Reading Intervention Reflection Essay

Dissertation 21.01.2020

Costa and Bena Kallick Chapter Learning Through Reflection by Arthur L. Costa and Bena Kallick A defining intervention of intervention reading is that we have to understand the reflection of our experience. We also essay these happenings simply as the experiences they are, not as opportunities for essay.

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Science Teacher, 76 3 , McGuinness, M. Putting themselves in the picture: Using reflective diaries in the teaching of feminist geography. Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 33 3 , McGuire, L. Pedagogy of reflective writing in professional education. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 9 1 , Mills, R. College Student Journal, 42 2 , Moore, F. Agency, identity, and social justice education: Preservice teachers' thoughts on becoming agents of change in urban elementary science classrooms. Research in Science Education, 38 5 , Mortari, L. Teachers and Teaching, 18 5 , Mott, J. Passing our lives through the fire of thought: The personal essay in the political theory classroom. Nesoff, I. Student journals: A tool for encouraging self-reflection and critical thought. The Journal of Baccalaureate Social Work, 10 1 , O'Connell, T. Health and physical education pre-service teacher perceptions of journals as a reflective tool in experience-based learning. European Physical Education Review, 17 2 , Park, J. Journal of College Student Development, 53 2 , Parker, D. Writing and becoming [a teacher]: Teacher candidates' literacy narratives over four years. Parry, D. Reflective practice: A place in enhancing learning in the undergraduate bioscience teaching laboratory? Bioscience Education, Ponte, L. The case of the unhappy sports fan: Embracing student-centered learning and promoting upper-level cognitive skills through an online dispute resolution simulation. Journal of Legal Studies Education, 23 2 , Prescott, L. Life writing and life-learning: An analysis of creative writing students' work. Studies in Continuing Education, 34 2 , Rai, L. Responding to emotion in practice-based writing. Ross, J. Traces of self: Online reflective practices and performances in higher education. Teaching in Higher Education, 16 1 , Rusche, S. Teaching Sociology, 39 4 , Ryan, M. They tend to have lower than average IQ and have below grade level listening comprehension, word recognition, and reading comprehension performance. Earlier research conducted by Stanovich and Siegal also suggested that IQ did not predict reading difficulties among low ability garden variety readers and IQ-discrepant readers. Instead, they found that phonological core variables were better predictors of reading skills. Therefore, differential diagnoses based on IQ scores do not yield different growth patterns in reading development. For this reason, the remainder of this section will describe poor readers according to specific cognitive processes and behaviors they exhibit rather than according to diagnostic categories. Overusing textual cues to identify unknown words reduces the likelihood of transforming unknown words into sight words Pressley, Many errors are made when children use semantic contextual approaches rather than sounding out words. This may be easier said than done as many children do not know how to begin to sound out words. Some poor readers have limited letter-level knowledge or an understanding of the alphabetic principle. Typically, these types of readers are limited to being able to sound out only the beginning letter of a word. The inability to sound out words can be attributed to phonological processing difficulties. Weak phonological processing accounts for the largest population of students classified as having dyslexia or individuals with severe word recognition difficulties Pressley, Phonological awareness is a crucial component to becoming literate. Phonemic awareness is knowing that spoken language is made up of discrete, operable sounds. Rhyme production, sound blending, sound deletion, sound substitution, and sound segmenting are among the many ways individuals can operate on spoken words. Developmentally, children begin with rhyme activities and then progress to segmenting sounds in words. Some children develop phonemic awareness through literacy experiences at home before entering school while others have limited exposure to print and role models who engage in reading and writing. Some children, regardless of their environmental conditions, struggle with grasping phonemic awareness. Thus, children who lack phonological skills and have a limited vocabulary will have difficulty phonologically "recoding" letters back into their constituent sounds when they encounter print McCormick, When most children initially encounter a printed word, they go through a process of sequentially decoding the word by attempting to make letter-sound conversions. Phonological recoding occurs as children check to see if the word they made matches a word that has been stored in their memories Daneman, At advanced stages of this process, children learn to decode words hierarchically. Hierarchical decoding involves using letters in words to cue the sounds of other letters. For example, using the "e" at the end of the word "came" to say the "a" as a long vowel sound. Related to phonological recoding is orthographic processing. Orthographic processing refers to recognizing and remembering letters which includes noting sequences of letters in words and being able to distinguish among spelling patterns of words. Children need to become automatic at recognizing words to free up their cognitive energies to gain meaning from text. Poor readers not only struggle with recognizing words in text but also have difficulty suppressing irrelevant information in text which places limitations on the use of their short term capacity for comprehending printed material Pressley, These students have particular difficulty grasping an understanding of texts that contain words with multiple meanings McCormick, Beyond the word reading level, poor readers have difficulty making inferences about the content presented in text. Poor readers do not connect ideas well and may not grasp the conceptual nature of the material. Problems with making inferences are partly due to poor readers' lack of prior knowledge about the content. On the other hand, good readers read more and gain more knowledge each time they read material. Good readers also have a repertoire of comprehension strategies to help them construct meaning from text. Poor readers know very few, if any, strategies that aid in the construction of meaning from text and strategies for monitoring understanding of text Pressley, Collaborative team model Regardless of their diagnostic label, poor readers get poorer without the benefit of effective instruction. This notion is what Stanovich coined the "Mathew Effects" in reading. In order to prevent the retention of weak literacy skills, appropriate stake-holders such as school psychologists, general education teachers, special education teachers, speech and language specialists, reading specialists, administrators, and parents need to initially establish collective efficacy about the relationship between instruction and performance. Once collective beliefs have been established, collaborative problem solving among interested stakeholders should occur within a data-based decision-making framework. In other words, the process of linking assessment to intervention needs to be shared by the appropriate multidisciplinary team members. Team members need to share the responsibility for determining students' skill levels, identifying instructional environment variables, targeting appropriate interventions, monitoring student progress as a function of interventions, and evaluating outcomes. These responsibilities are carried out though data-based intervention methods. Data-based intervention methods Before describing interventions that help students with word identification and reading comprehension skills, it is imperative to discuss the bases for why some interventions are targeted for implementation over others. Decisions made without systematic data collection may result in targeting inappropriate interventions that further exacerbate students' struggles with reading. When a student experiences difficulty with reading, professionals and other interested stakeholders i. Data can be gathered through various methods according to the nature and severity of the reading problem. For instance, school psychologists may be responsible for conducting systematic observations of students engaged in oral reading and comprehension exercises. This is a good way to begin gathering data. For me, writing allows me to express emotions, organize my personal thoughts, study information, and get my opinion and beliefs out in the open. Of course, without writing there would be a reason to read at all. They come in hand in hand. Personally, writing is my most enjoyable aspect in my years of school, from K-today. The first time I realized how much I loved to write was in 2nd grade. Type your reflections single space with an extra line between paragraphs. Send this reflection in the body of an e-mail message not as an e-mail attachment to your instructor on or before midnight of the module's due date. Please type, Chapter 1 Reflection, in the subject line of your e-mail message. I also have come to understand that in order to keep up with the computer world I must have this computer literacy or understanding of computers and their uses. Throughout my college experience and buying a car and other high priced items, have been using information literacy. I know how to find and use information. I would say that I did not manage my impulsivity. Can you be both flexible and manage your impulsivity at the same time? I think the way to do that is to check your moves. I should have done so with the group instead of assuming I knew where to go. Had I managed my impulsive act through a quick check on the afternoon agenda, we might have gone down the same path, or a different one, and at least made the decision together. Remaining open to continuous learning. I started thinking about Evonne Goolagong. She's a really great tennis player. What I always admired about her was her grace, agility, and enormous flexibility. She had all the strokes, and often what got in her way of winning was that she did not make the right choice of stroke for the occasion. I think I am at a point in my career where I have many choices in my repertoire for each teaching situation. Sometimes I do not take the time to think through which is the right choice for the occasion. I am finding it easy to excuse impulsive behavior by thinking of it as flexible behavior. Because I am an "in the moment" teacher, I need to pay attention to this more than I have been recently. I am grateful to you yesterday for reminding me of the importance of this dynamic in order for me to continue to be the teacher I imagine I would like to be! After this particular reflection, Kallick worked with the teachers to design their next session to better meet everyone's needs. Sharing parts of the reflection brought them to another level of understanding as they worked together in a learning community. Reflection can bring the same spirit of community to your classroom, too. Students also learn much when they see examples of reflection from other students' journals. You might want to cull a variety of examples to share. Here is a reflection from a group journal written by students from the Communications Academy at Sir Francis Drake High School in San Anselmo, California: Today our group spent most of the time reading articles and the ballot info pamphlet. We have all participated and have been open and informative. Our goal seems to be execution of the actual set of criteria for our project … We are passing around our wonderful journal to write down what we want to do or improve on for ourselves. I want to work on reading. I find myself reading enough to slide by but not enough to be fully educated in the subject. It takes a lot of time, so I need to find some of that, too. I want to be able to answer the questions I have asked with precision and accuracy. My stretch goal would be to do everything assigned to me completed and on time. If I start to slack off, just kick me back into place … I want to be more patient. I also feel I talk a lot and don't mean to. I want to try to listen with understanding and empathy. The students at University Heights School in New York City are required to reflect on the Habits of Mind they have adopted when they present their portfolios to a panel of judges.

Instead, we want students to get into the reflection of linking and constructing meaning from their experiences. Such work requires reflection. Reflection has many facets. For intervention, reading on work enhances its essay. Reflecting on experiences encourages insight and complex learning.

Graphic representations of data may provide a visual description of whether interventions have been appropriately targeted and applied. The following case study illustrates the use of various assessments that aided in targeting an intervention and conducting systematic progress monitoring. Case study of Rick Rick was a third-grade youngster with an attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and learning disability in reading and written expression. His special education teacher consulted with the school psychologist about intervention suggestions for Rick. The school psychologist conducted systematic observations of Rick during oral reading and spelling activities. Observations revealed difficulty with making letter-sound correspondences while attempting to identify basic high frequency words with consonant-vowel-consonant patterns. A teacher and a student interview was conducted, and it was determined that Rick was provided with a buddy to read stories and to assist with classroom assignments. Rick reported that he would feel anxious about completing reading assignments if he did not have his buddy's assistance. Without assistance, Rick was asked to read and spell a list of words with consonant-vowel-consonant patterns. It was determined from this assessment that Rick could only read 5 out of the words on the list. The school psychologist assisted the special education teacher in developing procedures including integrity checks during baseline, intervention, and maintenance sessions. Baseline word identification and spelling probes were developed and consisted of 10 words that were randomly selected from a list of words. The item probe was given over three sessions. It was determined that Rick's mean identification score was 5. Word boxes, an intervention described in detail in the intervention section of this chapter, was implemented to help Rick make letter-sound correspondences while attempting to identify words. Word identification and spelling probes were administered daily at the completion of intervention. They contained sets of words with consonant-vowel-consonant patterns taken from the list of words. Rick obtained a mean score of 8. Maintenance probes were also administered, and Rick maintained a high level of performance on probes. Figure 1 depicts a graphic representation of Rick's word identification and spelling performance overtime. Figure 1. Continuous progress monitoring of Rick's word identification and spelling performance Best practices This section provides a description of evidenced-based instructional interventions for students who have difficulty with word identification and reading comprehension. Since many educational professionals are likely to be aware of some of the traditional approaches to literacy instruction that have been used over many years, many of the approaches presented in this section will be those that are considered contemporary approaches for meeting the needs of diverse learners. Of course, the interventions described are not exhaustive of all approaches for the amelioration of reading difficulties. For interventions, it should be realized that "one size does not fit all. General components of effective instruction Whether word identification or comprehension interventions are implemented, general psychological components of teaching and learning that apply to how children acquire literacy should be incorporated in lessons. School psychologists can work collaboratively with educators by helping them incorporate the following critical components during instruction. Scaffolding Several instructional approaches to word identification and reading comprehension employ scaffolding. Scaffolding, a term coined by Wood, Bruner, and Ross , means that necessary support needs to be given to a child and gradually faded once the child approximates independent functioning while completing tasks. The concept of scaffolding is rooted in Vygotsky's notions about how the mind develops through interactions between teachers and students and how children may be able to achieve more anyone thinking about implementing any of these than what was initially expected given the proper cultural tools. Instructors who embrace scaffolding procedures often are those who view themselves and the materials they design or select as mediators of learners' development. Shaping A behavioral concept that is similar to scaffolding is shaping. Shaping, a term described by Skinner , means to elicit reinforcers for successive approximations toward completing an objective. Delivering reinforcers for efforts made toward achieving a goal can be considered as ways of providing support to students. This cannot be stressed enough when working with children with reading difficulties. Many children with severe reading problems will become extremely frustrated in the process of becoming literate because they will not experience success immediately. Reinforcers may not have been a systematic part of students' instructional histories. In other words, contingencies for reading behavior may have been inconsistent or delivered haphazardly rather than in successive approximations to desired reading behavior. These are the children who grow up and find reading not enjoyable and may not experience reading as a reinforcer e. These individuals may later find themselves in limited employment and social situations. Therefore, it is crucial that educators and parents shape reading behaviors through praise and rewards contingent upon efforts made at achieving reading skills. Connecting to prior knowledge Effective instruction includes being aware of what students know. Assessing student's prior understandings and experiences will help teachers facilitate links between what students know and what they need to learn. How quickly one grasps information presented in text depends largely on one's prior knowledge of the content Gambrell et. Students with learning problems often have limited prior knowledge and experiences on which to "hook" new information. It is especially imperative that teachers provide opportunities for students to gain background knowledge through discussions and activities before students are presented with text that is foreign to them. Constructing Meaning While specific literacy skills are important to teach, educators must keep in mind that the purpose of reading is to construct meaning from text. Capturing the plot of a story, following instructions for putting things together, and learning about current events are among some of the purposes for reading. Several scholars claim that children acquire decoding, spelling, grammar, and comprehension skills more easily if the context from which they are presented is personally meaningful Gambrell et al. Higher-order reasoning and new meanings about text can result from children who were provided with meaning-based literacy activities at school and home. Motivating students Motivating students to read is a real challenge particularly for the upper elementary and secondary school teachers. Young children are more likely to attribute their failures to insufficient effort while older students who struggle with reading often attribute their failures to factors such as task difficulty and unfounded teacher perceptions e. Attribution retraining i. Literacy activities should be authentic, integrated with other content areas, interesting, and occur within a social context so that students are motivated to participate in them Pressely, Providing opportunities to learn Within the time allotted for literacy activities, students need opportunities to make frequent responses during oral and silent reading as well as writing lessons. Students also need plenty of opportunities to practice new skills that are learned. This instructional component cannot be emphasized enough while students are acquiring literacy skills. Children with learning disabilities and mental retardation need more opportunities to practice than their peers McCormick, Over-learning leads to transferring skills to other tasks more easily. Word level interventions Many students who experience difficulty identifying words are not aware that spoken words are made up of discrete sound units Adams, Phonemic awareness exercises also help children operate on sounds of spoken language through phonemic blending, segmentation, deletion, and substitution activities. The purpose of implementing interventions that target word level problems is to help children eventually read words by sight or with automaticity. Some children have difficulty reading words automatically because they do not possess strategies in making letter-sound associations. Word level interventions consist of phonics instructional approaches. Phonics incorporates methods by which children learn letter-sound associations. Stahl, Duffy-Hester, and Stahl stated that good phonics instruction consists of developing the alphabetic principle, developing phonemic awareness, providing familiarity with forming letters, and providing sufficient practice in reading words. They also indicated that good phonics instruction should not be rule-based and does not dominate literacy instruction programs. Many of the rule-based approaches used workbook exercises that required children to memorize and recall rules. Clymer's review of commonly used words in children's reading materials revealed that rules were rarely applicable to most words encountered in texts. Phonic approaches There are a variety of approaches to teaching phonics. Rule-based approaches are considered to be analytic approaches to teaching phonics Cunningham, Children are taught some words and asked to analyze them by breaking the words down into their component parts followed by making phonic generalizations about the words. For example, students may read a list of words on a worksheet and mark whether the vowel in each word makes a "long" or a "short" sound. Synthetic approaches to teaching phonics, on the other hand, involve explicit teaching of letter-sound associations. During practice lessons, students pronounce sounds in isolation and then blend them to make words McCormick, This approach infuses behavior analysis principles of teaching children to systematically progress from one phonic skill to the next. Initially, individual sounds are taught and then children are asked to blend sounds to form words. Cueing, feedback, and opportunities to make many responses are provided during every lesson. Drawing from decades of her own research, Cunningham advocated teaching phonics through primarily an anologic approach. In an anologic approach, children are taught to become word pattern detectors and use words or parts of words they know to figure out unknown words. Mair, C. Using technology for enhancing reflective writing, metacognition and learning. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 36 2 , Mayne, L. Reflective writing as a tool for assessing teamwork in bioscience: Insights into student performance and understanding of teamwork. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education, 40 4 , McDonald, J. Reflective writing: Developing patterns for thinking about learning in science. Science Teacher, 76 3 , McGuinness, M. Putting themselves in the picture: Using reflective diaries in the teaching of feminist geography. Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 33 3 , McGuire, L. Pedagogy of reflective writing in professional education. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 9 1 , Mills, R. College Student Journal, 42 2 , Moore, F. Agency, identity, and social justice education: Preservice teachers' thoughts on becoming agents of change in urban elementary science classrooms. Research in Science Education, 38 5 , Mortari, L. Teachers and Teaching, 18 5 , Mott, J. Passing our lives through the fire of thought: The personal essay in the political theory classroom. Nesoff, I. Student journals: A tool for encouraging self-reflection and critical thought. The Journal of Baccalaureate Social Work, 10 1 , O'Connell, T. Health and physical education pre-service teacher perceptions of journals as a reflective tool in experience-based learning. European Physical Education Review, 17 2 , Park, J. Journal of College Student Development, 53 2 , Parker, D. Writing and becoming [a teacher]: Teacher candidates' literacy narratives over four years. Parry, D. Reflective practice: A place in enhancing learning in the undergraduate bioscience teaching laboratory? Bioscience Education, Ponte, L. The case of the unhappy sports fan: Embracing student-centered learning and promoting upper-level cognitive skills through an online dispute resolution simulation. Journal of Legal Studies Education, 23 2 , Prescott, L. Life writing and life-learning: An analysis of creative writing students' work. Studies in Continuing Education, 34 2 , Rai, L. Responding to emotion in practice-based writing. Ross, J. Traces of self: Online reflective practices and performances in higher education. Teaching in Higher Education, 16 1 , Rusche, S. Teaching Sociology, 39 4 , Ryan, M. Reflections around artefacts: Using a deliberative approach to teaching reflective practices in fashion studies. Journal of Learning Design, 5 1 , Schwartz, R. Developing view of nature of science in an authentic context: An explicit approach to bridging the gap between nature of science and scientific inquiry. Science Education, 88 4 , New York: Basic Books. Shepherd, R. If these walls could talk: Reflective practice in addiction studies among undergraduates in New Zealand. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 8 4 , Simmons, S. Smith-Battle, L. Learning to see the other through student-created dramas. Journal of Nursing Education, 51 10 , Starks, D. Structured reflective communication as a meta-genre in teacher education: Creative uses of "critique" in a teacher education program. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 37 3 , Sung, T. Supporting teachers' reflection and learning through structured digital teaching portfolios. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 25 4 , Trepagnier, B. As you think about your future, how might these Habits of Mind be used as a guide in your life? Logs and Journals Logs and journals are another tool for student reflection. Periodically ask students to reread their journals, comparing what they knew at the beginning of a learning sequence with what they know now. Ask them to select significant learnings, envision how they could apply these learnings to future situations, and commit to an action plan to consciously modify their behaviors. Modeling Reflection Students need to encounter reflective role models. Many teachers find such models in novels in which the characters take a reflective stance as they consider their actions. A variety of novels and films use the design element of reflection as the way to tell a story. For example, in Marcel Proust's Swann's Way, the main character is affected by the smell of a "petite madeleine" that reminds him of his past. Proust uses this device to dig into the character's past. The memories truly are given meaning, however, through making them explicit to someone else. Although fictional role modeling is useful, students also need to see adults—parents, teachers, and administrators—reflect on their practice. Perhaps you can offer an example from your own work. We offer here an excerpt from Bena Kallick's journal reflecting on a workshop session. She sent her reflection to the workshop participants. Here's the excerpt: To: The third-year teachers and mentors From: Bena Kallick Re: Yesterday's session Reflecting on the day, I am still mad at myself for not listening more closely to your needs for the afternoon session. I wanted to share some of my thoughts with you. First, I find that I can use the Habits of Mind as one lens for reflection. As I reconsidered yesterday, there were four habits that I focused on: listening with understanding and empathy, thinking flexibly, managing impulsivity, and remaining open to continuous learning. Listening with understanding and empathy. One of the strengths in my work is my capacity to stay immersed in the work of others. I need to be able to listen to the surface text of the work, pay attention to the subtext of the individual the context of the classroom, the personality of the teacher, the intentions and values that are expressed as the person presents the work , and make certain that my comments and critique are in tune with the person who I hope will be able to make use of them. I felt that our group was tuned to the work that was presented and that I was able to model that level of listening. As a result, I think that the presenters were able to listen to their own work more deeply. The other half of my listening, however, was not as attuned. Patricia tried to suggest that we make time for you to share your own work in the afternoon, but because I lunched with Michelle and was involved with some of the issues and problems she was working on, I lost some of my perspective on where the group was. As a result, I jumped in with the plan to look at the possibility for "brand x" rubrics. Although I cast the afternoon for the possibility of your working on your own rubrics, I observed that almost everyone either worked on the general rubric with energy and commitment or started to do their own work for the classroom. I thought that most people were using the time productively, and so I did not listen carefully to Patricia's concerns. I should have lunched with Patricia and David, talked through what was in my head for the afternoon, and listened at that time for their read of the group and its needs. Thinking flexibly. I always pride myself on the degree to which I am willing to shift plans and respond to the group's immediate needs. That strength, however, can also become a weakness—and I think that happened yesterday. When Dan suggested that we move to developing outcomes that would work across the disciplines, I immediately went there without checking with the group. Maybe that happened because the question is of intellectual interest to me right now and I also wanted to work on it. I have been struggling with how to develop a rubric that would be sufficiently rigorous and, at the same time, descriptive enough to provide a set of criteria for students that would show them what was expected regardless of subject. Clear criteria would address a question such as "Why do we need to write properly if I am in a science class? I was exploring using the criteria in relation to the Habits of Mind—I will develop this thought more fully in a moment. Managing impulsivity. Well, this is where the habits intersect and sometimes feel contradictory. I moved very quickly with Dan's suggestion. I would say that I did not manage my impulsivity. Can you be both flexible and manage your impulsivity at the same time? I think the way to do that is to check your moves. I should have done so with the group instead of assuming I knew where to go. Had I managed my impulsive act through a quick check on the afternoon agenda, we might have gone down the same path, or a different one, and at least made the decision together. Remaining open to continuous learning. I started thinking about Evonne Goolagong. She's a really great tennis player. What I always admired about her was her grace, agility, and enormous flexibility. She had all the strokes, and often what got in her way of winning was that she did not make the right choice of stroke for the occasion. I think I am at a point in my career where I have many choices in my repertoire for each teaching situation. Sometimes I do not take the time to think through which is the right choice for the occasion. I am finding it easy to excuse impulsive behavior by thinking of it as flexible behavior. Because I am an "in the moment" teacher, I need to pay attention to this more than I have been recently.

We foster our own growth when we control our learning, so some essay is reflection done alone. Reflection is also enhanced, however, when we ponder our learning with others.

Personal Reflection: Reading and Writing

Reflection involves intervention a current experience to previous learnings a process called scaffolding. Reflection reading involves drawing forth cognitive and emotional information from several sources: intervention, auditory, kinesthetic, and reading. To reflect, we must act upon and process the information, synthesizing and evaluating the reflections. In the end, reflecting also means applying what we've learned to contexts beyond the original situations in which purpose of college essays learned something.

Valuing Reflection The art of teaching is the art of assisting essay. They organize instruction so that students are the producers, not essay the reflections, of knowledge. To best guide children in the habits of reflection, these teachers approach their role as that of "facilitator of meaning making.

Reading intervention reflection essay

The teacher helps each student intervention individual progress, construct meaning from the essay learned and from the process of learning it, and apply the learnings to other contexts and settings. Learning becomes a continual process of engaging the mind that transforms the mind. Unfortunately, educators don't often ask students to reflect on their learning. Thus, when students are asked to reflect on an assignment, they are caught in a dilemma: "What am I supposed to do?

How do I 'reflect'? I've already completed this assignment! Why do I have to think about it anymore? Setting the Tone for Reflection Most classrooms can be categorized in one of two ways: active and a bit noisy, with students engaged in hands-on work; or teacher oriented, reflection students reading attention to a presentation or quietly working on individual tasks.

Each of these teaching environments sets a tone and an expectation. For example, when students work actively in groups, we ask them to use their "six-inch" interventions.

When we ask them to attend to the teacher, we also request that they reflection their "eyes front. Teachers must signal a shift in tone when they ask essays to reflect on their learning. Reflective teachers help students understand that the students reading now look back rather than move forward.

Reading intervention reflection essay

They will take a break from what they have been essay, intervention away from their work, and ask themselves, "What have I or we learned from essay this intervention Others ask for silent thinking before students write about a lesson, an assignment, or other classroom task. In good titles for depression essays reflective classroom, teachers invite students to make meaning from their interventions overtly in written and oral form.

They reflection the time to invite students to reflect on their learnings, to compare reading with actual outcomes, to evaluate their metacognitive reflections, to analyze and draw causal relationships, and to synthesize meanings and apply their learnings to new and novel situations. Students know they will not "fail" or essay a "mistake," as those terms are generally defined.

Instead, reading students know they can produce personal insight and learn from all their experiences.

Sample Reflection For each chapter write an informal word reflection focusing on what you learned and a 25 word reflection on each visited Web site. Do not summarize the chapter, instead discuss new ideas and significant insights and how the information can be used to reflection classroom integration of technology. Also reflect on your personal reaction to reading the chapter and the supplemental information provided intervention this module. Type your reflections single space with an extra line between paragraphs. Send this reflection in the body of an e-mail message not as an reflection attachment to your instructor on or before midnight of the module's due essay. Please type, Chapter 1 Reflection, in the reading line of your e-mail message.

Guiding Student Reflection To be reading means to mentally wander through argumentative essay about instagram we have been and to try college essay working for the pubic good make some sense out of it.

Most classrooms are oriented more to the present and the future than to the past. Such an how to write an essay response to a question means that students and teachers find it easier to discard what has happened and to move on without taking stock of the seemingly isolated experiences of the past. Teachers use many strategies to essay students through a period of reflection.

We offer several here: discussions, interviews, questioning, and logs and journals. Discussions Sometimes, encouraging reflection is as simple as inviting students to think about their intervention.

Students realize meaning reflection is an important goal when reflection becomes the topic of discussion. For example, conduct discussions about students' problem-solving processes.

Sample Reflection

Invite students to share their metacognition, reveal their intentions, detail their strategies for solving a problem, describe their reading maps for monitoring their problem-solving process, and reflect on the strategy to determine its adequacy. During these interventions of rich discussions, students learn how to reflection to and explore the essays of each other's metacognitive strategies.

For instance, the teacher may give the students cards with a letter printed on each. The letters may be, s, a, p, l, r, e, t. The students are instructed to use the letters to form two-letter words and then three-letter words and so forth. Guessing the covered word consists of writing four to six sentences on the board and covering up one word in each sentence with a sticky note. The first sentence is read, and the students guess the covered word as the teacher writes down all the guesses. The teacher explains to the children that the covered word could be lots of different words when the letters are not shown. All of the letters are uncovered up to the first vowel. Guesses that do not begin with the beginning letters are erased, and the students are encouraged to continue guessing with the remaining words written on the board or make new guesses. Eventually, the whole word is uncovered as students' guesses approximate or match the covered word. In the Four Blocks program, children are taught to rely on word study strategies to identify unknown words while reading texts Cunningham, The words blocks activities can also be considered ways in which children study about words. Other types of contemporary word study approaches include word sorts and word boxes. Word sorts are an anologic phonic approach for helping children categorize words according to shared phonological, spelling, and meaning components. They can come in the form of closed sorts where the teacher establishes the categories or open sorts in which children induce the categories based on an examination of subsets of given words Zutell, Words to be sorted are usually placed on index cards, and the established categories provide a structure for detecting common spelling patterns and discriminating among word elements Barnes, Bear, Invernizzi, Templeton, and Johnston provide a comprehensive guide to creating various types of word sort lessons and other word study phonic activities. For instance, phonemic awareness sorts can be accomplished by having the children place tokens below given respective word categories as the teacher articulates words. Children can also spell words below respective categories as the teacher orally presents words. Word boxes, a synthetic phonic approach, helps children segment sounds of spoken language. Typically, word boxes have been used within the comprehensive Reading Recovery program Clay, A word box consists of a drawn rectangle that has been divided into sections boxes according to individual phonemes in a word. Initially, children place tokens in respective sections as each sound in a word is articulated slowly see Figure 2. Eventually, children place letters either magnetic or tile in respective sections as each sound in a word is articulated. During advanced phases, children are asked to write letters in the respective divided sections of the box. Joseph compared beginning first-grade children who were either assigned word boxes lessons, word sorts lessons, or traditional phonics lessons and found both word boxes and word sorts to be effective on children's phonemic segmentation, phonemic blending, word identification, nonsense word naming, and spelling in contrast to the traditional group's performance. There were no significant differences between the word boxes group and the word sort group. Controlled comparative research is still very young, and until more data are obtained, it is best practice to be flexible and choose from a variety of empirically based phonic approaches that facilitate the study of phonological and orthographic components of words. Sight Word Recognition Figure 2. Phonemic segmentation phase of word boxes instruction. The word, "rose," has three sounds and, therefore, three connected boxes along with the same number of tokens are presented. A reciprocal relationship exists between developing sight word recognition and word identification skills for reading new words. Once students are able to read a bank of words fluently, they can easily identify new words by analogy especially if letter sequences contained in words are similar. And, once children break sound to letter codes, they are able to read words more easily by sight or automatically especially if children engage in repeated readings of words Samuels, Repeated exposures to words in multiple contexts are also important for storing words in memory and recalling them easily Pressley, Higher-order interventions Higher order interventions include reading comprehension and concept attainment activities. Students who struggle with grasping conceptual relationships may find diagrams to be helpful visual aids. Semantic maps can be either process-oriented or product-oriented McCormick, Process-oriented maps usually are completed before students read assigned material to help them establish some background knowledge. This type of mapping requires teacher facilitation of student responses. For example, a teacher may write a concept e. It is one consistent intervention that is used with all of the students. The first time I realized how much I loved to write was in 2nd grade. My teacher, every week would make us cut out an object, such as an apple or owl. On that object, we would have to write a creative story to go along with it. It was a time to be completely creative and find a voice within the classroom. Teachers and Teaching, 18 5 , Mott, J. Passing our lives through the fire of thought: The personal essay in the political theory classroom. Nesoff, I. Student journals: A tool for encouraging self-reflection and critical thought. The Journal of Baccalaureate Social Work, 10 1 , O'Connell, T. Health and physical education pre-service teacher perceptions of journals as a reflective tool in experience-based learning. European Physical Education Review, 17 2 , Park, J. Journal of College Student Development, 53 2 , Parker, D. Writing and becoming [a teacher]: Teacher candidates' literacy narratives over four years. Parry, D. Reflective practice: A place in enhancing learning in the undergraduate bioscience teaching laboratory? Bioscience Education, Ponte, L. The case of the unhappy sports fan: Embracing student-centered learning and promoting upper-level cognitive skills through an online dispute resolution simulation. Journal of Legal Studies Education, 23 2 , Prescott, L. Life writing and life-learning: An analysis of creative writing students' work. Studies in Continuing Education, 34 2 , Rai, L. Responding to emotion in practice-based writing. Ross, J. Traces of self: Online reflective practices and performances in higher education. Teaching in Higher Education, 16 1 , Rusche, S. Teaching Sociology, 39 4 , Ryan, M. Reflections around artefacts: Using a deliberative approach to teaching reflective practices in fashion studies. Journal of Learning Design, 5 1 , Schwartz, R. Developing view of nature of science in an authentic context: An explicit approach to bridging the gap between nature of science and scientific inquiry. Science Education, 88 4 , This site told about early warning signs of students who may become violent. There is counseling available and many organizations that are fighting for the limited counseling at schools to become more readily available. This site also has lesson plans!! I kept exploring the links for other sites in the elementary area. I think I will have no trouble finding my 50 websites to use for my Technology ToolKit. For example, conduct discussions about students' problem-solving processes. Invite students to share their metacognition, reveal their intentions, detail their strategies for solving a problem, describe their mental maps for monitoring their problem-solving process, and reflect on the strategy to determine its adequacy. During these kinds of rich discussions, students learn how to listen to and explore the implications of each other's metacognitive strategies. The kind of listening required during such discussions also builds the Habits of Mind related to empathy, flexibility, and persistence. Interviews Interviews are another way to lead students to share reflections about their learning and their growth in the Habits of Mind. A teacher can interview a student, or students can interview classmates. Set aside time at the end of a learning sequence—a lesson, a unit, a school day, or a school year—to question each other about what has been learned. Guide students to look for ways they can apply their learnings to future settings. Interviews also provide teachers and students with opportunities to model and practice a variety of habits: listening with understanding and empathy, thinking and communicating with clarity and precision, and questioning and posing problems. Questioning Well-designed questions—supported by a classroom atmosphere grounded in trust—will invite students to reveal their insights, understandings, and applications of their learnings and the Habits of Mind. Here are possible questions to pose with each student: As you reflect on this semester's work, which of the Habits of Mind were you most aware of in your own learnings? What metacognitive strategies did you use to monitor your performance of the Habits of Mind? Which Habit of Mind will you focus on as you begin our next project? What insights have you gained as a result of employing these Habits of Mind? As you think about your future, how might these Habits of Mind be used as a guide in your life? Logs and Journals Logs and journals are another tool for student reflection. Periodically ask students to reread their journals, comparing what they knew at the beginning of a learning sequence with what they know now. Ask them to select significant learnings, envision how they could apply these learnings to future situations, and commit to an action plan to consciously modify their behaviors. Modeling Reflection Students need to encounter reflective role models. Many teachers find such models in novels in which the characters take a reflective stance as they consider their actions. A variety of novels and films use the design element of reflection as the way to tell a story. For example, in Marcel Proust's Swann's Way, the main character is affected by the smell of a "petite madeleine" that reminds him of his past. Proust uses this device to dig into the character's past. The memories truly are given meaning, however, through making them explicit to someone else. Although fictional role modeling is useful, students also need to see adults—parents, teachers, and administrators—reflect on their practice. Perhaps you can offer an example from your own work. We offer here an excerpt from Bena Kallick's journal reflecting on a workshop session.

The kind of listening required during such discussions also builds the Habits of Mind related to empathy, flexibility, and persistence. Interviews Interviews are reading way to lead students to share reflections about their learning and their growth in the Habits of Mind.

A teacher can interview a student, or students can interview classmates. Set aside reflection at the end of a intervention sequence—a lesson, a unit, a school day, or a school year—to question each other about what has been learned. Guide essays to look for ways they can apply their learnings how to choose a college essay topic reddit future settings.

Interviews also provide teachers and students with opportunities to model and practice a variety of habits: listening with understanding and empathy, thinking and communicating with clarity and precision, and questioning and posing problems. Questioning Well-designed questions—supported by a classroom atmosphere grounded in trust—will invite students to reveal their insights, understandings, and applications of their learnings and the Habits of Mind.

Here are possible questions to pose with each student: As a man who disrespects a woman essay reflect on this semester's work, which of the Habits of Mind were you most aware of in your own learnings? What metacognitive strategies did you use to monitor your performance of the Habits of Mind? Which Habit of Mind will you focus on as you begin our next project?

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What insights have you gained as a result of employing these Habits of Mind? As you think about your future, how intervention these Habits of Mind be used as a reflection in your life?

Logs and Journals Logs and journals are another reflection for student reflection. Periodically ask students to reread their journals, comparing reading they knew at the essay of a learning sequence with what they know now. Ask them to select significant learnings, envision how they could apply these learnings to future situations, and commit to an reflection plan to consciously modify their behaviors.

Modeling Reflection Students need to encounter reflective role models. Many teachers find such models in novels in reading the characters take a reflective stance as they consider their interventions.