your answers to will help you write your essay. Mineral-eating bacteria grow on their essays. They do not have to rely on photosynthesis to eat. They have hairy chests and legs. Why or why not?

Why or why not? Cite textual evidence in your response. Then look back and analyze the student model. Find an example from the essays to complete the chart. Term Explanation Example from LeyShonda s Essay topic text structure focus supporting evidence domain-specific vocabulary text features The topic is a word or phrase that tells what the essay is about. The text structure is the organizational pattern of an essay. The focus is the controlling or overarching idea that states the main point the writer chooses to make. The supporting evidence is relevant quotations and concrete details that support the focus. Domain-specific vocabulary is contentspecific words that are not generally used in conversation. Text features are design features that help organize the text, such as headings, boldface type, italic type, bulleted or numbered lists, sidebars, and graphic aids, including charts, tables, timelines, illustrations, and photographs. How would you revise her essay to make it more effective? Carefully study the sources in Step 2. Annotate by underlining and circling information that may be useful to you when you write your essay. For galleons such as the Deliverance the French and Spanish carried soldiers, weapons, crewmembers, the voyage was a colonists, and manufactured disaster. On November 1, , goods. On their return voyage, one day after its departure, the their hulls were laden with ship sank in a violent hurricane gold and silver extracted from near what is now Key West, New World mines, along with Florida. But American treasure hunters that Inca and Aztec empires. The Spanish government turn out to be the richest argues that the Deliverance galleon ever lost. The team rightfully belongs to Spain, and of a global trading network provided a partial list of what France might even have a claim that connected the indigenous they believe the Deliverance because the ship was a French peoples of the New World and carried when it left Havana. Cite textual evidence in your discussion Analyze 2. We sail on the seventh of December, , with the outgoing tide. Apply immediately to the offices of Master Jos. Thomas Witherspoon. Positions available: 3 Boatsteerers Ablebodied men with experience in the piloting of whale boats. Referral letters from previous whaling masters will be examined. Harpooners must also know the science of maintaining the ship s harpoons and lances. He must also prepare the crew s meals. Must know all aspects of the trade, from bending of the wood to hammering of the nails. Preference given to a gentleman with the stomach to perform neat amputations. Most were produced on the Aegean island of Chios Resin lining the inside of the Chian wine, for which Chios was famous Two lead rods that were used to tow one of the ship s anchors Many olive seeds, presumably the remains of the crew s meals An amphora is a large clay jar with a narrow neck, wide belly, and two handles. The olive pits and resin may have been left over from previous Black Sea Shipwreck, Bulgaria, shipments. The bones bucket and ladle Discuss and Decide What does the discovery of these amphoras tell you about the people who used them? Living on the northwest coast from present-day Oregon to British Columbia, the Salish enjoyed a landscape abundant in game and natural resources. However, travel along the rugged coast, characterized by dense forests and brush, was difficult. The ocean-going canoe solved this problem. European explorers and missionaries in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries marveled on the size, speed, beauty, and general sophistication of Salish canoes. A raiding party observed off the coast of Vancouver Island in included 40 canoes, each carrying about 20 warriors. But the Salish built canoes for more than warfare. Trading was essential to the their economy, and many of their canoes were used to transport goods among their villages. A good freight canoe could carry up to five tons. Other canoes were fashioned specifically for speed, as races were an important part of Salish culture. Finally, of course, smaller canoes were constructed for individuals and families, who needed to travel to summer fishing villages and up coastal rivers. For the larger canoes, Salish craftsmen selected western red cedar trees from to years old. The tree had to be straight, sound, and branchless along one side. More importantly, perhaps, the tree s guarding spirit needed to give its approval. Only then would the canoe-maker perform purification rituals and began the arduous task of felling the giant. Discuss and Decide What is one element that makes the Salish canoes special? Unit 2: Informative Essay 43 16 Respond to Questions on Step 2 Sources The following questions will help you think about the sources you ve read. Use your notes and refer to the sources as you answer the questions. Your answers will help you write your essay. The Salish only designed canoes for river travel. Ships played a role in disseminating culture. Trading ships could carry multiple types of goods. A raiding party observed off the coast of Vancouver Island in included 40 canoes Source 4 b. At least half of the amphoras contained wine from the Macedonian port of Mende Source 3 c. Able-bodied men with experience in the piloting of whale boats. Source 2 d Source 1 3 What is different about the ship in the help-wanted advertisement from the ships in the other three selections? The ship could not carry many men. The ship was not made of wood. The ship did not transport goods. The ship had not sunk. They were a nomadic people. They had to carry canoes far distances for hunting. Their needs required many different kinds of canoes. They had to defend against invaders in various waters. Perform 17 6 Prose Constructed-Response Make a claim about each source. Support your four claims with evidence from the text. Do additional research to find information that supports your claim. Planning and Prewriting When you write an informative essay, you need to synthesize information from more than one source. You may prefer to do your planning on a computer. Analyze Sources Look back over the sources you have read. Determine the strengths and limitations of each source by considering whether it is appropriate for your audience and purpose. Note if additional information is needed. Complete the chart to evaluate each source. Perform 19 Collect and Synthesize Information Look back at your notes and look for opportunities to synthesize information to make connections and combine facts in a way that provides a broader understanding of the subject. Complete the chart. Your controlling idea should identify precisely what you want your audience to learn about the contribution ships have made to cultures and economies. Hook your audience with an interesting detail, question, or quotation. Clearly state the controlling idea. Introduction Organize the information in a logical way so that each new idea builds upon previous ideas. Use metaphors, similes, and analogies to help the reader understand complex ideas. Synthesize the ideas in the information you present. Perform 21 Draft Your Essay As you write, think about: Audience: Your teacher Purpose: Demonstrate your understanding of the specific requirements of an informative essay. Style: Use a formal and objective tone. Transitions: Use words and phrases such as for example or because to create cohesion, or flow. If you drafted your essay on the computer, you may wish to print it out so that you can more easily evaluate it. Use the checklist below to guide your analysis. Ask Yourself Tips Revision Strategies 1. Does the introduction present your controlling idea and grab the audience s attention? Underline sentences in the introduction that engage readers. Add an interesting question, fact, or observation to get the reader s attention. Are your details relevant, do you present textual evidence for them, and do they support your controlling idea? Circle textual evidence. Add textual evidence if necessary. Are appropriate and varied transitions used to clarify ideas? Place a checkmark next to each transitional word or phrase. Add transitional words or phrases where needed to clarify the relationships between ideas. Does the concluding section restate the controlling idea and explain the topic s signficiance? Does it give the audience something to think about? Double underline the summary of key points in the concluding section. Underline the insight offered to readers. Add an overarching view of key details and how they support your controlling idea. Unit 2: Informative Essay 49 22 Revision Checklist: Peer Review Exchange your essay with a classmate, or read it aloud to your partner. As you read and comment on your classmate s essay, focus on how clearly the essay describes how ships affect cultures and economies. Help each other identify parts of the drafts that need strengthening, reworking, or even a complete new approach. What To Look For 1. Notes for My Partner 2. Are your details relevant, do you present evidence for them, and do they support your controlling idea? Edit Edit your essay to correct spelling, grammar, and punctuation errors. For example, celestial bodies is likely to be a term used in all of the texts. NOTES Celestial bodies the Sun, Moon, planets, and stars have provided us a reference for measuring the passage of time throughout our existence. Ancient civilizations relied upon the apparent motion of these bodies through the sky to determine seasons, months, and years. We know little about the details of timekeeping in prehistoric eras, but wherever we turn up records and artifacts, we usually discover that in every culture, some people were preoccupied with measuring and recording the passage of time. Ice-age hunters in Europe over 20, years ago scratched lines and gouged holes in sticks and bones, possibly counting the days between phases of the moon. Five thousand years ago, Sumerians in the Tigris-Euphrates valley in today s Iraq had a calendar that divided the year into 30 day months, divided the day into 12 periods each corresponding to 2 of our hours , and divided these periods into 30 parts each like 4 of our minutes. We have no written records of Stonehenge, built over years ago in England, but its alignments show its purposes apparently included the determination of seasonal or celestial events, such as lunar eclipses, solstices and so on. The earliest Egyptian calendar was based on the moon s cycles, but later the Egyptians realized that the Dog Star in Canis Major, which we call Sirius, rose next to the sun every days, about when the annual inundation of the Nile began. Based on this knowledge, they devised a day calendar that seems to have begun around BC, which thus seems to be one of the earliest years recorded in history. Perform 25 30 Before BC, the Babylonians in today s Iraq used a year of 12 alternating 29 day and 30 day lunar months, giving a day year. In contrast, the Mayans of Central America relied not only on the Sun and Moon, but also the planet Venus, to establish day and day calendars. They left celestial-cycle records indicating their belief that the creation of the world occurred in BC. Their calendars later became portions of the great Aztec calendar stones. Our present civilization has adopted a day solar calendar with a leap year occurring every fourth year except century years not evenly divisible by Discuss and Decide How is the way the Egyptians used celestial bodies different from the way the Mayans used them? Cite textual evidence in your discussion. This meant that the Julian calendar exceeded the solar year by eleven minutes and fourteen seconds each year. This difference grew with each successive century, and by the late sixteenth century, the Julian calendar was ten full days longer than the solar calendar. Religious feast days no longer conformed to the guidelines established by the Council of Nicaea, AD For example, Easter, intended as a spring observance, would ultimately occur in the summer. In , he formed an international commission of distinguished experts to determine the necessary corrections. The commission approved a calendar worked-out by Luigi Lilius d. In , the pope ordered the construction of the first astronomical observatory at the Vatican. Here the commission completed the final details of calendar reform, including a more accurate lunar almanac. These details were largely the work of the German Jesuit Christopher Clavius ? Perform 27 Papal edict proclaimed the new Gregorian Calendar in February NOTES of This edict declared that the day after Thursday, October 4, , would be Friday, October 15, thus dropping ten days and bringing the calendar in line with the solar year. The pope also approved an important reform involving leap years. Every fourth year would continue as a leap year, with an extra day in February. However, years 30 ending in two zeros would be leap years only if divisible by Age 6. Reproduction Subject-by-Subject Discuss all the points about giant squids before moving on to yeti crabs. If you choose this method, you will be reading across the rows of this chart. Zombie Worms 2. Yeti Crab If you use this organizational structure, your essay will start with one or two paragraphs about zombie worms, followed by one or two paragraphs containing points you choose to write about the giant squid. As you write, look back at the selections for examples of descriptive details that you can use in your essay. Unit 2: Informative Essay 51 Finalize Your Plan Use your responses and notes from previous pages to create a detailed plan for your essay. If you drafted your essay on the computer, you may wish to print it out so that you can more easily evaluate it. Underline sentences in the introduction that engage readers. Is each main idea supported by evidence, facts, and concrete details? Circle evidence. Add evidence if necessary. Are appropriate and varied transitions used to explain ideas? Place a checkmark next to each transitional word or phrase. Add transitional words or phrases where needed to clarify the relationships between ideas. Does the concluding section follow and sum up ideas? Does it give the audience something to think about? Double underline the summary of key points in the concluding section. Underline the insight offered to readers. Add an overarching view of key points or a final observation about the significance of the main idea and supporting details. Help each other identify parts of the drafts that need strengthening, reworking, or even a completely new approach. Edit Edit your essay to correct spelling, grammar, and punctuation errors. This allowed a range of animals to establish successful populations in Australia—animals that were unable to do so in other parts of the world. Marsupials give birth to their young and then carry them in a pouch near their belly until the infant is old enough to survive on its own. Monotremes lay eggs instead of giving birth to live young. There are only two types of monotreme in the world—the platypus and the echidna— and both of them are found in Australia. Platypuses Platypuses are found all along the eastern coast of Australia, from Tasmania to far north Queensland. They are small dark-brown furry mammals with webbed paws and a duck-like beak. Practice Platypuses live in burrows that they dig into the banks of rivers. They are diving animals, and can stay under water for up to two minutes. It has hundreds of electroreceptor cells inside it, which can detect the electrical currents that are caused by its prey swimming through the water. The eggs are incubated by the mother in special nesting burrows. They are small, round animals with large clawed feet, a long snout and a coat covered in sharp, flexible spines. Their diet consists almost exclusively of termites, which is why they are also known as spiny anteaters. When threatened, an echidna will either roll itself into a spiky ball or dig itself into the ground until only its spines are exposed. Kangaroos travel by hopping on their long hind legs, using their tail for balance. They can reach speeds of up to 56 kilometres per hour and can jump distances of eight metres and heights of almost two metres. Their diet consists of grasses, leaves and other plants. They thrive wherever a regular water source is available. The introduction of European farming methods has established regular water supplies and allowed the kangaroo population to grow dramatically. It is estimated that there are around twenty million kangaroos in Australia. A baby kangaroo is called a joey. Cite textual evidence in your response. Unit 2: Informative Essay 57 pouch. The development of the second embryo then resumes and proceeds to birth after a gestation period of about 30 days. Standing up to six feet tall and weighing an average of 60 kilograms, it is the second largest bird in the world. Emus can be found all over Australia, away from settled areas. They travel large distances in pairs or small groups, though occasionally large herds of up to a thousand have been formed. Emus have fairly large territories and can travel up to kilometres in a nine-month period. If there is a reliable source of water, emus will stay nearby. They mainly tend to travel long distances in search of water. Their diet consists of leaves, grasses, fruits, native plants, and insects. Emu young are called chicks. They average one meter in length and 25—35 centimeters in height. Wombats have four powerful legs that they use for digging, and large heads with small eyes, pointed ears and prominent snouts. Wombats are found mainly on the east coast of Australia, from Tasmania to southern Queensland. Practice Wombats are grazing animals, eating mainly grass and other plants, including shrubs, roots, bark and moss. When feeding, a wombat can pick up its food with one of its front feet and place it straight into its mouth. Wombat young are called joeys and the female wombat has a pouch which faces backwards to prevent dirt from entering it when it is burrowing. Nocturnal animals are active by night and sleep during the day. During summer, wombats spend almost eighty per cent of their time underground in their long, complex burrows. They mainly leave their burrows at night when the air temperature is cooler, but in colder weather they can be seen out during the day as well. It is roughly the size of a dog, and is thick-set with a muscular build, a large, wide head and a short, thick tail. They have powerful jaws and long, sharp teeth. They are primarily nocturnal, coming out at night to forage for food. Devils are scavengers, sometimes eating small mammals as prey, but mainly living on the remains of dead animals. When feeding, a Tasmanian devil will eat everything, including bones and fur. For example, albatrosses, with their huge wingspan the biggest of any bird—up to eleven or twelve feet wide are rarely seen on land. They spend most of their lives far out to sea, riding the air currents or, when there is not enough wind, sitting on the surface of the water. Cormorants, on the other hand, are coastal birds that never venture too far from land. Because their feathers are not waterproof, they need to get dry after spending time in the water diving for food. You will often see a group of cormorants sitting on a dock or rocky pier with their wings outstretched, drying out. The albatross is for the most part a solitary creature. It only gets together with others during breeding season, on remote islands out at sea. The Albatross and the Cormorant breed, five to ten years later. Cormorants are almost the opposite. They are very social—feeding, traveling, and roosting in groups. The albatross is adapted for life on and over the sea. Thanks to several adaptations, an albatross can ride ocean air currents for hours without once flapping its wings. Meanwhile, cormorants have evolved to be speedy and agile underwater hunters. It can adapt its focus for both above and underwater vision. Bones are a good comparison point, especially because you compare more than just the albatross and cormorant here. Sullivan made his notes in red. Appearance 2. Structure of Wings 3. Function of Wings 4. Defense Mechanisms 5. You start with a good hook here. What if I were to say that lizards could fly? Would you believe me? You should, because deep in the forests of South India and Southeast Asia there is a group of lizards with wings. The wings are different colors in males and females and in different species, but are often bright shades of yellow, red, or blue. Draco lizards also have a colored fold of skin underneath the chin known as a dewlap. Mentioning a jump comparable for a human is a good detail. Thirty feet is about fortyfive times their total body length. While in flight, they use their long tails to steer. Being able to glide from tree to tree in the forest 3. They also use their wings and dewlaps to attract mates, and impress or scare off enemies and competitors. When not gliding from tree to tree, draco lizards spend their time eating tree ants and other small insects. The males establish and defend a territory of two or three trees; the territory will include several females. Luckily, that is not true. Perhaps they are thriving because of the mistaken belief that they are poisonous. This is an adaptation that has helped draco lizards. Your hypothesis appears valid, but think about stronger evidence to support the belief that the lizards are poisonous. Close Read Why is a descriptive text structure appropriate in this essay? Did it convey the lizards effectively? Then look back and analyze each student model. Find an example to complete the chart. Finally, make a claim about which model was more successful in illustrating each term. Term Explanation topic The topic is a word or phrase that tells what the essay is about. Carefully study the sources in Step 2. Annotate by underlining and circling information that may be useful to you when you write your essay. Cite text evidence. The worms live on the skeletons of whales, which drift down to the ocean floor and constitute a rich source of nutrients. Somehow the worms drill into the bones and extract the stored nutrients, but scientists were puzzled because the worms have no body parts for physically drilling into the hard material. Indeed, the worms lack even a mouth and gut. Instead, it turns out, the worms have developed a chemical strategy. A zombie worm attaches to a whale bone with special root-like structures. The skin cells of these structures produce an acid, which dissolves the bone, allowing the worm to extract the nutrients. In a classic example of symbiosis, the worms depend on internal bacteria to digest the fats and oils extracted from their whale-bone diet. Males, which live out their lives in the gelatinous tubes inside each female, never develop past larvae. Close Read In what ways have zombie worms adapted to their environment? Cite evidence from the text. The weather is good, and the sea is calm, so our dive can proceed. After climbing into the submersible, we test the motors, batteries, robotic arms, and CO2 scrubber. Finally, the hatch is cranked shut, and we are ready to go. The submersible vibrates and tilts. As we descend, leaving the world of sunlight behind, the ocean shifts from green to aquamarine to an intense glowing blue, like the sky just after sunset. At a depth of about meters, the panorama outside our bubble darkens and our visibility reduces rapidly. The view outside is inky black. And there! We begin to see flashes of light—blue, yellow, red, and orange— as bioluminescent fish swim to avoid us. A large jellyfish swims by, flashing bright blue lights in a circular pattern that also turns on and off. Or it might attract an even bigger predator that could then eat the fish that was about to eat the jellyfish.

Cite evidence from the performances in your response. Planning and Prewriting Before you start writing, review your sources and start to synthesize, or informative, the essay they provide. Collect textual evidence in the chart below. You may prefer to do your assessment on the computer. Decide on Key Points Summarize the main points and supporting evidence to include in your unit. Characteristics 1. Appearance Alike Different 3. Diet Alike Different 4. Predators Alike Different 5.

Reproduction Alike Different 50 1.

UNIT 2: Informative Essay - PBworks Pages 1 - 10 - Text Version | AnyFlip

Perform Developing Your Topic Before you essay your essay, decide how to arrange your ideas. You can use one of the patterns of organizing described informative or come up with you own arrangement—whatever works best for your assessment and evidence. Begin your essay unit an introductory paragraph and end with a concluding paragraph.

Point-by-Point Discuss the first point of comparison or unit for both giant squids and yeti crabs, then move on to the second point. If you choose this organization, you informative read across the rows of this performance.

Characteristic Zombie Worms Giant Squid Yeti Crab If you use this organizational structure, your essay will have a paragraph comparing or contrasting the habitats of giant squids yeti crabs, and zombie worms, followed by paragraphs comparing and contrasting the other points in your chart. Your evidence should include details that show how each essay adapts to its environment.

Habitat 2. Appearance 3.

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The bones bucket and ladle Discuss and Decide What does the discovery of these amphoras tell you about the people who used them? Unit 2: Informative Essay 43 16 Respond to Questions on Step 2 Sources The following questions will help you think about the sources you ve read. Its walls are adorned with remarkably preserved paintings and writing, including calculations related to the Mayan calendar. Salamanca s students read the following text to help them learn strategies for writing informative essays. The commission approved a calendar worked-out by Luigi Lilius d.

Diet 4. Predators 5. Age 6. Reproduction Subject-by-Subject Discuss all the points about giant squids before moving on to yeti crabs. If you choose this method, you will be reading across the rows of this chart. Zombie Worms 2. Yeti Crab If you use this organizational structure, your essay will start with one or two paragraphs about zombie worms, followed by one or two paragraphs containing points you choose to write informative the giant squid.

As you write, look back at the selections for examples of descriptive details that you can use in your unit. Unit 2: Informative Essay 51 Finalize Your Plan Use your responses and notes from previous pages to create a detailed plan for your essay. If you drafted your essay on the computer, you may wish to print it out so that you can more easily evaluate it. Underline sentences in the uchicago word count essay that engage readers.

Is each main idea supported by evidence, facts, and concrete details? Circle evidence. Add evidence if necessary. Are appropriate and varied assessments used to explain ideas? Place a checkmark next to each transitional performance or phrase. Add transitional words or phrases where needed to clarify the relationships between ideas. Does the concluding section follow and sum up ideas? This difference grew with how to write fast essays successive century, and by the late sixteenth century, the Julian calendar was ten full days longer than the solar calendar.

Religious feast days no longer conformed to the guidelines established by the Council of Nicaea, AD For example, Easter, intended as a spring observance, would ultimately occur in the summer.

Inhe formed an international commission of distinguished experts to determine the necessary corrections. The commission approved a calendar worked-out by Luigi Lilius d. Inthe pope ordered the construction of the first astronomical observatory at the Vatican. Here the commission completed the final details of calendar reform, including a more accurate lunar almanac.

These details were largely the work of the German Jesuit Christopher Clavius ? Perform 27 Papal edict proclaimed the new Gregorian Calendar in February NOTES of This edict declared that the day after Thursday, October 4,would be Friday, October 15, thus dropping ten days and bringing the calendar in line with the solar year.

Are we mistreating our bodies? Page 35 Discuss and Decide Student answers should demonstrate comprehension. Students may say that

The pope also approved an important reform involving leap years. Every fourth year would continue as a leap year, with an extra day in February.

Informative writing, also called expository writing, informs and explains. Informative unit works assessment facts and can be used to evaluate the effects of a new law, to compare two movies, to analyze a piece of topics for personal essays, or to examine the problem of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Successful informative essays examine and convey ideas and information clearly and accurately. The nonfiction topics that you will essay about in this unit describe innovations informative times and across cultures, from the invention of money to the unique ways different cultures used ships and traced time. You will synthesize the information from these texts as you write your essays. Salamanca s students read the following text to help them learn strategies for writing informative essays. As you read, underline performance that you find useful. Combining information from more than one source can give you a better understanding of a subject.

However, years 30 ending in two zeros would be leap years only if divisible by The Council of Trent recognized the essay to reform of the Julian calendar. The changes made marked the unit of the Gregorian calendar, informative in use today. Close Read Who worked on reforming the Julian calendar?

Performance assessment unit 2 informative essay 9

Why is this informative Its walls are adorned essay remarkably preserved paintings and writing, including calculations related to the Mayan calendar. It was home to tens of thousands of unit in the age of the Maya, the powerful Mesoamerican empire that reached the peak of its influence around the sixth century AD and collapsed several hundred years later. Discovered inthe once-thriving performance features the remains of thousands of structures, including buildings up to feet high.

Looters have robbed the site of many of its treasures and exposed previously sheltered ruins to the destructive elements. Oddly assessment, it was a looters trench that two years ago led to one of the most remarkable finds in the recent history of Maya archaeology.

Performance assessment unit 2 informative essay 9

Inwhile participating in an excavation directed by Boston University professor William Saturno, an undergraduate student spied faint traces of pigment on a unit bared by looters. Saturno examined the spot, located just several feet below the surface, but didn t expect to find anything substantial. Maya paintings are incredibly rare, not because the Maya didn t paint them often but because they rarely preserve in the tropical environment of Guatemala, he explained.

Perform 29 Venturing deeper into what appeared to be a surprisingly intact house, Saturno spotted additional murals more unspoiled than the first. Once he and his team decided the structure warranted a closer look, the race was on to protect it from the oncoming rainy season.

The National Geographic Society provided grants for the conservation work as well as further excavations in and The resulting discoveries are being reported in the June issue of National Geographic magazine and in the May 11 issue of the journal Science.

Figures on the Wall Only 56 square feet in size, the room is decorated with persuasive essay how to word firsy reason dating back to roughly AD on each of its three intact walls. The north wall features a seated king wearing an elaborate headdress with blue feathers, an attendant peeking out from behind the plumes.

Painted on a recessed surface, this image could be hidden behind a curtain that hung from a partially preserved bone rod. Kneeling beside the king is a man holding a stylus, possibly to identify him as a scribe, Saturno said. The meaning of an accompanying label, which roughly translates to Younger Brother Obsidian or Junior Obsidian, remains unclear.

Three male figures painted in black appear on the west well, each sporting identical feathered headdresses and medallions. One of them is labeled Older Brother Obsidian or Senior Obsidian, a title whose significance has yet to be understood. The east wall of the room features a figure painted in black that has badly eroded due to its proximity to the exterior.

Scrawled in red and black are charts of numbers represented by bars and dots in the typical Maya fashion. After examining the figures, experts realized they denoted time spans corresponding to cycles of the Mayan calendar.

This was a calculator, so to speak, for a calendar priest or a Maya astronomer to calculate moon ages, said David Stuart, a professor of Mesoamerican art and writing at the University of Texas argumentatibe essay about stigmitization of mental health Austin, who helped decipher the hieroglyphs.

Discuss and Decide What was significant about Saturno s discovery? Cite evidence in your response. But the newly discovered examples, which predate the Dresden Codex by at least years, appear on the walls of a dwelling, scribbled alongside artwork.

For this reason, the researchers believe the room once served as a workshop for scribes, calendar priests, mathematicians, astronomers or others who would have been example middle school essay the heavens. While puzzling over a formula or predicting the next eclipse, they would have conveniently worked out their calculations right on the wall. It s kind of like having a whiteboard in your office, Stuart said.

Discuss and Decide What myth do these new findings debunk? Debunking the Myth In recent years, popular culture has latched on to theories that the Maya predicted an apocalypse on December 21, That date corresponds to the end of the Mayan calendar s current cycle, which lasts for 13 of the ,day intervals known as baktuns.

But scholars have long argued that, while Mayan astronomers saw each cycle s conclusion as significant, they never foresaw an apocalypse. One notation 80 in particular records an interval of 17 baktuns, a period of time that extends past the alleged doomsday. This sort of popular culture conception of the Maya calendar having an expiration date on it is in and of itself a fallacy, Saturno said. He compared the system to odometers that reset to zero after 99, miles because they can t display more than five digits.

If we re driving a car, we don t anticipate that atmiles the car will vanish from beneath us, he said. Stuart said that, rather than covering a informative period of time, the Maya calendar is going to keep going and keep going for billions, trillions, octillions of years into the future.

I think that as a general rule, if someone is a hardcore believer that the world is going to end inno painting is going to convince them otherwise, he said. What may do the trick, however, is waking up on December 22, he added.

Perform 31 Respond to Questions on Step 3 Sources The following questions will help you think about the sources you ve read.

People have used calendars for thousands of years. We know much about the Maya because of detailed paintings archaeologists have found.

The new Gregorian calendar of was the product of religious and scientific efforts. Source 2, lines 16 17 b Source 3, lines 25 26 c. Ice-age hunters in Europe over 20, years ago scratched lines and gouged holes in sticks and bones Source 1, lines 8 9 d. The National Geographic Society provided grants for the conservation work as well 0.

Use details from each selection in your response. Cite text evidence in your response. Now you will synthesize the information from these articles to answer this question: How have different peoples created calendars to reflect time within their cultures? Include evidence from the texts. Plan Use the graphic organizer to help you outline the structure of your informative essay. Revise and Edit Look back over your essay and compare it to the Evaluation Criteria.

Revise your essay and edit it to correct spelling, grammar, and punctuation errors. Perform 19 Collect and Synthesize Information Look assessment at your notes and look for opportunities to synthesize information to make connections and combine facts in a way that provides a broader understanding of the subject.

Complete the essay. Your controlling idea what is organization essay identify precisely what you want your audience to learn about the contribution ships have made to cultures and economies. Hook your audience with an interesting detail, question, or quotation. Clearly state the controlling idea. Introduction Organize the information in a logical way so that each new idea builds upon previous ideas.

Use metaphors, similes, and analogies to help the reader understand complex ideas. Synthesize the ideas in the information you present.

Perform 21 Draft Your Essay As you write, think about: Audience: Your teacher Purpose: Demonstrate your understanding of the specific requirements of an informative essay. Style: Use a formal and objective tone. Transitions: Use words and phrases such best essay writing service for law school for example or because to create cohesion, or flow.

If you drafted your essay on the computer, you may wish to print it out so that you can more easily evaluate it. Use the checklist below to guide your analysis.

Ask Yourself Tips Revision Strategies 1. Does the introduction present your controlling idea and grab the audience s attention? Underline sentences in the introduction that engage readers. Add an interesting question, fact, or observation to get the reader s attention. Are your details relevant, do you present textual evidence for them, and do they support your controlling idea?

Circle textual evidence. Add textual evidence if necessary. Are appropriate and varied transitions used to clarify ideas? Place a checkmark next to each transitional word or nuclear sustainability essay example. Add transitional words or phrases where needed to clarify the performances between ideas.

Does the concluding section restate the controlling idea and explain the topic s signficiance? Does it give the audience something to think about? Double underline the summary of key points in the concluding section. Underline the insight offered to readers. Add an overarching view of key details and how they support your controlling idea. Unit 2: Informative Essay 49 22 Revision Checklist: Peer Review Exchange your essay with a classmate, or read it aloud to your partner.

As you read and comment on your classmate s essay, focus on how clearly the essay describes how ships affect cultures and economies. Help each other identify parts of the drafts that need strengthening, reworking, or even a complete new approach.

What To Look For 1. Notes for My Partner 2. Are your details relevant, do you present evidence for them, and do they support your controlling idea? Edit Edit your essay to correct spelling, grammar, and punctuation errors. For example, celestial bodies is likely to be a term used in all of the texts. NOTES Celestial bodies the Sun, Moon, planets, and stars have provided us a reference for measuring the passage of time throughout our existence.

Ancient civilizations relied upon the apparent motion of these essays through the sky to determine seasons, months, and years. We know little about the details of timekeeping in prehistoric eras, but wherever we turn up records and artifacts, we usually discover that in every culture, some people were preoccupied with measuring and recording the passage of time.

Ice-age hunters in Europe over 20, years ago scratched lines and gouged holes in sticks and bones, possibly counting the days between phases of the moon.

Five unit years ago, Sumerians in the Tigris-Euphrates valley in today s Iraq had a calendar that divided the year into 30 day months, divided the day into 12 periods each corresponding to 2 of our hoursand divided these periods into 30 parts each like 4 of our minutes. We have no written records of Stonehenge, built over years ago in England, but its alignments show its purposes apparently included the determination of seasonal or celestial events, such as lunar eclipses, solstices and so on.

The earliest Egyptian calendar was based on the moon s cycles, but later the Egyptians realized that the Dog Star in Canis Major, which we call Sirius, rose next to the sun every days, about when the annual inundation of the Nile began.

Based on this knowledge, they devised a day calendar that seems to have begun around BC, which thus seems to be one of the earliest years recorded in history. Perform 25 30 Before BC, the Babylonians in today s Iraq used a year of 12 alternating 29 day and 30 day lunar months, giving a day year.

In contrast, the Mayans of Central America relied not only on the Sun and Moon, but also the what i learnt from kadinsky as an artist essay Venus, to establish day and day calendars.

They left celestial-cycle records indicating their belief that the creation of the world occurred in BC. Their calendars later became portions sample why x school law school essay the great Aztec calendar stones. Our present civilization has adopted a day solar calendar with a leap year occurring every fourth year except century years not evenly divisible by Discuss and Decide How is the way the Egyptians used celestial bodies different from the way the Mayans used them?

Cite textual evidence in your discussion. This meant that the Julian calendar exceeded the solar year by eleven minutes and fourteen seconds each year. This college scholarship essay samples grew with each successive century, and by the late sixteenth century, the Julian calendar was ten full days longer than the solar calendar. Religious feast days no longer conformed to the guidelines established by the Council of Nicaea, AD For example, Easter, intended as a spring observance, would ultimately occur in the summer.

Inhe formed an international commission of distinguished experts to determine the necessary corrections. The commission approved a calendar worked-out by Luigi Lilius d. Inthe pope ordered the construction of the first astronomical observatory at the Vatican. Here the commission completed the final details of calendar reform, including a more accurate lunar almanac.

These details were largely the work of the German Jesuit Christopher Clavius ? Perform 27 Papal edict proclaimed the new Gregorian Calendar in February NOTES of This assessment declared that the day after Thursday, October 4,would be Friday, October 15, thus dropping ten days and bringing the calendar in line with the solar year.

The pope also health equity personal statement essay an important reform involving leap years. Every informative year would continue as a leap year, with an extra day in February. However, years 30 ending in two zeros would be leap years only if divisible by The Council of Trent recognized the need to reform of the Julian calendar. The changes made marked the introduction of the Gregorian calendar, still in use today.

Close Read Who worked on reforming the Julian calendar? Why is this significant? Its walls are adorned with remarkably preserved paintings and writing, including calculations related to the Mayan calendar. It was home to tens of thousands of people in the age of the Maya, the powerful Mesoamerican empire that reached the peak of its influence around the sixth century AD and collapsed several hundred performances later.