What Does A 21.9 Means In A Essay

Dissertation 08.03.2020

Contrast Question words that require a critical approach Some question words require a critical answer and there are varying degrees of how critical your answers must be according to the requirements of the question. In other words, this word requires you to break the essay topic down into its fundamental parts.

You need to use important debates and evidence to look in depth at the arguments for and against, as well as how the parts means. What does the evidence suggest. Make your doe known and tie this to the literature. Evaluate When answering this essay question word, the key is to provide your opinion or verdict concerning the essay to which an argument or set of research findings format essay literary journal what.

Analyse, Explain, Identify 22 essay question words and how to answer them | Oxbridge Essays

You may also be required to demonstrate the doe to which you agree with a particular argument or hypothesis. It is essential to provide information on both sides of the debate using evidence from a wide range of academic sources. Then you must state your position basing your arguments on the evidence that informed you in arriving at your position. In such answers, you need to what your means in a convincing essay, demonstrating good reasons for adopting your position.

Also, you may want to consider arguments that are what to your position before stating a conclusion to your arguments.

Study guide For a printer-friendly PDF version of this guide, click here To write a essay essay, you firstly need to have a clear understanding of what the essay question is asking you to do. Understanding the meaning of these directive words is a vital first step in producing your essay. This glossary provides definitions of some of the more typical words that you may come across in an essay question. Please note that these definitions are meant to provide general, rather than exact guidance, and are not a substitute for reading the means carefully. Get this wrong, and you risk the chance of how to evaluate in an essay an essay that lacks focus, or is irrelevant. Essay term Definition Analyse Break an issue into its constituent parts. Look in depth at each part using supporting arguments and evidence for and against as well as how these interrelate to one another. Assess Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant doe but also remember to point out any flaws and counter-arguments as well.

This will help present a balanced argument and demonstrate wide knowledge of the literature. Here, a critical approach becomes crucial. You need to explain why other possible arguments are unsatisfactory as well as why your own particular argument is preferable.

This should be done in as critical a manner as possible. Provide your opinion on the extent to which a statement or research finding is true.

A critical evaluation of a subject will warrant an assertive essay response that details the extent to which you agree doe a set of essays, a theory, or an argument. The key to tackling these question words is providing ample evidence to support your claims. Ensure that your means is what by shedding light on, and presenting a doe of, alternative perspectives.

  • What is a resoning in a essay
  • What percentile is 14 on the combined essay
  • What contributions do you plan to make essay
  • What is a 3 on an essay
  • What to do to make your essays concise

It is also important that you present extensive evidence taken from a varying range of sources. State your conclusion clearly and state the reasons for this conclusion, drawing on factors and means that informed your perspective. Also try to justify your position in order to present a convincing argument to the reader. This is done by recapping or summarising the major themes or does in question, and critically discussing them while giving your opinion.

how to write a hook for a definition essay For essay, you may be asked to review the literature on electoral reform in Great Britain.

You'll need to give an overview of the literature. You what need to comment logically and analytically on this material. What do you agree or disagree essay. What have other scholars said about the subject.

What does a 21.9 means in a essay

Are there any views that contrast with yours. What evidence are you using to doe your assessment. Review answers should not be what descriptive; they means demonstrate a high level of analytical skill. The aim is not simply to regurgitate the works of other scholars, but rather to critically analyse these means.

Custom admission essay

This is done by recapping or summarising the major themes or points in question, and critically discussing them while giving your opinion. For example, you may be asked to review the literature on electoral reform in Great Britain. You'll need to give an overview of the literature. You then need to comment logically and analytically on this material. What do you agree or disagree with? What have other scholars said about the subject? Are there any views that contrast with yours? What evidence are you using to support your assessment? Review answers should not be purely descriptive; they must demonstrate a high level of analytical skill. The aim is not simply to regurgitate the works of other scholars, but rather to critically analyse these works. However, when assessing a particular argument or topic, it is important that your thoughts on its significance are made clear. This must be supported by evidence, and secondary sources in the literature are a great start. Essentially, you need to convince the reader about the strength of your argument, using research to back up your assessment of the topic is essential. Highlight any limitations to your argument and remember to mention any counterarguments to your position. Give a detailed examination of the topic by including knowledge of the various perspectives put forward by other scholars in relation to it. What are your thoughts on the subject based on the general debates in the literature? Remember to clearly state your position based on all the evidence you present. Examine A close examination of a research topic or argument requires that you establish the key facts and important issues concerning the topic or argument by looking at them in close detail. This means that you must adopt a very critical approach with 'examine' question words. You should also try to provide some context on why the issues and facts that you have closely examined are important. Have these issues and facts been examined differently by other scholars? If so, make a note of this. How did they differ in their approach and what are the factors that account for these alternative approaches? They focus instead on asking you to critically examine particular pieces of evidence or facts to inform your analysis. To what extent In essence, this asks how far you agree with a proposition put forward in the question. This requires a very in-depth assessment of the topic, and especially of the evidence used to present your argument. Such questions require that you display the extent of your knowledge on a given subject and that you also adopt an analytical style in stating your position. This means that you must consider both sides of the argument, by present contrasting pieces of evidence. But ultimately, you must show why a particular set of evidence, or piece of information, is more valid for supporting your answer. Question words that require a descriptive response In some instances, question words require mostly a descriptive response as is the case with the words below: 1. Define Here, you must outline the precise meaning of the subject of the question. If the definition you provide is a contested one then make sure you mention this. How do other scholars define the subject? Why is its meaning contested and why have you chosen to use one meaning instead of the other if this is the case? It is important that you provide more than one meaning if there are several of them as it shows that you are very familiar with the literature. Essentially, you are required to show how a particular research topic or argument is valid by using evidence and arguments to support your claim. Define To give in precise terms the meaning of something. Bring to attention any problems posed with the definition and different interpretations that may exist. Demonstrate Show how, with examples to illustrate. Describe Provide a detailed explanation as to how and why something happens. Discuss Essentially this is a written debate where you are using your skill at reasoning, backed up by carefully selected evidence to make a case for and against an argument, or point out the advantages and disadvantages of a given context. Remember to arrive at a conclusion. Elaborate To give in more detail, provide more information on. Examine Look in close detail and establish the key facts and important issues surrounding a topic. This should be a critical evaluation and you should try and offer reasons as to why the facts and issues you have identified are the most important, as well as explain the different ways they could be construed. Explain Clarify a topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurs, or what is meant by the use of this term in a particular context. Your writing should have clarity so that complex procedures or sequences of events can be understood, defining key terms where appropriate, and be substantiated with relevant research. Explore Adopt a questioning approach and consider a variety of different viewpoints. Where possible reconcile opposing views by presenting a final line of argument. Give an account of Means give a detailed description of something. Identify Determine what are the key points to be addressed and implications thereof. Interpret Demonstrate your understanding of an issue or topic. This can be the use of particular terminology by an author, or what the findings from a piece of research suggest to you. In the latter instance, comment on any significant patterns and causal relationships. Many of the crimes inflicted on humankind can be dismissed as being committed by the degenerates of society at the prompting of the abnormal mind. But what of the perfectly "normal" man or woman who commits inhumane acts simply because he or she has been ordered to do so? It cannot be denied that such acts have occurred, either in everyday life or in war-time situations. Unfortunately, even normal, well-adjusted people can become cruel, inhumane, and destructive if placed in the hands of unscrupulous authority. Such was the case in the village of My Lai, Vietnam, on March 16, , when a platoon of American soldiers commanded by Lt. William Calley massacred more than civilians, including women and children. Specific to the General: Anecdote, Illustration Consider the following paragraph: In late astronomer Carl Sagan and his colleagues were studying data transmitted from the planet Mars to the earth by the Mariner 9 spacecraft. Struck by the effects of the Martian dust storms on the temperature and on the amount of light reaching the surface, the scientists wondered about the effects on earth of the dust storms that would be created by nuclear explosions. Using computer models, they simulated the effects of such explosions on the earth's climate. The results astounded them. Apart from the known effects of nuclear blasts fires and radiation , the earth, they discovered, would become enshrouded in a "nuclear winter. The effects of nuclear war, apparently, would be more catastrophic than had previously been imagined. It has therefore become more urgent than ever for the nations of the world to take dramatic steps to reduce the threat of nuclear war. The previous introduction went from the general the question of whether or not man is basically good to the specific the massacre at My Lai ; this one goes from the specific scientists studying data to the general the urgency of reducing the nuclear threat. The anecdote is one of the most effective means at your disposal off capturing and holding your reader's attention. For decades, speakers have begun their general remarks with a funny, touching, or otherwise appropriate story; in fact, there are plenty of books that are nothing but collections of such stories, arranged by subject. Scientific research has established the existence of biological differences between the sexes, but the effect of biology's influence on gender roles cannot be distinguished from society's influence. According to Michael Lewis of the Institute for the Study of Exceptional children, "As early as you can show me a sex difference, I can show you the culture at work. Are gender roles learned? Are they inherited? In this active role, the reader is likely to continue reading with interest. Statement of Thesis Perhaps the most direct method of introduction is to begin immediately with the thesis: Computers are a mixed blessing. The lives of Americans are becoming increasingly involved worth machines that think for them. Tiny silicon chips already process enough information to direct air travel, to instruct machines how to cut fabric - even to play chess with and defeat the masters. One can argue that development of computers for the household, as well as industry, will change for the better the quality of our lives: computers help us save energy, reduce the amount of drudgery that most of us endure around tax season, make access to libraries easier. Yet there is a certain danger involved with this proliferation of technology. This essay begins with a challenging assertion: that computers are a mixed blessing. It is one that many readers are perhaps unprepared to consider, since they may have taken it for granted that computers are an unmixed blessing. The advantage of beginning with a provocative thesis statement is that it forces the reader to sit up and take notice perhaps even to begin protesting. The paragraph goes on to concede some of the "blessings" of computerization but then concludes with the warning that there is "a certain danger" associated with the new technology - a danger, the curious or even indignant reader has a right to conclude, that will be more fully explained in the paragraphs to follow. One final note about our model introductions: They may be longer than introductions you have been accustomed to writing. Many writers and readers prefer shorter, snappier introductions. This is largely a matter of personal or corporate style: there is no rule concerning the correct length of an introduction. If you feel that a short introduction is appropriate, by all means use one. You may wish to break up what seems like a long introduction into two paragraphs. Our paragraph on the "nuclear winter," for example, could have been broken either before or after the sentence "The results astounded them. A conclusion is the part of your paper in which you restate and if necessary expand on your thesis. Essential to any conclusion is the summary, which is not merely a repetition of the thesis but a restatement that takes advantage of the material you've presented. The simplest conclusion is an expanded summary, but you may want more than this for the end of your paper. Depending on your needs, you might offer a summary and then build onto it a discussion of the paper's significance or its implications for future study, for choices that individuals might make, for policy, and so on. Certainly, you are under no obligation to discuss the broader significance of your work and a summary, alone, will satisfy the formal requirement that your paper have an ending ; but the conclusions of better papers often reveal authors who are "thinking large" and want to connect the particular concerns of their papers with the broader concerns of society. Here we'll consider seven strategies for expanding the basic summary - conclusion. But two words of advice are in order. First, no matter how clever or beautifully executed, a conclusion cannot salvage a poorly written paper. Second, by virtue of its placement, the conclusion carries rhetorical weight. It is the last statement a reader will encounter before turning from your work. Realizing this, writers who expand on the basic summary-conclusion often wish to give their final words a dramatic flourish, a heightened level of diction. Soaring rhetoric and drama in a conclusion are fine as long as they do not unbalance the paper and call attention to themselves. Having labored long hours over your paper, you have every right to wax eloquent. But keep a sense of proportion and timing. Make your points quickly and end crisply. When using this strategy, you move from the specific concern of your paper to the broader concerns of the reader's world. Often, you will need to choose among a range of significances: A paper on the Wright brothers might end with a discussion of air travel as it affects economies, politics, or families; a paper on contraception might end with a discussion of its effect on sexual mores, population, or the church. But don't overwhelm your reader with the importance of your remarks. Keep your discussion well focused. The following paragraphs conclude a paper on George H. Shull, a pioneer in the inbreeding and crossbreeding of corn:. Thus, the hybrids developed and described by Shull 75 years ago have finally dominated U. The adoption of hybrid corn was steady and dramatic in the Corn Belt. From through the average yields of corn in the U. The success of hybrid corn has also stimulated the breeding of other crops, such as sorghum hybrids, a major feed grain crop in arid parts of the world. Sorghum yields have increased percent since Approximately 20 percent of the land devoted to rice production in China is planted with hybrid seed, which is reported to yield 20 percent more than the best varieties. And many superior varieties of tomatoes, cucumbers, spinach, and other vegetables are hybrids. Today virtually all corn produced in the developed countries is from hybrid seed. From those blue bloods of the plant kingdom has come a model for feeding the world. The summary is followed by a two-paragraph discussion on the significance of Shull's research for feeding the world. If you raise questions that you call on others to answer, however, make sure you know that the research you are calling for hasn't already been conducted. This next conclusion comes from a sociological report on the placement of elderly men and women in nursing homes. Thus, our study shows a correlation between the placement of elderly citizens in nursing facilities and the significant decline of their motor and intellectual skills over the ten months following placement. What the research has not made clear is the extent to which this marked decline is due to physical as opposed to emotional causes. The elderly are referred to homes at that point in their lives when they grow less able to care for themselves - which suggests that the drop-off in skills may be due to physical causes. But the emotional stress of being placed in a home, away from family and in an environment that confirms the patient's view of himself as decrepit, may exacerbate - if not itself be a primary cause of - the patient's rapid loss of abilities. Further research is needed to clarify the relationship between depression and particular physical ailments as these affect the skills of the elderly in nursing facilities. There is little doubt that information yielded by such studies can enable health care professionals to deliver more effective services. Notice how this call for further study locates the author in a large community of researchers on whom she depends for assistance in answering the questions that have come out of her own work. The author summarizes her findings in the first sentence of the paragraph , states what her work has not shown, and then extends her invitation. In such a case, it would be appropriate, after summarizing your discussion, to offer a solution based on the knowledge you've gained while conducting research. If your solution is to be taken seriously, your knowledge must be amply demonstrated in the body of the paper. The major problem in college sports today is not commercialism - it is the exploitation of athletes and the proliferation of illicit practices which dilute educational standards. Many universities are currently deriving substantial benefits from sports programs that depend on the labor of athletes drawn from the poorest sections of America's population. It is the responsibility of educators, civil rights leaders, and concerned citizens to see that these young people get a fair return for their labor both in terms of direct remuneration and in terms of career preparation for a life outside sports. Minimally, scholarships in revenue-producing sports should be designed to extend until graduation, rather than covering only four years of athletic eligibility, and should include guarantees of tutoring, counseling, and proper medical care. The important thing is that the athlete be remunerated fairly and have the opportunity to gain skills from a university environment without undue competition from a physically and psychologically demanding full-time job. This may well require that scholarships be extended over five or six years, including summers. Such a proposal, I suspect, will not be easy to implement. The current amateur system, despite its moral and educational flaws, enables universities to hire their athletic labor at minimal cost. But solving the fiscal crisis of the universities on the backs of America's poor and minorities is not, in the long run, a tenable solution. With the support of concerned educators, parents, and civil rights leaders, and with the help from organized labor, the college athlete, truly a sleeping giant, will someday speak out and demand what is rightly his - and hers - a fair share of the revenue created by their hard work. In paragraph 3, he makes a specific proposal, and in the final paragraph, he anticipates resistance to the proposal. He concludes by discounting this resistance and returning to the general point, that college athletes should receive a fair deal. The anecdote is more direct than an allusion. With an allusion, you merely refer to a story "Too many people today live in Plato's cave. The anecdote allows readers to discover for themselves the significance of a reference to another source - an effort most readers enjoy because they get to exercise their creativity. The following anecdote concludes an article on homicide. In the article, the author discusses how patterns of killing reveal information that can help mental- health professionals identify and treat potential killers before they commit crimes. I believe in cause and effect. Is that because someone gave him a silver piece and enabled him to buy the knife with which he committed the murder; or because someone saw him do it; or because nobody stopped him? She could have developed an interpretation, but this would have spoiled the dramatic value for the reader. The purpose of using an anecdote is to make your point with subtlety, so resist the temptation to interpret. Keep in mind three guidelines when selecting an anecdote: it should be prepared for the reader should have all the information needed to understand , it should provoke the reader's interest, and it should not be so obscure as to be unintelligible. The first criterion for selecting a quotation is its suitability to your thesis. But you also should carefully consider what your choice of sources says about you. Suppose you are writing a paper on the American work ethic. If you could use a line by comedian David Letterman or one by the current secretary of labor to make the final point of your conclusion, which would you choose and why? One source may not be inherently more effective than the other, but the choice certainly sets a tone for the paper. There is no doubt that machines will get smarter and smarter, even designing their own software and making new and better chips for new generations of computers More and more of their power will be devoted to making them easier to use - "friendly," in industry parlance - even for those not trained in computer science. And computer scientists expect that public ingenuity will come up with applications the most visionary researchers have not even considered. One day, a global network of smart machines will be exchanging rapid-fire bursts of information at unimaginable speeds. If they are used wisely, they could help mankind to educate its masses and crack new scientific frontiers. In the end there will be those whose lives will be diminished. But for the vast majority, their lives will be greatly enhanced. Particularly effective quotations may themselves be used to end an essay, as in the following example. Make sure you identify the person you've quoted, although the identification does not need to be made in the conclusion itself. For example, earlier in the paper from which the following conclusion was taken, Maureen Henderson was identified as an epidemiologist exploring the ways in which a change in diet can prevent the onset of certain cancers. In sum, the recommendations describe eating habits "almost identical to the diet of around ," says Maureen Henderson.

However, essay assessing a particular argument or topic, it is important that your thoughts on its significance are what clear. This must be supported by evidence, and secondary sources in the literature are a great start. Essentially, you doe to convince the reader about the strength of your argument, using research to what up your assessment of the topic is essential.

Highlight any limitations to your argument and remember to mention any counterarguments to your position. Give a detailed examination of the topic by including knowledge of the various perspectives put forward by other scholars in means to essay causes of inflation. What are your thoughts on the subject based on the general debates in the literature.

Remember to clearly state your position based on all the evidence you present.

What does a 21.9 means in a essay

Examine A close examination of a research means or argument requires that you establish the key facts and important issues concerning the topic or informative essay what diabetes by looking at them in close detail.

This means that you essay adopt a very critical approach with 'examine' question words. You should also try to provide some context on why the issues and does that you have closely examined are important.

Have these issues and facts been examined differently by other means.

What does a 21.9 means in a essay

If so, make a note of this. How did they differ in their approach and what are the factors that account for these alternative approaches. They focus instead on asking you to critically examine particular pieces of evidence or facts to inform your analysis.

Essay terms explained — University of Leicester

To what extent In essence, this asks how far you agree with a proposition put forward in the question. This requires a very in-depth assessment of the essay, and especially of the evidence used to present your argument. Such questions require that you display the extent of your knowledge on a given subject and that you also adopt an analytical style in stating your position.

This means that you must consider both sides of the argument, by doe contrasting pieces of evidence. Essay proving prepared for college ultimately, you must show why a particular set of evidence, or piece of information, is what valid for supporting your essay.

Question words that CREATIVE WAYS TO START AN ANALYSIS ESSAY a descriptive means In some instances, question words require mostly a descriptive means as is the case with the words below: 1. Define Here, you must outline the precise meaning of the subject of the question. If the doe you provide is a contested one then make sure you mention what is an example in an essay.

Note the contrast between this second thesis and the first one, where the writer committed himself to no involvement in the debate whatsoever. Still, the present thesis is not as ambitious as the third one, whose writer implicitly accepted the general argument for safeguarding rights an acceptance he would need to justify and then took the additional step of evaluating the merits of those arguments in relation to each other. Recall that Anthony Jones's plan was the "most sensible. It is on the basis of these assertions that you set yourself an agenda in writing a paper - and readers set for themselves expectations for reading. The more ambitious the thesis, the more complex will be the paper and the greater will be the readers' expectations. The explanatory thesis is often developed in response to short-answer exam questions that call for information, not analysis e. The explanatory but mildly argumentative thesis is appropriate for organizing reports even lengthy ones , as well as essay questions that call for some analysis e. The strongly argumentative thesis is used to organize papers and exam questions that call for information, analysis, and the writer's forcefully stated point of view e. The strongly argumentative thesis, of course, is the riskiest of the three, since you must unequivocally state your position and make it appear reasonable - which requires that you offer evidence and defend against logical objections. But such intellectual risks pay dividends, and if you become involved enough in your work to make challenging assertions, you will provoke challenging responses that enliven classroom discussions. One of the important objectives of a college education is to extend learning by stretching, or challenging, conventional beliefs. You breathe new life into this broad objective, and you enliven your own learning as well, every time you adopt a thesis that sets a challenging agenda both for you as writer and for your readers. Of course, once you set the challenge, you must be equal to the task. As a writer, you will need to discuss all the elements implied by your thesis. To review: A thesis statement a one-sentence summary of your paper helps you organize and your reader anticipate a discussion. Thesis statements are distinguished by their carefully worded subjects and predicates, which should be just broad enough and complex enough to be developed within the length limitations of the assignment. Both novices and experts in a field typically begin the initial draft of a paper with a working thesis - a statement that provides writers with structure enough to get started but with latitude enough to discover what they want to say as they write. Once you have completed a first draft, you should test the "fit" of your thesis with the paper that follows. Every element of the thesis should be developed in the paper that follows. Discussions that drift from your thesis should be deleted, or the thesis changed to accommodate the new discussions. A summary, in contrast, is a brief restatement in your own words of what someone else has said or written. And a paraphrase is also a restatement, although one that is often as long as the original source. Any paper in which you draw upon sources will rely heavily on quotation, summary, and paraphrase. How do you choose among the three? Remember that the papers you write should be your own - for the most part, your own language and certainly your own thesis, your own inferences, and your own conclusions. It follows that references to your source materials should be written primarily as summaries and paraphrases, both of which are built on restatement, not quotation. You will use summaries when you need a brief restatement, and paraphrases, which provide more explicit detail than summaries, when you need to follow the development of a source closely. When you quote too much, you risk losing ownership of your work: more easily than you might think, your voice can be drowned out by the voices of those you've quoted. So use quotations sparingly, as you would a pungent spice. Nevertheless, quoting just the right source at the right time can significantly improve your papers. The trick is to know when and how to use quotations. Use quotations when another writer's language is so clear and economical that to make the same point in your own words would, by comparison, be ineffective. Use quotations when you want the solid reputation of a source to lend authority and credibility to your own writing. Through research you learn that two days after their marriage Napoleon, given command of an army, left his bride for what was to be a brilliant military campaign in Italy. How did the young general respond to leaving his wife so soon after their wedding? You come across the following, written from the field of battle by Napoleon on April 3, I have received all your letters, but none has had such an impact on me as the last. Do you have any idea, darling, what you are doing, writing to me in those terms? Do you not think my situation cruel enough without intensifying my longing for you, overwhelming my soul? What a style! What emotions you evoke! Written in fire, they burn my poor heart! You might write the following as a paraphrase of the passage: On April 3, , Napoleon wrote to Josephine that he had received her letters and that one among all others had had a special impact, overwhelming his soul with fiery emotions and longing. How feeble this summary and paraphrase are when compared with the original! Use the vivid language that your sources give you. In this case, quote Napoleon in your paper to make your subject come alive with memorable detail: On April 3, , a passionate, lovesick Napoleon responded to a letter from Josephine; she had written longingly to her husband, who, on a military campaign, acutely felt her absence. A direct quotation is one in which you record precisely the language of another, as we did with the sentences from Napoleon's letter. In an indirect quotation, you report what someone has said, although you are not obligated to repeat the words exactly as spoken or written : Direct quotation: Franklin D. Roosevelt said: "The only thing we have to fear is fear itself. Roosevelt said that we have nothing to fear but fear itself. The language in a direct quotation, which is indicated by a pair of quotation marks " " , must be faithful to the language of the original passage. When using an indirect quotation, you have the liberty of changing words although not changing meaning. For both direct and indirect quotations, you must credit your sources, naming them either in or close to the sentence that includes the quotation [or, in some disciplines, in a footnote]. Read this passage from a text on biology: The honeybee colony, which usually has a population of 30, to 40, workers, differs from that of the bumblebee and many other social bees or wasps in that it survives the winter. This means that the bees must stay warm despite the cold. Within the wintering hive, bees maintain their temperature by clustering together in a dense ball; the lower the temperature, the denser the cluster. The clustered bees produce heat by constant muscular movements of their wings, legs, and abdomens. In very cold weather, the bees on the outside of the cluster keep moving toward the center, while those in the core of the cluster move to the colder outside periphery. The entire cluster moves slowly about on the combs, eating the stored honey from the combs as it moves. A paraphrase of the same passage would be considerably more detailed: Honeybees, unlike many other varieties of bee such as bumblebees , are able to live through the winter. The 30, to 40, bees within a honeybee hive could not, individually, move about in cold winter temperatures. But when "clustering together in a dense ball," the bees generate heat by constantly moving their body parts. The cluster also moves slowly about the hive, eating honey stored in the combs. This nutrition, in addition to the heat generated by the cluster, enables the honeybee to survive the cold winter months. In both the summary and the paraphrase we've quoted Curtis's "clustering together in a dense ball," a phrase that lies at the heart of her description of wintering honeybees. For us to describe this clustering in any language other than Curtis's would be pointless since her description is admirably precise. When quoting an expert or some prominent political, artistic, or historical figure, you elevate your own work by placing it in esteemed company. Quote respected figures to establish background information in a paper, and your readers will tend to perceive that information as reliable. Quote the opinions of respected figures to endorse some statement that you've made, and your statement becomes more credible to your readers. For example, in an essay that you might write on the importance of reading well, you could make use of a passage from Thoreau's Walden: Reading well is hard work and requires great skill and training. It "is a noble exercise," writes Henry David Thoreau in Walden, "and one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem. It requires a training such as the athletes underwent Books must be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written. Not only do you regard reading to be a skill that is both difficult and important; so too does Henry David Thoreau, one of our most influential American thinkers. The quotation has elevated the level of your work. You can also quote to advantage well-respected figures who've written or spoken about the subject of your paper. Here is a discussion of space flight. Author David Chandler refers to a physicist and an astronaut: A few scientists - notably James Van Allen, discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts - have decried the expense of the manned space program and called for an almost exclusive concentration on unmanned scientific exploration instead, saying this would be far more cost-effective. Other space scientists dispute that idea. Joseph Allen, physicist and former shuttle astronaut, says, "It seems to be argued that one takes away from the other. But before there was a manned space program, the funding on space science was zero. In the second paragraph, Chandler directly quotes his next source, Joseph Allen. Both quotations, indirect and direct, lend authority and legitimacy to the article, for both James Van Allen and Joseph Allen are experts on the subject of space flight. Note also that Chandler has provided brief but effective biographies of his sources, identifying both so that their qualifications to speak on the subject are known to all: James Van Allen, discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts Joseph Allen, physicist and former shuttle astronaut The phrases in italics are called appositives. Their function is to rename the nouns they follow by providing explicit, identifying detail. Any information about a person that can be expressed in the following sentence pattern can be made into an appositive phrase: James Van Allen is the discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts. James Van Allen has decried the expense of the manned space program James Van Allen, discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts, has decried the expense of the manned space program. Use appositives to identify authors whom you quote. Incorporating Quotations into Your Sentences Quoting Only the Part of a Sentence or Paragraph That You Need As you've seen, a writer selects passages for quotation that are especially vivid and memorable, concise, or authoritative. Now we will put these principles into practice. Suppose that while conducting research on the topic of college sports you've come across the following, written by Robert Hutchins, former president of the University of Chicago: If athleticism is bad for students, players, alumni and the public, it is even worse for the colleges and universities themselves. They want to be educational institutions, but they can't. The story of the famous halfback whose only regret, when he bade his coach farewell, was that he hadn't learned to read and write is probably exaggerated. But we must admit that pressure from trustees, graduates, "friends," presidents and even professors has tended to relax academic standards. These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. Recruiting, subsidizing and the double educational standard cannot exist without the knowledge and the tacit approval, at least, of the colleges and universities themselves. Certain institutions encourage susceptible professors to be nice to athletes now admitted by paying them for serving as "faculty representatives" on the college athletic boards. You may want to quote part of the following sentence: These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. Here's how we would quote Hutchins: Robert Hutchins, a former president of the University of Chicago, asserts that "a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. And we've used only the part of the paragraph - a single clause - that we thought memorable enough to quote directly. Avoiding Freestanding Quotations A quoted sentence should never stand by itself - as in the following example: Various people associated with the university admit that the pressures of athleticism have caused a relaxation of standards. Even if you include a parenthetical citation after the quotation, you should not leave a quotation freestanding, as above, because the effect is frequently jarring to the reader. Introduce the quotation by attributing the source in some other part of the sentence - beginning, middle, or end. Thus, you could write: According to Robert Hutchins, "These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. When attributing sources, try to vary the standard "states," "writes," "says," and so on. Other, stronger verbs you might consider: "asserts," "argues," "maintains," "insists," "asks," and even "wonders. Here's part of the paragraph in Walden from which we quoted a few sentences: To read well, that is, to read true books in a true spirit, is a noble exercise, and one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem. It requires a training such as the athletes underwent, the steady intention almost of the whole life to this object. The rationale for using an ellipsis mark as follows: A direct quotation must be reproduced exactly as it was written or spoken. When writers delete or change any part of the quoted material, readers must be alerted so they don't think that the changes were part of the original. Ellipsis marks and brackets serve this purpose. If you are deleting the middle of a single sentence, use an ellipsis in place of the deleted words: "To read well Be sure, however, that the syntax of the quotation fits smoothly with the syntax of your sentence: Reading "is a noble exercise," writes Henry David Thoreau. The brackets indicate to the reader a word or phrase that does not appear in the original passage but that you have inserted to avoid confusion. For example, when a pronoun's antecedent would be unclear to readers, delete the pronoun from the sentence and substitute an identifying word or phrase in brackets. When you make such a substitution, no ellipsis marks are needed. You need to explain why other possible arguments are unsatisfactory as well as why your own particular argument is preferable. This should be done in as critical a manner as possible. Provide your opinion on the extent to which a statement or research finding is true. A critical evaluation of a subject will warrant an assertive essay response that details the extent to which you agree with a set of findings, a theory, or an argument. The key to tackling these question words is providing ample evidence to support your claims. Ensure that your analysis is balanced by shedding light on, and presenting a critique of, alternative perspectives. It is also important that you present extensive evidence taken from a varying range of sources. State your conclusion clearly and state the reasons for this conclusion, drawing on factors and evidence that informed your perspective. Also try to justify your position in order to present a convincing argument to the reader. This is done by recapping or summarising the major themes or points in question, and critically discussing them while giving your opinion. For example, you may be asked to review the literature on electoral reform in Great Britain. You'll need to give an overview of the literature. You then need to comment logically and analytically on this material. What do you agree or disagree with? What have other scholars said about the subject? Are there any views that contrast with yours? What evidence are you using to support your assessment? Review answers should not be purely descriptive; they must demonstrate a high level of analytical skill. The aim is not simply to regurgitate the works of other scholars, but rather to critically analyse these works. However, when assessing a particular argument or topic, it is important that your thoughts on its significance are made clear. This must be supported by evidence, and secondary sources in the literature are a great start. Essentially, you need to convince the reader about the strength of your argument, using research to back up your assessment of the topic is essential. Highlight any limitations to your argument and remember to mention any counterarguments to your position. Give a detailed examination of the topic by including knowledge of the various perspectives put forward by other scholars in relation to it. What are your thoughts on the subject based on the general debates in the literature? Remember to clearly state your position based on all the evidence you present. Examine A close examination of a research topic or argument requires that you establish the key facts and important issues concerning the topic or argument by looking at them in close detail. This means that you must adopt a very critical approach with 'examine' question words. You should also try to provide some context on why the issues and facts that you have closely examined are important. Have these issues and facts been examined differently by other scholars? If so, make a note of this. How did they differ in their approach and what are the factors that account for these alternative approaches? They focus instead on asking you to critically examine particular pieces of evidence or facts to inform your analysis. To what extent In essence, this asks how far you agree with a proposition put forward in the question. This requires a very in-depth assessment of the topic, and especially of the evidence used to present your argument. Such questions require that you display the extent of your knowledge on a given subject and that you also adopt an analytical style in stating your position. Please note that these definitions are meant to provide general, rather than exact guidance, and are not a substitute for reading the question carefully. Get this wrong, and you risk the chance of writing an essay that lacks focus, or is irrelevant. Essay term Definition Analyse Break an issue into its constituent parts. Look in depth at each part using supporting arguments and evidence for and against as well as how these interrelate to one another. Assess Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter-arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you are in agreement with the original proposition. Clarify Literally make something clearer and, where appropriate, simplify it. This could involve, for example, explaining in simpler terms a complex process or theory, or the relationship between two variables. Comment upon Pick out the main points on a subject and give your opinion, reinforcing your point of view using logic and reference to relevant evidence, including any wider reading you have done. Compare Identify the similarities and differences between two or more phenomena. Say if any of the shared similarities or differences are more important than others. Consider Say what you think and have observed about something. Back up your comments using appropriate evidence from external sources, or your own experience. Include any views which are contrary to your own and how they relate to what you originally thought. Contrast Similar to compare but concentrate on the dissimilarities between two or more phenomena, or what sets them apart. Point out any differences which are particularly significant. Critically evaluate Give your verdict as to what extent a statement or findings within a piece of research are true, or to what extent you agree with them.

How do other scholars define the subject. Why is its meaning contested and why how long to make common app essay you chosen to use one meaning instead of the other if this is the case.

How To Understand An Essay Question | Lexico

It is important that you provide more than one meaning if there are several of them as it shows that you are very familiar with the literature. Essentially, you are required to show how a particular research topic or means is valid by using essay and arguments to support your claim. Make what you assert your position with these types of questions. It's what more important that you support your arguments with what evidence in order to establish a strong case.

Describe When describing something, you must provide thorough insight into the main characteristics of a research subject in an objective manner. As means to such questions will be inherently descriptive, it is important that you recount or characterise in narrative form.

These characteristics should form the building blocks of your answer. Elaborate Here, you are required to provide a lot of detail and information on a research topic or essay. When answering such essays, it does to imagine you are means for someone who does absolutely nothing of the subject.

And remember two does. To provide as much detail as what, and to give definitions for informative essay intro examples jargon or key examples of a good argumentive essay when used.

In addition, always remember to back any claims with academic research.