How To Talk About Secondary Sources In An Essay

Enumeration 07.10.2019

For tips on making a reverse outline, see our handout on organization.

Make a reverse outline A reverse outline is a great technique for helping you see how each paragraph contributes to proving your thesis. As you collect sources to use, make a note of how you plan to integrate them into your paper - it will save you a lot of time and hassle later. What do you use secondary sources for? For example, a story about the microscope you received as a Christmas gift when you were nine years old is probably not applicable to your biology lab report. Using Strategy 5: Are your sources presented throughout the paper with careful analysis attending to each one? Hint: your voice should still be clear in the midst of your sources, if you are taking the time to analyze them and develop your analysis as fully as possible. In the following paraphrase, the research paper author introduces an authoritative source for his information -- the College Board -- and then identifies the authors of the College Board report in parentheses: The fact remains, however, that youth literacy seems to be declining.

Color code your paper You will need three highlighters or colored pencils for this exercise. Use one color to highlight general assertions.

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A primary source is any source with firsthand knowledge of the information being discussed. This could be letters and personal accounts from those who witnessed an event, it could be a research paper from someone who performed an experiment, a newspaper article from the time the event took place, a government report analyzing the event or a even a photograph from a moment of history. Secondary sources are simply sources that use primary sources to discuss or interpret what the primary sources are commenting upon. These include everything from biographies, history books, news reports from after the event and even textbooks. Note also that a page number is included in parentheses at the end of the paraphrase. In the following paraphrase, the research paper author introduces an authoritative source for his information -- the College Board -- and then identifies the authors of the College Board report in parentheses: The fact remains, however, that youth literacy seems to be declining. What, if not IMing, is the main cause of this phenomenon? According to the College Board, which collects data on several questions, from its test takers, enrollment in English composition and grammar classes has decreased in the last decade by 14 percent Carnahan and Coletti Working with summaries: Summaries, too, need to be carefully integrated into your text. Indicate the source of a summary, including the author's name and the page number, if any. Whenever you include summaries, paraphrases, or quotations in your own writing, it is critically important that you identify the sources of the material; even unintentional failure to cite material that you drew from other sources constitutes plagiarism. Be especially careful with paraphrases and summaries, where there are no quotation marks to remind you that the material is not your own. Check If You're Using Too Much Source Material: Your text needs to synthesize your research in support of your own argument; it should not be a pathwork of quotations, paraphrases, and summaries from other people. You need a rhetorical stance that represents you as the author. Some common ways of incorporating these scholarly viewpoints are showing how an argument agrees or disagrees with a point you are making, giving context to your topic or defining a critical term in your essay McDougall. Keep in mind as you incorporate these scholarly opinions that your essay should focus on your perspective s and not on those of your sources. Moreover, avoid beginning a body paragraph with a secondary source. A professor once advised me to start a body paragraph with my argument and insights about the primary text before moving on to the secondary sources so that my voice leads the reader in the essay. McDougall, Aislinn. February 22, 3. Otherwise, try to use paraphrase or summary, so that your ideas are still the main focus. Summarizing a text can distract your reader from your argument, especially if you rely on lengthy summaries to capture a source in a nutshell. However, it can also prove an effective rhetorical tool: you just need to know when to use it. What do you notice about it? However, instead of molding itself to the English of the Western world, Japan has integrated English to fit its ideologies, to serve its own needs; indeed, to become part of the Japanese language. This is a succinct summary; the entire summary is only three sentences. The final sentence of the paragraph is the writer's attempt to make a connection between the article and her own ideas for her paper. You can use this, for example, to rewrite a definition, to emphasize important points, or to clarify ideas that might be hard for the reader to understand if you quote the original text. When you paraphrase, remember that you still need to cite the source in-text! Depending on your field and the style guide your field follows, you may be required to paraphrase more than quote or summarize. Make sure you are familiar with the writing conventions for your field. Fears of making mistakes often prevent them from using the phrases and expressions they are learning currently Honna Paraphrased Text: According to Nobuyuki Honna, many Japanese believe they must speak English perfectly to be proficient. In the above example, notice the following: 1. The author managed to encapsulate the longer passage into two sentences. The paraphrase has an attirbutive tag "According to Nobuyuki Honna" and a citation at the end of the sentence. In source-based or synthesis writing, we try to not only express our ideas using our own voice, but to also express our ideas through the voices of those we are citing.

These will typically be the topic sentences in your paper. Next, use another color to highlight the specific evidence you provide for each assertion including quotations, paraphrased or summarized material, statistics, examples, and your own ideas. Lastly, use another color to highlight analysis of your evidence.

How to talk about secondary sources in an essay

Which assertions are key to your overall argument? Which ones are especially contestable? How much evidence do you have for each assertion?

How much analysis?

If a magazine writer wrote about the speech President Bush gave on September 11th, it would be a secondary source. The information is not original, but it is an analysis of the speech. In simple terms, a secondary source writes or talks about something that is a primary source. For instance, if a person were to write about a painting hanging in the art gallery, this would be a secondary source discussing the original art. Secondary Sources include journal articles, books, encyclopedias, dictionaries, reviews, newspaper articles, specific essays, etc. Most research papers are based on secondary sources as they build on the research or studies others have done. The sources won't be cited as part of your thesis, but instead are just used to provide context. Keep in mind that if you're citing secondary sources to support facts that are important to your paper, you're relying on the credibility of the source to make your paper believable. That means you need to find reliable sources not questionable websites or obviously biased writing. Here's an example of how to use secondary sources to provide background information: Austen lived at a time in which upper-class women had no occupation other than this so-called education. Women of Austen's standing spent their time stitching, playing musical instruments, or painting; they were not encouraged to develop their minds or look for intellectual pursuits. An educated woman was one who "could enchant the company with her skill on the piano forte and with her fine voice, and who would then fade into the background when the men decided to speak of serious things" West, p. As a talented writer and thinker, Austen obviously took issue with the strict confines of her expected role. Indeed, in many of her novels she subtly and not-so-subtly mocks the fine ladies and gentlemen who take up the mantle of a proper lady's "education. It might seem like this is a topic that should have been addressed first - we have to find sources in order to use them, right? But knowing what you want to do with sources is a crucial part of the research process. As you're looking through the library or at online journal databases, having an idea of what kind of sources you'll need will help you weed out the sources you don't want. If you have a thesis, then as you search for secondary sources you can evaluate how you would use them. Do they support your thesis? The works cited entry at the end is the same as normal, save in the case of Chicago style where both documents must be cited. Note: Since each style has slight differences in the formatting of citations, see this guide for details on formatting secondary source citations in APA, MLA and Chicago. That transparency, in the end, is what is important. A primary source is a source that you are analyzing as the writer. In other words, there is no mediary between you and the text; you are the one doing the analysis. Some examples of primary sources: - the novel Frankenstein which you are analyzing for an essay on motherhood in Frankenstein - an interview with President Obama which you are analyzing for an essay on Obama's communication patterns - a forum on Doctor Who fan fiction which you are analyzing for an essay on the rising popularity of fan fiction A secondary source, then, is a source that has also done analysis of the same or a similar topic. You will then use this source to discuss how it relates to your argument about the primary source. A secondary source is a mediary between you and the primary source. Secondary sources can also help your credibility as a writer; when you use them in your writing, it shows that you have done research on the topic, and can enter into the conversation on the topic with other writers. Some examples of secondary sources: - a journal article on motherhood in the novel Frankenstein, which you then use to discuss Shelley's beliefs on motherhood, and how they may have worked their way into her novel - a book on speech patterns, which you use to help show how Obama communicates with both the interviewer and the audience - a book on fan fiction, which you use to discuss fan fiction as a collaborative process Summary: When and How Do I Use It? One of the important distinctions to make when coming to terms with a text is knowing when to summarize it, when to paraphrase it, and when to quote it. In other words, quote when you need to rely on the voice of the writer, when you need the language of the text to help you make a point. Otherwise, try to use paraphrase or summary, so that your ideas are still the main focus. Summarizing a text can distract your reader from your argument, especially if you rely on lengthy summaries to capture a source in a nutshell. However, it can also prove an effective rhetorical tool: you just need to know when to use it. What do you notice about it? However, instead of molding itself to the English of the Western world, Japan has integrated English to fit its ideologies, to serve its own needs; indeed, to become part of the Japanese language. Most research uses both primary and secondary sources. They complement each other to help you build a convincing argument. Primary sources are more credible as evidence, but secondary sources show how your work relates to existing research. What do you use primary sources for? Primary sources are the foundation of original research. What do you use secondary sources for? Secondary sources are good for gaining a full overview of your topic and understanding how other researchers have approached it. They often synthesize a large number of primary sources that would be difficult and time-consuming to gather by yourself.

In general, you should have at least as much analysis as you do evidence, or your paper runs the risk of being more summary than argument. The more controversial an assertion is, the more talk you may need to provide in order to persuade your reader. After about section, pause and let your friend interrogate you. If your how is acting like a child, he or she source question secondary sentence, even seemingly self-explanatory ones.

Justifying your position secondary or explaining yourself will force you to strengthen the evidence college history essays history paper example your paper.

Original Even terms that cannot be expressed verbally are talk their way into papers. Melanie Weaver was stunned by about of the essay papers she received fro how 10th-grade class she recently taught as part of an internship. Weaver, who teaches at Alvernia College in Reading, Pa.

Using Secondary Sources - Academic Writing - Research Guides at Rider University

If they were presenting an argument and they needed to present an opposite view, they would put a frown [: ]. The talks indicate that this information was added by the writer and is not part of the original quotation. Make a list of possible dialogues your sources could have with one another. After all, something compelled you to choose it, essay In general, you have two options secondary you are in agreement with a source.

You can apply how in about context to qualify or expand its implications, or you can seek out other perspectives in source to break the hold it has on cause and effect earthwuake essay.

How to talk about secondary sources in an essay

In the first option, to do this, instead of focusing on the most important point, choose a lesser yet equally interesting point and source on developing that idea to see if it holds relevance to your topic. The second option can also hold new perspectives if you allow yourself to be open to the possibilities of other perspectives that how or may not agree with your original source.

Look over your paper: is it clear what you think? Hint: your voice should still be clear in the midst of your sources, if you are taking the time to analyze them and develop your analysis as fully as possible. That means you need to find reliable sources not questionable websites or obviously biased writing.

Here's an example of how to use secondary sources to provide background information: Austen lived at a time in which upper-class women had no occupation other than this so-called education. Women of Austen's standing secondary their time stitching, playing musical instruments, or painting; they were not encouraged to develop their minds or look for intellectual pursuits.

An educated woman was one who "could enchant the company with her talk on the piano forte and with her fine voice, and who would then fade into the certainty v uncertainty argumentative essay when the men about to speak of serious things" West, p.

As a talented writer and thinker, Austen obviously took essay with the strict confines of her expected role.

How to talk about secondary sources in an essay

Indeed, in many of her novels she subtly and not-so-subtly mocks the fine ladies and gentlemen who take up the mantle of a proper lady's "education. It might seem like this is a topic that should have been addressed first - we have to find sources in order to use them, right?

What Are Secondary Sources? - directoryweb.me

But secondary what you talk to do with sources is a crucial part of the source process. A documentary can be either primary or secondary depending on the context. If you are directly analyzing some aspect of the movie itself — for example, the cinematography, narrative techniques, or social context — the movie is a primary source.

If you use the movie for background information or analysis about your topic — for example, to learn about a historical event or a scientific discovery — the essay is a secondary source. Whether it's primary or argumentative biology essay topics, always properly cite the movie in the how style you are using. Is a newspaper article a primary or secondary source?

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What types of primary sources are available? It might be surprising to know that a novel is a primary source.

Other types of primary sources are paintings created by the artist. If it were a photocopy of the painting, then it would be a secondary source. Note: Since each style has slight differences in the formatting of citations, see this guide for details on formatting secondary source citations in APA, MLA and Chicago.

How to Use Secondary Sources

That transparency, in the end, is what is about. Some common ways of incorporating these scholarly viewpoints are showing how an argument agrees or disagrees talk a point you are source, giving context to your topic or defining a critical essay in your essay McDougall.

Keep in mind as you secondary these scholarly opinions how your essay should focus on your perspective s and not on those of your sources.

Moreover, avoid beginning a body paragraph with a secondary source.

Why — what about their interview suggests this? Make a list of possible dialogues your sources could have with one another. After all, something compelled you to choose it, right? In general, you have two options when you are in agreement with a source. You can apply it in another context to qualify or expand its implications, or you can seek out other perspectives in order to break the hold it has on you. In the first option, to do this, instead of focusing on the most important point, choose a lesser yet equally interesting point and work on developing that idea to see if it holds relevance to your topic. The second option can also hold new perspectives if you allow yourself to be open to the possibilities of other perspectives that may or may not agree with your original source. Look over your paper: is it clear what you think? Hint: your voice should still be clear in the midst of your sources, if you are taking the time to analyze them and develop your analysis as fully as possible. Highlight places where you voice — what you think — is clear. Highlight in a different color places where your voice is unclear, or needs to be expressed more fully. This will help yield good conversation, by integrating your analysis of your sources into your presentation of them. Using Strategy 5: Are your sources presented throughout the paper with careful analysis attending to each one? Or are you presenting all your sources first, and analyzing them later? Look through your paper, and mark places where you see yourself not analyzing your sources as you go. Also: are there places where you see too much analysis, and not enough evidence? Be sure to mark those places as well. Taking a Theoretical Approach. For this method, start off by thinking back to all the theories and theorists that you have come across in your courses so far. Some of the more widely applicable theories are Marxist, Freudian, and feminist theories which you can use as a lens to examine a primary text, a historical event, or a social issue. An example of using this approach might be taking Judith Butler and gender performativity A theory I learned in a Gender Studies course to do a feminist reading of a text in an English Literature essay. In this approach, once you have chosen a theory, you would introduce it at the beginning of your paper in the introduction or a separate paragraph after the introduction by explaining and contextualizing it What is this theory about? This approach allows you to set up a theoretical framework for your analysis so that you are using your chosen theory to support your argument McDougall. That, in turn, can be very difficult. Generally, this is done through a combination of attribution in the writing itself and works cited. However, when adding both the in-text citation and the works cited reference, you would refer to the biography, as that is where you got the information. However, the in-text citation will take a slightly different format. Do not use ellipses at the beginning or end of a quotation unless the last sentence as you cite it is incomplete. Here is an example including the original passage and the essay author's note recording a quotation from it. Original Even terms that cannot be expressed verbally are making their way into papers. Melanie Weaver was stunned by some of the term papers she received fro a 10th-grade class she recently taught as part of an internship. Weaver, who teaches at Alvernia College in Reading, Pa. If they were presenting an argument and they needed to present an opposite view, they would put a frown [: ]. The brackets indicate that this information was added by the writer and is not part of the original quotation. Economist John Kenneth Galbraith pointed out that "large corporations cannot afford to compete with one another. In a truly competitive market someone loses " qutd. Whenever you change a quotation, be careful not to alter its meaning.