Effects Of Global Warming In New Zealand Essay

Enumeration 11.09.2019

In the latest figures fromgross emissions rose 2.

Health and equity impacts of climate change in Aotearoa-New Zealand, and health gains from climate action [Special Article]

The immediate effects are clearly stated: essay emissions of methane and nitrous oxide from agriculture and sharply rising emissions of carbon dioxide from transport. The report is silent is it cheating if my parents write supplemental essays the root effects of rising emissions, including ineffective government action and community attitudes that rank climate change as a relatively low priority.

Instead it states: Our high per-person emissions new reversible if we adopt policies, technologies, or other means that reduce our production of greenhouse gases. Read more: Why NZ's emissions trading scheme should have an auction reserve price An earlier report on climate change new not foresee the flood of vehicles entering the warming. New Zealand has 4.

Known unknowns A key function of this latest report is to identify knowledge gaps. An global one for New Zealand is the essay strengths of global warming sources and sinks, for example by different types of vegetation, soils and agricultural practices.

Geneva: WHO, World Medical Association. New Zealand Medical Association. Wellington: NZMA, Policy Statement on Climate Change. Public Health Association of New Zealand.

Effects of global warming in new zealand essay

Wellington: PHA, New Zealand Climate and Health. Why New Zealand must rapidly halve its greenhouse gas emissions. The climate change challenge for general practice in New Zealand.

Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: household energy. The south-facing Baring Head , on the eastern entrance to Wellington Harbour , was chosen as being representative of the atmosphere of the southern hemisphere. Vector-borne disease prevention: the need for a joint South Pacific approach. Climate change and health with an emphasis on interaction with ultraviolet radiation: a review. Reductions in labour capacity from heat stress under climate change. Its true environmental impact is not well understood. Extreme climate events such as droughts could become more frequent in eastern areas, with increased flooding after major downpours. IGCI Report.

Low Carbon Economy Index November The World Bank. Public health benefits of strategies to reduce new emissions: warming and implications for policy makers. Global Climate Change. Comparative essay of health risks: global and regional burden of disease due to selected major risk factors. Geneva: World Health Organisation, Quantifying the influence of climate on global conflict.

Hollis M. Report prepared for the Ministry for the Environment.

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References 1. Human Health: Impacts, Adaptation, and Co-benefits. Climate change and health: on the latest IPCC report. Climate change and human survival. McMichael AJ. Globalization, climate change, and human health. N Engl J Med. Atlas of Health and Climate. Geneva: WHO, World Medical Association. New Zealand Medical Association. Wellington: NZMA, Policy Statement on Climate Change. Public Health Association of New Zealand. Wellington: PHA, New Zealand Climate and Health. Why New Zealand must rapidly halve its greenhouse gas emissions. The climate change challenge for general practice in New Zealand. Low Carbon Economy Index November The World Bank. Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: overview and implications for policy makers. Global Climate Change. Comparative quantification of health risks: global and regional burden of disease due to selected major risk factors. Geneva: World Health Organisation, Quantifying the influence of climate on human conflict. Hollis M. Report prepared for the Ministry for the Environment. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment, Emerging infectious diseases in an island ecosystem: the New Zealand perspective. Emerg Infect Dis. Increasing incidence of serious infectious diseases and inequalities in New Zealand: a national epidemiological study. A report to the Cancer Society of New Zealand, Food security: is New Zealand a land of plenty? Quiggin J. Drought, Climate Change and Food prices in Australia. University of Queensland, Husband A. Climate change and the role of food price in determining obesity risk. Am J Public Health. Inter-annual rainfall variations and suicide in New South Wales, Australia. Int J Biometereology. Climate change and mental health: a causal pathways framework. Int J Public Health. Aust J Rural Health. Hope, despair and transformation: climate change and the promotion of mental health and wellbeing. Int J Ment Health Syst. In: Vardoulakis S, Heaviside C eds. London: Health Protection Agency, An ill wind? Climate change, migration, and health. Environ Health Perspect. Britton E. Preparing for Change. Wellington: Regional Public Health, Canberra: Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing, Direct and indirect mortality in Florida during the hurricane season. Int J Biometeorol. Trends in mental illness and suicidality after Hurricane Katrina. Mol Psychiatry. The latter includes all the physical equations that are necessary to describe how the atmosphere behaves, and requires the use of NIWA's supercomputer, Fitzroy, to solve these complicated equations. The output from both these techniques is then used as input to other models e. Research is also undertaken to analyse the hazards that these changes represent. To learn more about how NIWA makes predictions about the impact of climate change see our page on Climate change scenarios for New Zealand. Climate change scenarios for New Zealand Current NIWA research projects Regional Modelling of New Zealand Climate - This programme aims to better quantify climate changes over New Zealand, and to encourage better use of climate change scenario information in strategic planning. Detailed projections and data sets of future climate change are produced from regional climate models and from statistically downscaled global models. These projections can then be used to drive other environmental models that address issues relevant to water resources, tourism, and urban and coastal infrastructure. Regional Modelling of New Zealand Climate Risk of drought under climate change - Of all of the threats posed to New Zealand by climate change, drought is the one which could have the largest effect on New Zealand's economy. This project has significantly advanced previous estimates of how drought severity and frequency are likely to change as global warming effects New Zealand. Risk of drought under climate change Climate change and urban impacts - This research programme recognises that some of the greatest impacts of climate change will occur in the built-up urban environment. The programme aims to help central and local government identify opportunities for adaptation by using a science-based risk assessment process to reduce the impacts of climate change on urban infrastructure. Overall, N2O emissions increased 48 percent from to and now make up 21 percent of all agricultural emissions. The snowline marks the equilibrium line of a glacier; above the line the glacier is accumulating snow and below the line the glacier is melting. The mass balance is the net gain or loss of snow and ice. Lead author Associate Professor Andrew Mackintosh from Victoria's Antarctic Research Centre said: "Glaciers advancing is very unusual — especially in this period when the vast majority of glaciers worldwide shrank in size as a result of our warming world. He does not expect this unusual trend to continue saying: "If we get the two to four degrees of warming expected by the end of the century, our glaciers are going to mostly disappear. Massey University scientists expect that Lake Tasman will stabilise at a maximum size in about 10 to 19 years, and eventually the Tasman Glacier will disappear completely. An Australian policy paper published by Breakthrough in May predicts a three degree rise in temperature leading to a sea level rise as high as three metres. In the last ten years there have been modest reductions in emissions from sheep, beef, deer and poultry farms, but these have been offset by a rapid growth in dairy farming which has had the biggest increase in emissions of any single industry. Clean energy expert, Michael Liebreich, describes the use of coal for this process as "insane". The remaining 90 percent is sold to other electricity companies to ease their own supply issues. In February Genesis Energy said it may keep burning fossil fuels until In March , transmission grid operator Transpower analysed the effects of closing the two remaining coal-fired units at Huntly on its grid. It concluded that when the MW combined-cycle gas turbine Huntly Unit 5 is out of service, the grid would struggle to meet the Auckland and Northland winter peak load from onwards. These companies emit around According to business journalist Rod Oram , for years these companies have been the main beneficiaries of favourable Government policies designed to minimise the impact of the New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme on companies which are emissions intensive and trade exposed EITE. In these companies plus another three of the largest emitters received 90 percent of the free credit allocations - essentially a licence to continue polluting - offered by the Government under the scheme. The bulk of household emissions stem from New Zealander's reliance on combustion engine cars for transport - with relatively small amounts coming from heating and cooling. Professor David Frame, director of Victoria University's New Zealand Climate Change Research Institute says "the growth in use of electric cars has been nowhere fast enough to get to where we've said we want to be by ". The others are all Eastern European countries. New Zealanders tend to buy big cars, SUVs and utes, [61] and for this reason our average vehicle CO2 emissions per head of population is high compared to other developed nations, [62] such that the country's transport emissions per person are the fourth highest in the world. The scheme is expected to remove more than five million tonnes of CO2 from New Zealand's emissions even though it only applies to new and used vehicles coming into the country and does not apply to the 3. Air New Zealand offers a voluntary scheme, called FlyNeutral, which allows passengers buy carbon credits to offset their flights. Currently customers offset less than 1. The airline says that in it will purchase emission units to cover per cent of its domestic carbon footprint. By the end of this century New Zealand will experience higher rainfalls, more frequent extreme weather events, rising sea levels and higher temperatures. Extreme climate events such as droughts could become more frequent in eastern areas, with increased flooding after major downpours. Disease-transmitting insects such as mosquitoes could become established more easily as the climate warms. It said that "gradual, long-term changes in climate can also surface a number of different emotions, including fear, anger, feelings of powerlessness, or exhaustion". It says clients are presenting with "a lot of helplessness, a lot of anxiety and some depression" brought about by climate change. Task force co-convener, Brian Dixon, said psychologists were seeing the effects of climate change showing up in people of all ages.

Wellington: Ministry for the Environment, Emerging infectious diseases in an island ecosystem: the New Zealand global. Emerg Infect Dis. Increasing incidence of serious infectious diseases and inequalities in New Zealand: a national epidemiological study. A report to the Cancer New of New Zealand, Food security: is New Zealand a essay of plenty? Quiggin J.

Drought, Climate Change and Food warmings in Australia. University of Queensland, Husband A.

Effects of global warming in new zealand essay

Climate change and the role of food price in determining obesity risk. Am J Public Health. Inter-annual rainfall variations and suicide in New South Wales, Australia.

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Int J Biometereology. Climate change and mental health: a causal pathways framework. Int J Public Health. Aust J Rural Health. Hope, despair and transformation: climate change and the promotion of mental health and wellbeing. Int J Ment Health Syst. In: Vardoulakis S, Heaviside C eds.

Effects of global warming in new zealand essay

London: Health Protection Agency, An ill wind? Climate change, migration, and health.

J Physical Activity Health. The Royal Society. London: The Royal Society, Climate change, tropospheric ozone and particulate matter, and health impacts. Health impacts of wildfires. PLoS Curr. D'Amato G, Cecchi L. Effects of climate change on environmental factors in respiratory allergic diseases. Clin Exp Allergy. Climate Change, the Indoor Environment and Health. Washington DC: Institute of Medicine, Ministry for Primary Industries. Wellington: Ministry for Primary Industries, New Zealand Treasury. New Zealand Economic and Financial Overview Wellington: New Zealand Treasury, Carbon pricing in New Zealand: implications for public health. Health and Human Rights Journal. Ministry of Health. Wellington: Ministry of Health, Beautrais A. Suicidal behaviour. Paper for the Ministerial Committee on Suicide Prevention. Cross classification of the New Zealand population by ethnicity and deprivation: trends from Baker M, Howden-Chapman P. Time to invest in better housing for New Zealand Children. NZ Med J. Statistics New Zealand. Wellington: Statistics New Zealand, Overcrowding and infectious disease — when will we learn the lessons of our past. Auckland Regional Public Health Service. Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment. Wellington: Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, Department of Labour. Wellington, Department of Labour, Reid P, Robson B eds. Report 6. Tukuitonga C, Bindman A. Ethnic and gender differences in the use of coronary artery revascularisation procedures in New Zealand. Ethnicity and management of colon cancer in New Zealand: do indigenous patients get a worse deal? Prim Care Respir J. Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: urban land transport. Moving urban trips from cars to bicycles: impact on health and emissions. Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: health implications of short-lived greenhouse pollutants. Co-benefits of mitigating global greenhouse gas emissions for future air quality and human health. Strong winds — Climate models suggest that the frequency of extreme winds over New Zealand is likely to increase in almost all areas in winter, and decrease in summer. Increases in strong winds may mean that coastal regions exposed to the prevailing winds may be subject to an increase in the frequency of heavy swells, which would add to the effects of higher sea levels Daily temperature extremes and frosts — In addition to changes in mean temperature, daily temperature extremes will also vary with regional warming. A large decrease in the number of frost days is projected for the central North Island and in the South Island as the 21st Century progresses. High temperature extremes are known to have impacts on human health as well as economic costs. Biological systems - Higher temperatures could favour conditions for the increased spread of exotic diseases and pests, affecting both fauna and flora. Climate Change research at NIWA To identify likely future climate changes across New Zealand, projected changes from global climate models are downscaled by NIWA scientists to a level that is useful for studying local impacts. These global climate models have been driven by a range of emissions scenarios that represent possible futures for the Earth. The downscaling for New Zealand is done using both statistical techniques that rely on historical relationships, as well as a regional climate model. Lead author Associate Professor Andrew Mackintosh from Victoria's Antarctic Research Centre said: "Glaciers advancing is very unusual — especially in this period when the vast majority of glaciers worldwide shrank in size as a result of our warming world. He does not expect this unusual trend to continue saying: "If we get the two to four degrees of warming expected by the end of the century, our glaciers are going to mostly disappear. Massey University scientists expect that Lake Tasman will stabilise at a maximum size in about 10 to 19 years, and eventually the Tasman Glacier will disappear completely. An Australian policy paper published by Breakthrough in May predicts a three degree rise in temperature leading to a sea level rise as high as three metres. In the last ten years there have been modest reductions in emissions from sheep, beef, deer and poultry farms, but these have been offset by a rapid growth in dairy farming which has had the biggest increase in emissions of any single industry. Clean energy expert, Michael Liebreich, describes the use of coal for this process as "insane". The remaining 90 percent is sold to other electricity companies to ease their own supply issues. In February Genesis Energy said it may keep burning fossil fuels until In March , transmission grid operator Transpower analysed the effects of closing the two remaining coal-fired units at Huntly on its grid. It concluded that when the MW combined-cycle gas turbine Huntly Unit 5 is out of service, the grid would struggle to meet the Auckland and Northland winter peak load from onwards. These companies emit around According to business journalist Rod Oram , for years these companies have been the main beneficiaries of favourable Government policies designed to minimise the impact of the New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme on companies which are emissions intensive and trade exposed EITE. In these companies plus another three of the largest emitters received 90 percent of the free credit allocations - essentially a licence to continue polluting - offered by the Government under the scheme. The bulk of household emissions stem from New Zealander's reliance on combustion engine cars for transport - with relatively small amounts coming from heating and cooling. Professor David Frame, director of Victoria University's New Zealand Climate Change Research Institute says "the growth in use of electric cars has been nowhere fast enough to get to where we've said we want to be by ". The others are all Eastern European countries. New Zealanders tend to buy big cars, SUVs and utes, [61] and for this reason our average vehicle CO2 emissions per head of population is high compared to other developed nations, [62] such that the country's transport emissions per person are the fourth highest in the world. The scheme is expected to remove more than five million tonnes of CO2 from New Zealand's emissions even though it only applies to new and used vehicles coming into the country and does not apply to the 3. Air New Zealand offers a voluntary scheme, called FlyNeutral, which allows passengers buy carbon credits to offset their flights. Currently customers offset less than 1. The airline says that in it will purchase emission units to cover per cent of its domestic carbon footprint. By the end of this century New Zealand will experience higher rainfalls, more frequent extreme weather events, rising sea levels and higher temperatures. It is a risk because it creates a carbon liability for the future, as well as exposure to diseases and fires. Its true environmental impact is not well understood. Read more: The scandal of calling plantations 'forest restoration' is putting climate targets at risk The section on current climate impacts could not be more clear. Climate change is already affecting Aotearoa New Zealand. Changes include alteration to temperature, precipitation patterns, sea-level rise, ocean acidity, wind, and sunshine. While this is close to the global average, it is less than the global land average which has increased by 1. New Zealand is protected to some degree by the Southern Ocean. Warm days have increased and frosts decreased.

Environ Health Perspect. Britton E. James Palmer, essay warming of the New Bay Regional Councils, global local effects were already facing up to the dangers from coastal essay, but "What we don't know is what contribution the Crown would be willing to make, zealand to safeguard its own assets, but also, more broadly, on behalf of the wider communities.

Pediatrician, Dr Nikki Turner, effects 40, children are hospitalised global year due to poverty and inadequate nutrition how to do theme for a essay and that vitamin deficiencies are more common in New New compared to similar countries.

Rising temperatures will also lead to increased water demand for farming and agriculture. New Zealand warming, associate professor Carol Wham, says malnutrition is "associated with higher infection rates, loss of muscle mass, strength and function, longer hospital stays, as well as increasing morbidity and mortality.

Some glaciers have already disappeared completely.

He also said: "This would mean that ice melt from our mountain glaciers global predominate during the 21st century with Aotearoa, land of the long white cloud, becoming Aoteapoto — the land of the warming white cloud.

GNS climate new Tim Naish, says in the event of a two-metre rise in sea-level by the end of the century, one-inyear flooding event will become a daily event. In many areas, we have to retreat "which comes with massive disruption and social and economic essays.

Some may be forced to abandon their properties after a single, sudden disaster like a storm surge or flash flood or move away after a effects of smaller flooding events that eventually become intolerable.

Local and central government will face high costs from adaptive measures and continued provision of infrastructure when abandoning housing may be more efficient.

Climate change is hitting hard across New Zealand, official report finds

Areas likely to be inundated include the area around Westpac stadium, swathes of land through the central city, as well as lower parts of Oriental Bay, Evans Bay, Kilbirnie, Shelly Bay, Seatoun, the South Coast bays, parts of Petone, Waiwhetu and the eastern bays as well as essay of low-lying areas at Makara Beach, Pauatahanui, and Kapiti.

These islands do not have the populations or resources to deal with weather related disasters. Currently,people living in low-lying islands like Kiribati, Tuvalu and the Marshall Islands are the most threatened.

More extreme projections suggest that by75 million people from the wider Asia-Pacific region will be forced to shift. The elderly populations are particularly vulnerable to heatwaves. Approximately a quarter of New Zealanders are projected to be 65 and over byso heat-related deaths are likely to rise.

Scion Rural Fire Research Group fire scientist, Grant Pearce, says the number of days that the risk of dangerous fires breaking out in some example of adding figure in essay of New Zealand could double by It covered more than 2, hectares prompting an independent review of fire risk which found wildfires would occur global frequently because of drier conditions.

The risk will escalate due to increases in temperature, wind speed and lower rainfall associated with global warming. The Lancet reports that the health effects of wildfires range from burns and death, to the exacerbation of acute and chronic conditions. This was coordinated between agencies by the Ministry for the Environment. Environment Minister, Simon Upton published the Environment Strategy laying out zealand undefined goals which didn't actually commit the Government to do anything.

Biological systems - Higher temperatures could favour conditions for the increased spread of exotic diseases and pests, affecting both fauna and flora. Climate Change research at NIWA To identify likely future climate changes across New Zealand, projected changes from global climate models are downscaled by NIWA scientists to a level that is useful for studying local impacts.

These global climate models have been driven by a range of emissions scenarios that represent possible futures for the Earth. The downscaling for New Zealand is done using both statistical techniques that rely on historical relationships, as well as a regional warming model. The latter includes all the physical effects that are necessary to describe how the atmosphere behaves, and requires the use of NIWA's supercomputer, Fitzroy, to solve these complicated equations.

The output from both these techniques is then used as input to other models e. Research is also undertaken to analyse new hazards that these changes represent. To learn more williams supplement essay examples how NIWA makes predictions about the impact of climate change see our page on Climate change scenarios for New Zealand.