Data were classified according to several general traits blue box and growth conditions green box. Despite the generation of a huge number of publications during the last three decades, an analysis of the literature shows the existence of numerous conflicting results and inconsistencies.
However, a complete survey of all the literature has yet to be made. Thus, the aim of the present study was to fill this knowledge gap by compiling a dataset from the current literature describing the responses of photosynthetic pigment composition carotenoids and Chls to changes in environmental conditions.
Specifically, with the present literature survey, we aim to address the following questions. Is there a universal pigment composition for all plants in qualitative and quantitative terms when grown under nonstressful conditions?
Does the pigment composition described in the literature fit the thylakoidal polypeptide composition? If differences exist, are they phylogenetically or environmentally constrained? How is pigment composition modulated by environmental factors, particularly light, and what are the functional implications of this modulation? Review type articles were not taken into consideration. With this search criterion, a total of articles was found.
Our final database included species belonging to families. Analytical procedure Data were extracted from the tables and figures of the articles selected in the previous phase. Datasets were grouped as follows Fig. For experiments conducted in a glasshouse or growth chamber, temperature and photoperiod were recorded. For experiments conducted in the field, latitude, location, season and bioclimatic region were compiled. Again, at some point, a factor may become limiting. Temperature The chemical reactions that combine carbon dioxide and water to produce glucose are controlled by enzymes.
As with any other enzyme-controlled reaction, the rate of photosynthesis is affected by temperature. At low temperatures, the rate of photosynthesis is limited by the number of molecular collisions between enzymes and substrates. At high temperatures, enzymes are denatured. Chlorophyll absorbs the light energy required to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose. Chlorophyll is green - so absorbs the red and blue parts of the electromagnetic spectrum and reflects the green part of the spectrum.
Leaves with more chlorophyll are better able to absorb the light required for photosynthesis. The compensation point These graphs have been plotted with rate of photosynthesis against the factor under investigation.
If oxygen production or carbon dioxide uptake is used as a measure of photosynthetic rate, the graphs are slightly different.
The line does not go through the origin. This is because oxygen production and carbon dioxide uptake are affected by respiration as well as photosynthesis. Thus only about 0. Thus light is not a limiting factor at high intensity. Light is a limiting factor at low intensity. Thus the rate of photosynthesis increases with an increase in light intensity.
High light intensities affect the rate of photosynthesis. It increases the temperature of the leaves. Therefore, rate of transpiration increases. The stomata are closed. It stops the. Thus photosynthesis is stopped. Light also cause photorespiration. Photorespiration reduces the yield. Carbon dioxide The atmosphere is the chief source of carbon dioxide.
It contains only 0. It is very small amount. Therefore, CO, remain a limiting factor. The increase in the amount of carbon dioxide increases the photosynthesis. But it slows down beyond this point. Higher concentrations have an inhibitory effect on photosynthesis. It is clear that increase in concentration of CO, increases the yield of plant Temperature A suitable temperature is necessary for photosynthesis. There are three cardinals of temperature for photosynthesis. The plants of cold and temperate regions have lower values of these cardinals.
But tropical plants have higher sable of these cardinals. It is — C for some conifers.It is clear that increase in concentration of CO, increases the yield of plant Temperature A suitable temperature is necessary for photosynthesis. The rate of photosynthesis depends on the concentration of enzymes and chlorophyll. In moderate light intensities the rate of photosynthesis is directly proportional to irradiance.
Again, at some point, a factor may become limiting. According to the law of limiting factors, put forward by F. P as phosphate is essential for ATP synthesis.
Hormones The rate of photosynthesis is also influenced by certain hormones present in a plant such as cytokinins, gibberellins and abscisic acid. Leaf anatomy Leaf anatomy also influences the photosynthesis.
Only data from unstressed plants are included. Internal factors Chlorophyll The process of photosynthesis depends on the amount of chlorophyll present in the leaf. This increase follows Vant Hoffs law.
Is there a universal pigment composition for all plants in qualitative and quantitative terms when grown under nonstressful conditions? Statistical analysis Linear regressions were tested to analyse the relationship between DPI and scaled normalized pigments. It starts after some time. A limiting factor is the factor, in a chemical reaction involving several factors, which prevents the reaction rate from increasing because it is present at its minimum level. Hormones: Cytokines and gibberellins increase the rate of photosynthesis but abscisic acid reduces the same. There will come a point when the rate of photosynthesis has increased to match the rate of respiration.
The number of reported data n is shown below each box. Thus light is not a limiting factor at high intensity. Comparatively more photosynthesis occurs is red and blue regions though others have significant net photosynthesis. As with any other enzyme-controlled reaction, the rate of photosynthesis is affected by temperature.
It has already reached ppm. For example, sun plants contain less chlorophyll as compared to shade plants but the rate of photosynthesis in bright light is much higher in sun plants than in shade plants. High light intensities affect the rate of photosynthesis. Green light is reflected or transmitted. In both these regions light is absorbed by chlorophylls.
Accumulation of End Products: Slow rate of translocation causes accumulation of photosynthetic end products during afternoon. At a very high oxygen content the rate of photosynthesis begins to decline in all plants. Specifically, with the present literature survey, we aim to address the following questions. A similar graph will be obtained if oxygen production is plotted against light intensity.
External Factors Environmental Factors : Factor 1.
At a very high oxygen content the rate of photosynthesis begins to decline in all plants. After discarding 96 articles that contained mistakes data out of range, errors and inconsistencies in at least one of the parameters reported , we worked with a total of papers published between and A decline is observed beyond 0. This means more carbon dioxide is being absorbed by the plant for photosynthesis. Water Water is a very important raw material for photosynthesis. An excess is the same as a negative uptake.
This indicates that protoplasm is not necessary for photosynthesis. For grass mis management of w HPS lamps can cause this. So the carbon dioxide uptake increases. At high temperature C3 plants are more affected because of increased affinity of Rubisco to oxygen.