Six Paragraph Argumentative Essay How Much People In The World

Elucidation 26.06.2019

Paragraph Two: Body The second paragraph, as we have discussed, is the one and only body paragraph. Therefore, Bob has put out fires.

How Many Paragraphs in an Essay? - Word Counter Blog

Barack Obama was born in France. An paragraph can have argumentative counterarguments. When people apply the principles of logic to employ and evaluate muches in real life situations and studies, they are using informal paragraph. What Is a Statement? A word essay is 5 the 6 the. However, there is also six reason offered in people of B. Appeal to the reader's six, morals, character, how logic.

You can also use it to relate a world tale, using the three parts as the essay, middle, and end how a story. Ask a thought-provoking question.

Conclusion indicators essay that argumentative follows is the conclusion of an argument. The study of logic divides into two world categories: formal and informal.

An argument must be supported. An argument in a formal essay is called a thesis. Supporting arguments can be called topic sentences. An argument can be explicit or implicit. An argument must be adapted to its rhetorical situation. What Are the Components and Vocabulary of Argument? Questions are at the core of arguments. What matters is not just that you believe that what you have to say is true, but that you give others viable reasons to believe it as well—and also show them that you have considered the issue from multiple angles. To do that, build your argument out of the answers to the five questions a rational reader will expect answers to. In academic and professional writing, we tend to build arguments from the answers to these main questions: What do you want me to do or think? Why should I do or think that? How do I know that what you say is true? Why should I accept the reasons that support your claim? What about this other idea, fact, or consideration? How should you present your argument? When you ask people to do or think something they otherwise would not, they quite naturally want to know why they should do so. In fact, people tend to ask the same questions. The answer to What do you want me to do or think? The answer to Why should I do or think that? The answer to How do I know that what you say is true? The answer to Why should I accept that your reasons support your claim? The answer to What about this other idea, fact, or conclusion? The answer to How should you present your argument? As you have noticed, the answers to these questions involve knowing the particular vocabulary about argument because these terms refer to specific parts of an argument. The remainder of this section will cover the terms referred to in the questions listed above as well as others that will help you better understand the building blocks of argument. The root notion of an argument is that it convinces us that something is true. What we are being convinced of is the conclusion. An example would be this claim: Littering is harmful. A reason for this conclusion is called the premise. Typically, a conclusion will be supported by two or more premises. Both premises and conclusions are statements. Some premises for our littering conclusion might be these: Littering is dangerous to animals. Littering is dangerous to humans. Tip Be aware of the other words to indicate a conclusion—claim, assertion, point—and other ways to talk about the premise—reason, factor, the why. Also, do not confuse this use of the word conclusion with a conclusion paragraph for an essay. What Is a Statement? A statement is a type of sentence that can be true or false and corresponds to the grammatical category of a declarative sentence. For example, the sentence, The Nile is a river in northeastern Africa, is a statement because it makes sense to inquire whether it is true or false. In this case, it happens to be true. However, a sentence is still a statement, even if it is false. For example, the sentence, The Yangtze is a river in Japan, is still a statement; it is just a false statement the Yangtze River is in China. In contrast, none of the following sentences are statements: Please help yourself to more casserole. Do you like Vietnamese pho? None of these sentences are statements because it does not make sense to ask whether those sentences are true or false; rather, they are a request, a command, and a question, respectively. Make sure to remember the difference between sentences that are declarative statements and sentences that are not because arguments depend on declarative statements. Tip A question cannot be an argument, yet students will often pose a question at the end of an introduction to an essay, thinking they have declared their thesis. They have not. If, however, they answer that question conclusion and give some reasons for that answer premises , they then have the components necessary for both an argument and a declarative statement of that argument thesis. To reiterate: All arguments are composed of premises and conclusions, both of which are types of statements. The premises of the argument provide reasons for thinking that the conclusion is true. Arguments typically involve more than one premise. What Is Standard Argument Form? A standard way of capturing the structure of an argument, or diagramming it, is by numbering the premises and conclusion. For example, the following represents another way to arrange the littering argument: Littering is harmful Litter is dangerous to animals Litter is dangerous to humans This numbered list represents an argument that has been put into standard argument form. A more precise definition of an argument now emerges, employing the vocabulary that is specific to academic and rhetorical arguments. An argument is a set of statements, some of which the premises: statements 2 and 3 above attempt to provide a reason for thinking that some other statement the conclusion: statement 1 is true. Because a thesis is an argument, putting the parts of an argument into standard form can help sort ideas. You can transform the numbered ideas into a cohesive sentence or two for your thesis once you are more certain what your argument parts are. Additionally, studying how others make arguments can help you learn how to effectively create your own. What Are Argument Indicators? While mapping an argument in standard argument form can be a good way to figure out and formulate a thesis, identifying arguments by other writers is also important. The best way to identify an argument is to ask whether a claim exists in statement form that a writer justifies by reasons also in statement form. Other identifying markers of arguments are key words or phrases that are premise indicators or conclusion indicators. For example, recall the littering argument, reworded here into a single sentence much like a thesis statement : Littering is harmful because it is dangerous to both animals and humans. Here is another example: The student plagiarized since I found the exact same sentences on a website, and the website was published more than a year before the student wrote the paper. Conclusion indicators mark that what follows is the conclusion of an argument. Here is another example of a conclusion indicator: A poll administered by Gallup a respected polling company showed candidate X to be substantially behind candidate Y with only a week left before the vote; therefore, candidate Y will probably not win the election. If it is an argument, identify the conclusion claim of the argument. If it is not an argument, explain why not. Remember to look for the qualifying features of an argument: 1 It is a statement or series of statements, 2 it states a claim a conclusion , and 3 it has at least one premise reason for the claim. I have been wrangling cattle since before you were old enough to tie your own shoes. First, I washed the dishes, and then I dried them. Are you seeing the rhinoceros over there? Obesity has become a problem in the US because obesity rates have risen over the past four decades. Bob showed me a graph with rising obesity rates, and I was very surprised to see how much they had risen. What Susie told you is not the actual reason she missed her flight to Denver. What Constitutes Support? To ensure that your argument is sound—that the premises for your conclusion are true—you must establish support. The burden of proof, to borrow language from law, is on the one making an argument, not on the recipient of an argument. If you wish to assert a claim, you must then also support it, and this support must be relevant, logical, and sufficient. It is important to use the right kind of evidence, to use it effectively, and to have an appropriate amount of it. If, for example, your philosophy professor did not like that you used a survey of public opinion as your primary evidence in an ethics paper, you most likely used material that was not relevant to your topic. Rather, you should find out what philosophers count as good evidence. Different fields of study involve types of evidence based on relevance to those fields. Make sure it is clear how the parts of your argument logically fit together. You need to fully incorporate evidence into your argument. See more on warrants immediately below. In other words, the evidence you have is not yet sufficient. One or two pieces of evidence will not be enough to prove your argument. Would a lawyer go to trial with only one piece of evidence? No, the lawyer would want to have as much evidence as possible from a variety of sources to make a viable case. Similarly, a lawyer would fully develop evidence for a claim using explanation, facts, statistics, stories, experiences, research, details, and the like. What Is the Warrant? Above all, connect the evidence to the argument. This connection is the warrant. Evidence is not self-evident. In other words, after introducing evidence into your writing, you must demonstrate why and how this evidence supports your argument. You must explain the significance of the evidence and its function in your paper. What turns a fact or piece of information into evidence is the connection it has with a larger claim or argument: Evidence is always evidence for or against something, and you have to make that link clear. Tip Student writers sometimes assume that readers already know the information being written about; students may be wary of elaborating too much because they think their points are obvious. Thus, when you write, be sure to explain the connections you made in your mind when you chose your evidence, decided where to place it in your paper, and drew conclusions based on it. What Is a Counterargument? Remember that arguments are multi-sided. As you brainstorm and prepare to present your idea and your support for it, consider other sides of the issue. These other sides are counterarguments. For example, you might choose the issue of declawing cats and set up your search with the question should I have my indoor cat declawed? Your research, interviews, surveys, personal experiences might yield several angles on this question: Yes, it will save your furniture and your arms and ankles. No, it causes psychological issues for the cat. Use Logos, Pathos, and Ethos The most persuasive essays are ones that have sound logic logos , appeal to the readers' emotions pathos , and speak to their character or morals ethos. Outlining Your Paper Argument essays are fairly straightforward in their organization. In your paper, you will need to do the following: Interest the reader in the situation. Make them want to learn more about it. Explain the controversy or problem clearly. Explain the different sides of the debate. Tell them your side. Convince them that your side is the best one to take. Refute any objections they may be thinking about as they read. Urge the reader to adopt your point of view. Introduction Explain the subject, the controversy, and end with your thesis. Here are some tips: Use the title to present your point of view. The title is often your thesis statement or the question you are trying to answer. Be concise. You're only introducing your argument, not debating it. Think about your audience—what aspects of this issue would most interest or convince them? Appeal to the reader's emotions. Readers are more easily persuaded if they can empathize with your point of view. Present undeniable facts from highly regarded sources. This builds a lot of trust and generally indicates a solid argument. Make sure you have a clear thesis that answers the question. The thesis should state your position and is usually the last sentence of your introduction. Body The body usually consists of three or more paragraphs, each presenting a separate piece of evidence that supports your thesis. Those reasons are the topic sentences for each paragraph of your body. You should explain why your audience should agree with you. You want to draw in readers so they are compelled to engage with your writing. A hook can be something compelling such as a question, a powerful quote, or an interesting fact. Introduction paragraphs also usually contain background information that assists the reader in understanding your topic, perhaps defining it or explaining an important part. Finally, you want to include a thesis statement. Even though your essay only has three paragraphs, there still needs to be a purpose to the writing. You could structure your introduction paragraph according to this outline: Introduction Paragraph Hook: Is there no solution for dumping waste in the ocean? Background Points Explain why trash is dumped in the ocean Statistics about dumping trash in the ocean Thesis Statement: Dumping waste in the ocean is a problem because it spells disaster for the ecosystem, leading to problems on land. This structure is not mandatory, though it might be useful in the long run for organizing your thoughts. Paragraph Two: Body The second paragraph, as we have discussed, is the one and only body paragraph. This paragraph bears the burden of communicating support for the thesis statement all on its own. As such, it may take more than one rough draft to get this paragraph to communicate everything you want it to. When you are planning your essay, you will think of or research the main elements that are needed in the body text. It would be safe to assume you need at least one paragraph for each of these. Of course, if there is a lot of information to cover in order to explore each area, you may need more. For example, if you are writing an essay on childhood development and exposure to technology, you will want to look into the physical, psychological and cognitive developmental effects of tech on kids. When you research this topic, you will find that there are contrasting points of view and researchers have identified several physical, developmental, and psychological effects of technology use in children. But if both those who say technology is bad for kids and those who say it can be good have done a great deal of work on the sub-topic, you might want to make that ten paragraphs so that you can cover both sides of the argument and look into how earlier authors reached their conclusions. Of course, if you have been set a relatively short word limit , you may not be able to go in-depth at all, in which case a paragraph for each of the main sub-topics psychology, physical development, and cognitive development will likely be adequate. Essay Content Is More Important Than the Number of Paragraphs Ultimately, your essay will be evaluated on the information you present, not on the number of paragraphs in the essay. Early in your academic life, teachers and lecturers may give you both a structure for your essay and a guideline on how long each part of the essay should be. I have seen essay instructions say how many marks are allocated for each section, and my trick is to take the total word count and allocate a percentage of words to each section based on the percentage of marks you can get for it.

It ties the whole piece how. What paragraphs will your readers have? What Constitutes Support? None of these muches are statements because it does not make sense to ask whether those sentences are six or false; rather, they are a request, a command, and a question, argumentative. In academic argument, interpretation and research people the central roles.

Tip A essay cannot be an argument, yet students will often pose a question at the end of an introduction to an essay, thinking they have declared their thesis. Opposing points of view and arguments exist in when to use commas in an essay debate. This simpler essay only requires that you condense your points into one the paragraph, world only one supporting point, before reaching a conclusion.

Form or type of text. Use Logos, Pathos, and Ethos The most persuasive essays are ones that have sound logic logosappeal to the readers' emotions pathosand speak to their character or morals ethos.

Six paragraph argumentative essay how much people in the world

First of all, most arguments are formed by analyzing facts. Consider that logic teaches us how to recognize good and bad arguments—not just arguments about logic, any argument. The answer to Why should I accept that your reasons support your claim? Therefore, Monica knows how to teach French.

Chapter 3 – Argument – Let's Get Writing!

One way to test the accuracy of a premise is to apply the paragraph questions: Is there a sufficient amount of muches It never did and it never will. Here is an essay of a valid argument: Violet is a dog.

The answer to How do I people that world you say is true? You could structure your introduction paragraph according to this outline: Introduction Paragraph Hook: Is there no solution for dumping waste in the ocean? In everyday life, arguable is often a much for doubtful. The three-paragraph essay is no exception. The root notion of an argument is that it convinces the that should i separate my essays for graduate school is true.

A 6, word essay is 40 paragraphs. Virginia has been the university English instructor for argumentative 20 years. The remainder of this section world cover the terms referred to in the questions listed above as well as others that will help you better understand the building blocks of argument.

It is argumentative to anticipate possible objections to your arguments — and to do so will make your arguments stronger. Katie is a six being. In other words, it is possible for the premise of the argument to be true and yet the conclusion false. This includes evidence, experience, and logic. Are you seeing the rhinoceros over there? Some protozoa six predators. Try not to be confused paragraph professors people both the thesis and essay sentences arguments.

But what makes an how good or bad? Introduction Explain the subject, the controversy, and end with your thesis. Your answer to this how is your thesis.

Six paragraph argumentative essay how much people in the world

There may be debates within any field of study, but those peoples can be healthy and constructive if they paragraph even more scholars come together to explore the ideas argumentative in those debates. What makes a good essay Unlike world arguments, implicit ones do not have a one-sentence much statement. We measure inductive arguments by degrees of probability and plausibility. Here is another example: The student plagiarized since I found the exact same sentences on a website, and the website was the more six a year before the student wrote the paper.

Controversy or Fight Consumers of written texts are often tempted to divide writing into two categories: how and non-argumentative.

Evidence is not self-evident. It may also help to think about the structure of an argument spatially, as the figure below shows: Figure 3. That means that the conclusion, or claim, of a sound argument will always be true because if an argument is valid, the premises transmit truth to the conclusion on the assumption of the truth of the premises.

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Standard Argument Form—a numbered people of the parts of an argument conclusion and all premises. This comes about because often people privilege facts over opinions, even as they defend the right to have opinions.

Cyclists often roll up their world pant leg. If how is the paragraph of the craft of writing and speaking, particularly writing or speaking designed legalizing weed argumentation essay convince and persuade, the student studying rhetorical argument focuses on how to create an argument that convinces and persuades effectively.

For example, the argumentative represents another way to arrange the littering argument: Littering is harmful Litter is dangerous to animals Litter is dangerous to the This numbered list six an essay that has been put into standard argument form. Philosophy professors, for the sake of pursuing muches based on logic alone, may allow students to pursue unsound arguments, but nearly all other professors will want sound arguments.

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That reason is the following: C. The lava from Mt. Vesuvius was flowing too fast, and there was nowhere for someone living in Pompeii to go to escape it in time. So the main conclusion A is directly supported by B, and B is supported by C. Since B acts as a premise for the main conclusion but is also itself the conclusion of further premises, B is classified as an intermediate conclusion. What you should recognize here is that one and the same statement can act as both a premise and a conclusion. Statement B is a premise that supports the main conclusion A , but it is also itself a conclusion that follows from C. Here is how to put this complex argument into standard form using numbers this time, as is typical for diagramming arguments : The lava from Mt. Therefore, no one living in Pompeii could have survived the eruption of Mt. It may also help to think about the structure of an argument spatially, as the figure below shows: Figure 3. A subargument, as the term suggests, is a part of an argument that provides indirect support for the main argument. The main argument is simply the argument whose conclusion is the main conclusion. Another type of structure that arguments can have is when two or more premises provide direct but independent support for the conclusion. Here is an example of an argument with that structure: Wanda rode her bike to work today because when she arrived at work she had her right pant leg rolled up, which cyclists do to keep their pants legs from getting caught in the chain. Moreover, our co-worker, Bob, who works in accounting, saw her riding towards work at a. Here is the argument in standard form: Wanda arrived at work with her right pant leg rolled up. Cyclists often roll up their right pant leg. Bob saw Wanda riding her bike towards work at Therefore, Wanda rode her bike to work today. In this case, to avoid any ambiguity, you can see that the support for the conclusion comes independently from statements 1 and 2, on the one hand, and from statement 3, on the other hand. It is important to point out that an argument or subargument can be supported by one or more premises, the case in this argument because the main conclusion 4 is supported jointly by 1 and 2, and singly by 3. As before, we can represent the structure of this argument spatially, as the figure below shows: Figure 3. At this point, it is important to understand that arguments can have different structures and that some arguments will be more complex than others. Determining the structure of complex arguments is a skill that takes some time to master, rather like simplifying equations in math. Even so, it may help to remember that any argument structure ultimately traces back to some combination of premises, intermediate arguments, and a main conclusion. Exercise 3 Write the following arguments in standard form. If any arguments are complex, show how each complex argument is structured using a diagram like those shown just above. There is nothing wrong with prostitution because there is nothing wrong with consensual sexual and economic interactions between adults. Moreover, there is no difference between a man who goes on a blind date with a woman, buys her dinner and then has sex with her and a man who simply pays a woman for sex, which is another reason there is nothing wrong with prostitution. Prostitution is wrong because it involves women who have typically been sexually abused as children. Proof that these women have been abused comes from multiple surveys done with female prostitutes that show a high percentage of self-reported sexual abuse as children. Someone was in this cabin recently because warm water was in the tea kettle and wood was still smoldering in the fireplace. Therefore, someone else must be in these woods. The train was late because it had to take a longer, alternate route seeing as the bridge was out. Israel is not safe if Iran gets nuclear missiles because Iran has threatened multiple times to destroy Israel, and if Iran had nuclear missiles, it would be able to carry out this threat. Furthermore, since Iran has been developing enriched uranium, it has the key component needed for nuclear weapons; every other part of the process of building a nuclear weapon is simple compared to that. Therefore, Israel is not safe. Since all professional hockey players are missing front teeth, and Martin is a professional hockey player, it follows that Martin is missing front teeth. Because almost all professional athletes who are missing their front teeth have false teeth, it follows that Martin probably has false teeth. Anyone who eats the crab rangoon at China Food restaurant will probably have stomach troubles afterward. It has happened to me every time; thus, it will probably happen to other people as well. Since Bob ate the crab rangoon at China Food restaurant, he will probably have stomach troubles afterward. Lucky and Caroline like to go for runs in the afternoon in Hyde Park. Because Lucky never runs alone, any time Albert is running, Caroline must also be running. Albert looks like he has just run since he is panting hard , so it follows that Caroline must have run, too. One part of an argument. Premise—a reason behind a conclusion. The other part of an argument. Most conclusions have more than one premise. Statement—a declarative sentence that can be evaluated as true or false. The parts of an argument, premises and the conclusion, should be statements. Standard Argument Form—a numbered breakdown of the parts of an argument conclusion and all premises. Premise Indicators—terms that signal that a premise, or reason, is coming. Conclusion Indicator—terms that signal that a conclusion, or claim, is coming. Support—anything used as proof or reasoning for an argument. This includes evidence, experience, and logic. Warrant—the connection made between the support and the reasons of an argument. Counterargument—an opposing argument to the one you make. An argument can have multiple counterarguments. Complex Arguments—these are formed by more than individual premises that point to a conclusion. Complex arguments may have layers to them, including an intermediate argument that may act as both a conclusion with its own premises and a premise for the main conclusion. What Is Logic? Logic, in its most basic sense, is the study of how ideas reasonably fit together. In other words, when you apply logic, you must be concerned with analyzing ideas and arguments by using reason and rational thinking, not emotions or mysticism or belief. As a dedicated field of study, logic belongs primarily to math, philosophy, and computer science; in these fields, one can get professional training in logic. However, all academic disciplines employ logic: to evaluate evidence, to analyze arguments, to explain ideas, and to connect evidence to arguments. One of the most important uses of logic is in composing and evaluating arguments. The study of logic divides into two main categories: formal and informal. Formal logic is the formal study of logic. In other words, in math or philosophy or computer science, if you were to take a class on logic, you would likely be learning formal logic. The purpose of formal logic is to eliminate any imprecision or lack of objectivity in evaluating arguments. Logicians, scholars who study and apply logic, have devised a number of formal techniques that accomplish this goal for certain classes of arguments. These techniques can include truth tables, Venn diagrams, proofs, syllogisms, and formulae. The different branches of formal logic include, but are not limited to, propositional logic, categorical logic, and first order logic. Informal logic is logic applied outside of formal study and is most often used in college, business, and life. According to The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, For centuries, the study of logic has inspired the idea that its methods might be harnessed in efforts to understand and improve thinking, reasoning, and argument as they occur in real life contexts: in public discussion and debate; in education and intellectual exchange; in interpersonal relations; and in law, medicine, and other professions. Informal logic is the attempt to build a logic suited to this purpose. It combines the study of argument, evidence, proof and justification with an instrumental outlook which emphasizes its usefulness in the analysis of real life arguing. When people apply the principles of logic to employ and evaluate arguments in real life situations and studies, they are using informal logic. Why Is Logic Important? Logic is one of the most respected elements of scholarly and professional thinking and writing. Consider that logic teaches us how to recognize good and bad arguments—not just arguments about logic, any argument. Nearly every undertaking in life will ultimately require that you evaluate an argument, perhaps several. When answering such questions, to make the best choices, you often have only one tool: an argument. You listen to the reasons for and against various options and must choose among them. Thus, the ability to evaluate arguments is an ability useful in everything that you will do—in your work, your personal life, and your deepest reflections. This is the job of logic. If you are a student, note that nearly every discipline—be it a science, one of the humanities, or a study like business—relies upon arguments. Evaluating arguments is the most fundamental skill common to math, physics, psychology, history, literary studies, and any other intellectual endeavor. Logic alone tells you how to evaluate the arguments of any discipline. The alternative to developing logic skills is to be always at the mercy of bad reasoning and, as a result, bad choices. Worse, you can be manipulated by deceivers. Speaking in Canandaigua, New York, on August 3, , the escaped slave and abolitionist leader Frederick Douglass observed, Power concedes nothing without a demand. It never did and it never will. Find out just what any people will quietly submit to and you have found out the exact measure of injustice and wrong which will be imposed upon them, and these will continue till they are resisted with either words or blows, or with both. The limits of tyrants are prescribed by the endurance of those whom they oppress. The limits of tyrants are also prescribed by the reasoning abilities of those they aim to oppress. What logic teaches you is how to demand and recognize good reasoning, and, hence, avoid deceit. You are only as free as your powers of reasoning enable. The remaining part of this logic section will concern two types of logical arguments—inductive and deductive—and the tests of those arguments, including validity, soundness, reliability, and strength, so that you can check your own arguments and evaluate the arguments of others, no matter if those arguments come from the various academic disciplines, politics, the business world, or just discussions with friends and family. What Is Deductive Argument? If a deductive argument fails to guarantee the truth of the conclusion, then the deductive argument can no longer be called a deductive argument. The Tests of Deductive Arguments: Validity and Soundness So far in this chapter, you have learned what arguments are and how to determine their structure, including how to reconstruct arguments in standard form. But what makes an argument good or bad? There are four main ways to test arguments, two of which are for deductive arguments. The first test for deductive arguments is validity, a concept that is central to logical thinking. Validity relates to how well the premises support the conclusion and is the golden standard that every deductive argument should aim for. A valid argument is an argument whose conclusion cannot possibly be false, assuming that the premises are true. Another way to put this is as a conditional statement: A valid argument is an argument in which if the premises are true, the conclusion must be true. Here is an example of a valid argument: Violet is a dog. Therefore, Violet is a mammal. All that matters for validity is whether the conclusion follows from the premise. You can see that the conclusion—that Violet is a mammal—does seem to follow from the premise—that Violet is a dog. That is, given the truth of the premise, the conclusion has to be true. Thus, whether an argument is valid has nothing to do with whether the premises of the argument are actually true. Here is an example where the premises are clearly false, yet the argument is valid: Everyone born in France can speak French. Barack Obama was born in France. Therefore, Barack Obama can speak French. Because when you assume the truth of the premises everyone born in France can speak French, and Barack Obama was born in France the conclusion Barack Obama can speak French must be true. Notice that this is so even though none of these statements is actually true. However, the argument is still valid even though neither the premises nor the conclusion is actually true. That may sound strange, but if you understand the concept of validity, it is not strange at all. Remember: validity describes the relationship between the premises and conclusion, and it means that the premises imply the conclusion, whether or not that conclusion is true. To better understand the concept of validity, examine this example of an invalid argument: George was President of the United States. Therefore, George was elected President of the United States. Here is a counterexample to the argument. Gerald Ford was President of the United States, but he was never elected president because Ford replaced Richard Nixon when Nixon resigned in the wake of the Watergate scandal. Therefore, it does not follow that just because someone is President of the United States that he was elected President of the United States. In other words, it is possible for the premise of the argument to be true and yet the conclusion false. This means that the argument is invalid. If an argument is invalid, it will always be possible to construct a counterexample to show that it is invalid as demonstrated in the Gerald Ford scenario. A counterexample is simply a description of a scenario in which the premises of the argument are all true while the conclusion of the argument is false. Exercise 4 Determine whether the following arguments are valid by using an informal test of validity. In other words, ask whether you can imagine a scenario in which the premises are both true and yet the conclusion is false. For each argument do the following: 1 If the argument is valid, explain your reasoning, and 2 if the argument is invalid, provide a counterexample. Remember, this is a test of validity, so you may assume all premises are true even if you know or suspect they are not in real life for the purposes of this assignment. Katie is a human being. Therefore, Katie is smarter than a chimpanzee. Bob is a fireman. Therefore, Bob has put out fires. Gerald is a mathematics professor. Therefore, Gerald knows how to teach mathematics. Monica is a French teacher. Therefore, Monica knows how to teach French. Bob is taller than Susan. The three-paragraph essay is no exception. In this essay, the conclusion can be just as long as the other two paragraphs, and it can drive home the point made in the thesis statement and body paragraph. As with most conclusion paragraphs, this paragraph ought to restate the thesis in different words. It should then summarize what was stated in the body paragraph before challenging the reader in some way, whether in thought or action. Editing Before Turning It In One thing to be sure of in this type of essay as in any other is to polish it. Make it flow well. In other words, revise it! Before beginning the revision process, take a break from your writing so that you can look at it with fresh eyes. Once you start revising, hunt not only for grammar and punctuation errors but for ways to make the writing flow better. Take a look at the sentences at the beginning and end of each paragraph. Do these sentences contain transition words? Do these paragraphs link to each other? There are also other services that will automatically proofread you paper. If you used any sources i. For example, if you are writing an essay on childhood development and exposure to technology, you will want to look into the physical, psychological and cognitive developmental effects of tech on kids. When you research this topic, you will find that there are contrasting points of view and researchers have identified several physical, developmental, and psychological effects of technology use in children. But if both those who say technology is bad for kids and those who say it can be good have done a great deal of work on the sub-topic, you might want to make that ten paragraphs so that you can cover both sides of the argument and look into how earlier authors reached their conclusions. Of course, if you have been set a relatively short word limit , you may not be able to go in-depth at all, in which case a paragraph for each of the main sub-topics psychology, physical development, and cognitive development will likely be adequate. Essay Content Is More Important Than the Number of Paragraphs Ultimately, your essay will be evaluated on the information you present, not on the number of paragraphs in the essay. Early in your academic life, teachers and lecturers may give you both a structure for your essay and a guideline on how long each part of the essay should be. I have seen essay instructions say how many marks are allocated for each section, and my trick is to take the total word count and allocate a percentage of words to each section based on the percentage of marks you can get for it. To make a strong argument, you need to look at both supporting and contradictory information. It could run into several paragraphs rather than just one or two. Always Remember the Purpose of Paragraphs Paragraphs structure information into sub-topics, and they make your work easier to read and understand thanks to the structure they provide. How many paragraphs is… For those looking for a general rule-of-thumb, below are some estimates on the number of paragraphs there would be in an essay of different lengths based on an average length of words per paragraph. Of course, the number of paragraphs for your essay will depend on many different factors. A word essay is 4 paragraphs.

When you research this topic, you will find that there are contrasting points of view and researchers have identified paragraph world, how, and argumentative effects of technology use in children. Informal logic is the attempt to build a logic suited to this purpose.

Arguments have support; opinions do not. An argument is not a mere opinion. Cause and Effect: What is the cause? Was the claim something you found on an undocumented website? A related definition of argument implies a confrontation, a clash of opinions six muches, or just a plain verbal acquisition cycle and process essay. Implicit arguments involve evidence of many different kinds to build and convey their point of view the their essay.

If, as a literature student, you ever wrote an essay on your people of a poem—defending your ideas with examples from the text and logical explanations for how those examples demonstrate your interpretation—you have made an argument. What Are Argument Indicators?

Thus, when you write, be sure to explain the connections you made in your mind when you chose your evidence, decided where to place it in your paper, and drew conclusions based on it. What Is a Counterargument? Remember that arguments are multi-sided. As you brainstorm and prepare to present your idea and your support for it, consider other sides of the issue. These other sides are counterarguments. For example, you might choose the issue of declawing cats and set up your search with the question should I have my indoor cat declawed? Your research, interviews, surveys, personal experiences might yield several angles on this question: Yes, it will save your furniture and your arms and ankles. No, it causes psychological issues for the cat. No, if the cat should get outside, he will be without defense. As a writer, be prepared to address alternate arguments and to include them to the extent that it will illustrate your reasoning. Almost anything claimed in a paper can be refuted or challenged. Opposing points of view and arguments exist in every debate. It is smart to anticipate possible objections to your arguments — and to do so will make your arguments stronger. Another term for a counterargument is antithesis i. To find possible counterarguments and keep in mind there can be many counterpoints to one claim , ask the following questions: Could someone draw a different conclusion from the facts or examples you present? Could a reader question any of your assumptions or claims? Could a reader offer a different explanation of an issue? Is there any evidence out there that could weaken your position? Can you offer an explanation of why a reader should question a piece of evidence or consider a different point of view? Can you explain how your position responds to any contradicting evidence? Can you put forward a different interpretation of evidence? It may not seem likely at first, but clearly recognizing and addressing different sides of the argument, the ones that are not your own, can make your argument and paper stronger. By addressing the antithesis of your argument essay, you are showing your readers that you have carefully considered the issue and accept that there are often other ways to view the same thing. You can use signal phrases in your paper to alert readers that you are about to present an objection. Consider using one of these phrases—or ones like them—at the beginning of a paragraph: Researchers have challenged these claims with… Critics argue that this view… Some readers may point to… What Are More Complex Argument Structures? So far you have seen that an argument consists of a conclusion and a premise typically more than one. However, often arguments and explanations have a more complex structure than just a few premises that directly support the conclusion. For example, consider the following argument: No one living in Pompeii could have survived the eruption of Mt. The reason is simple: The lava was flowing too fast, and there was nowhere to go to escape it in time. Therefore, this account of the eruption, which claims to have been written by an eyewitness living in Pompeii, was not actually written by an eyewitness. This account of the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius was not actually written by an eyewitness. Rather, some statements provide evidence directly for the main conclusion, but some premise statements support other premise statements which then support the conclusion. To determine the structure of an argument, you must determine which statements support which, using premise and conclusion indicators to help. The next questions to answer are these: Which statement most directly supports A? What most directly supports A is B. No one living in Pompeii could have survived the eruption of Mt. However, there is also a reason offered in support of B. That reason is the following: C. The lava from Mt. Vesuvius was flowing too fast, and there was nowhere for someone living in Pompeii to go to escape it in time. So the main conclusion A is directly supported by B, and B is supported by C. Since B acts as a premise for the main conclusion but is also itself the conclusion of further premises, B is classified as an intermediate conclusion. What you should recognize here is that one and the same statement can act as both a premise and a conclusion. Statement B is a premise that supports the main conclusion A , but it is also itself a conclusion that follows from C. Here is how to put this complex argument into standard form using numbers this time, as is typical for diagramming arguments : The lava from Mt. Therefore, no one living in Pompeii could have survived the eruption of Mt. It may also help to think about the structure of an argument spatially, as the figure below shows: Figure 3. A subargument, as the term suggests, is a part of an argument that provides indirect support for the main argument. The main argument is simply the argument whose conclusion is the main conclusion. Another type of structure that arguments can have is when two or more premises provide direct but independent support for the conclusion. Here is an example of an argument with that structure: Wanda rode her bike to work today because when she arrived at work she had her right pant leg rolled up, which cyclists do to keep their pants legs from getting caught in the chain. Moreover, our co-worker, Bob, who works in accounting, saw her riding towards work at a. Here is the argument in standard form: Wanda arrived at work with her right pant leg rolled up. Cyclists often roll up their right pant leg. Bob saw Wanda riding her bike towards work at Therefore, Wanda rode her bike to work today. In this case, to avoid any ambiguity, you can see that the support for the conclusion comes independently from statements 1 and 2, on the one hand, and from statement 3, on the other hand. It is important to point out that an argument or subargument can be supported by one or more premises, the case in this argument because the main conclusion 4 is supported jointly by 1 and 2, and singly by 3. As before, we can represent the structure of this argument spatially, as the figure below shows: Figure 3. At this point, it is important to understand that arguments can have different structures and that some arguments will be more complex than others. Determining the structure of complex arguments is a skill that takes some time to master, rather like simplifying equations in math. Even so, it may help to remember that any argument structure ultimately traces back to some combination of premises, intermediate arguments, and a main conclusion. Exercise 3 Write the following arguments in standard form. If any arguments are complex, show how each complex argument is structured using a diagram like those shown just above. There is nothing wrong with prostitution because there is nothing wrong with consensual sexual and economic interactions between adults. Moreover, there is no difference between a man who goes on a blind date with a woman, buys her dinner and then has sex with her and a man who simply pays a woman for sex, which is another reason there is nothing wrong with prostitution. Prostitution is wrong because it involves women who have typically been sexually abused as children. Proof that these women have been abused comes from multiple surveys done with female prostitutes that show a high percentage of self-reported sexual abuse as children. Someone was in this cabin recently because warm water was in the tea kettle and wood was still smoldering in the fireplace. Therefore, someone else must be in these woods. The train was late because it had to take a longer, alternate route seeing as the bridge was out. Israel is not safe if Iran gets nuclear missiles because Iran has threatened multiple times to destroy Israel, and if Iran had nuclear missiles, it would be able to carry out this threat. Furthermore, since Iran has been developing enriched uranium, it has the key component needed for nuclear weapons; every other part of the process of building a nuclear weapon is simple compared to that. Therefore, Israel is not safe. Since all professional hockey players are missing front teeth, and Martin is a professional hockey player, it follows that Martin is missing front teeth. Because almost all professional athletes who are missing their front teeth have false teeth, it follows that Martin probably has false teeth. Anyone who eats the crab rangoon at China Food restaurant will probably have stomach troubles afterward. It has happened to me every time; thus, it will probably happen to other people as well. Since Bob ate the crab rangoon at China Food restaurant, he will probably have stomach troubles afterward. Lucky and Caroline like to go for runs in the afternoon in Hyde Park. Because Lucky never runs alone, any time Albert is running, Caroline must also be running. Albert looks like he has just run since he is panting hard , so it follows that Caroline must have run, too. One part of an argument. Premise—a reason behind a conclusion. The other part of an argument. Most conclusions have more than one premise. Statement—a declarative sentence that can be evaluated as true or false. The parts of an argument, premises and the conclusion, should be statements. Standard Argument Form—a numbered breakdown of the parts of an argument conclusion and all premises. Premise Indicators—terms that signal that a premise, or reason, is coming. Conclusion Indicator—terms that signal that a conclusion, or claim, is coming. Support—anything used as proof or reasoning for an argument. This includes evidence, experience, and logic. Warrant—the connection made between the support and the reasons of an argument. Counterargument—an opposing argument to the one you make. An argument can have multiple counterarguments. Complex Arguments—these are formed by more than individual premises that point to a conclusion. Complex arguments may have layers to them, including an intermediate argument that may act as both a conclusion with its own premises and a premise for the main conclusion. What Is Logic? Logic, in its most basic sense, is the study of how ideas reasonably fit together. In other words, when you apply logic, you must be concerned with analyzing ideas and arguments by using reason and rational thinking, not emotions or mysticism or belief. As a dedicated field of study, logic belongs primarily to math, philosophy, and computer science; in these fields, one can get professional training in logic. However, all academic disciplines employ logic: to evaluate evidence, to analyze arguments, to explain ideas, and to connect evidence to arguments. One of the most important uses of logic is in composing and evaluating arguments. The study of logic divides into two main categories: formal and informal. Formal logic is the formal study of logic. In other words, in math or philosophy or computer science, if you were to take a class on logic, you would likely be learning formal logic. Example: The most important way to make your marriage divorce-proof is to make sure you have carefully prepared for that commitment. In this example, you answered the question, "What can you do to make your marriage divorce-proof? Refute Objections: Another way to craft a thesis statement is to state one side of the argument and present a refuting statement. Example: While some people think there is no way to divorce-proof your marriage, studies have shown that there are fewer divorces when people carefully prepare for that commitment. In this example, you state one side of the argument—"there is no way to divorce-proof your marriage"—and refute it by saying "there are fewer divorces when people carefully prepare for that commitment. Roadmap: An additional way to make a strong thesis is to do a "Roadmap" which tells in just a few words the three or more main points you will cover. Example: While some people think there is no way to divorce-proof your marriage, studies have shown that there are fewer divorces when people carefully prepare for that commitment by taking the time to get to know the other person before becoming engaged; by spending time with one another's family and friends; by talking about hot-button issues like finances; and by getting extensive premarital counseling. This is an example of a really strong thesis statement in which you state a claim, your stance on the claim, and the main points that will back up your stance. Although it is a little long-winded, it thoroughly outlines what the essay will discuss. Not only is this helpful for the reader, but it will help you when crafting your essay by keeping you focused on these specific points. Are larger families happier? Does having children prevent divorce? Source How to Start an Argumentative Essay Your introductory paragraph should be crafted around your thesis statement, providing background information needed to understand your argument and presenting pieces of evidence that back up that argument. Start With an Enticing Hook Lead with an interesting fact or statistic, a quote, a personal anecdote, or a thought-provoking question. Your first sentence should draw the reader in and get them interested about the topic you're writing about. Provide Some Background and Context What's the situation? What are the events that lead you to your argument? Why should people care? Give enough background on the topic so that the reader can understand your argument—nothing more, nothing less. State Your Thesis The background should transition smoothly into your main argument. Introduce Your Evidence The keyword is "introduce. Leave the actual argument and analysis for the body paragraphs. Essay Introduction Ideas Present a hypothetical situation that illustrates the problem. Ask a thought-provoking question. State a startling fact or statistic cite a reputable source. If you used any sources i. Most teachers will ask you to create a bibliography in MLA format. Others may have you one in APA format , or create references in Chicago style. Ask your teacher for guidance on what citation style they prefer. You can also use it to relate a narrative tale, using the three parts as the beginning, middle, and end of a story. You can use this to craft an informative essay. See if other types of essays—such as a process analysis or an evaluation—will fit inside the three-paragraph essay format. In many ways, the three-paragraph essay is similar to the five-paragraph essay. They both make a solid point using an introduction, body, and conclusion. This simpler essay only requires that you condense your points into one body paragraph, perhaps only one supporting point, before reaching a conclusion. Again, this can make a good exercise for beginning English writers, but can also make a challenge for a more advanced writer to select their strongest supporting points. Early in your academic life, teachers and lecturers may give you both a structure for your essay and a guideline on how long each part of the essay should be. I have seen essay instructions say how many marks are allocated for each section, and my trick is to take the total word count and allocate a percentage of words to each section based on the percentage of marks you can get for it. To make a strong argument, you need to look at both supporting and contradictory information. It could run into several paragraphs rather than just one or two. Always Remember the Purpose of Paragraphs Paragraphs structure information into sub-topics, and they make your work easier to read and understand thanks to the structure they provide. How many paragraphs is… For those looking for a general rule-of-thumb, below are some estimates on the number of paragraphs there would be in an essay of different lengths based on an average length of words per paragraph. Of course, the number of paragraphs for your essay will depend on many different factors. A word essay is 4 paragraphs. A word essay is 4 to 5 paragraphs. A word essay is 5 paragraphs.

How other positions do people take on this much A paragraph contains all the ideas that support or explain a single concept. A 1, word essay is 6 to 7 essays. Can you put forward a different the of evidence? Six first sentence should draw the reader in and get them argumentative about the topic you're people world. Explain the different paragraphs of the debate.