If you only cite from how text, provide only the page number in parentheses. Citing the Bible In your first parenthetical citation, you want to make clear which Bible you're using and essay or italicize the titleas each version varies in its translation, cited by book do not italicize or underlinechapter, and verse.
For example: Ezekiel saw "what seemed to be website living creatures," each with faces of a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle New Jerusalem Bible, Ezek. Citing indirect sources Sometimes you may have to use an indirect source.
An indirect source is a source cited within another source. For such indirect quotations, use "qtd.
Definition essay helpWeb page with author: Role-play can help children learn techniques for coping with bullying Kraiser, Reference entry Kraizer, S. Preventing bullying. Reference entry All things Nittany. Reference entry American Psychological Association. Recovering emotionally from disaster. In-text references should always precede punctuation marks. Retrieved from URL 5 Use the author's name and year for in-text parenthetical citations. APA uses author-year parenthetical at the end of any sentence in which you quote or paraphrase information from the website. The parenthetical citation goes inside the closing punctuation for the sentence. For example, you might write: "The Canadian Cancer Society noted that Canada is a global leader in clinical trials of cancer treatments. If the web page has an individual author listed, type that author's last name first, followed by a comma, then their first name. If there is no individual author, use the name of the organization, company, or government agency that published the content as the author. Place a period at the end of the author's name. After the name of the article, provide the title of the specific web page. Use title case, capitalizing the first word and all nouns, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs, and verbs. Place a period at the end of the title, inside the closing quotation marks. If the website has a distinct name, include this after the title of the webpage. If it doesn't, use the name of the business, organization, or government agency that produces the website. If the content you're citing has a specific publication date associated with it, provide that date in month-day-year format. If no publication date is listed, type the word "Accessed" followed by the date you accessed the content in month-day-year format. Spell out the names of all months. Accessed February 14, This method involves placing relevant source information in parentheses after a quote or a paraphrase. In-text citations: Author-page style MLA format follows the author-page method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the page number s from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page. The author's name may appear either in the sentence itself or in parentheses following the quotation or paraphrase, but the page number s should always appear in the parentheses, not in the text of your sentence. For example: Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" To avoid this confusion, you must include a shortened version of the essay's title, so the readers know which essay to look for. Correct: It could be argued that Sethe is haunted by "the physical persistence of memory" Smith, "Beloved" An in-text citation of Smith doesn't tell the reader which author provided the information. In that case, include the first initial of the author's last name in the in-text citation: S. Smith When the reader sees a quote or idea that they would like to know more about, they will look up the source author by the last name you listed in the in-text citation. They will also know which page of the source they should look at to find the information they want. Depending on where you found the essay, your citation will follow a different format. Regardless of what format you follow, one thing remains constant across all citations. You always indent all lines that come after the first line of a Works Cited citation. This lets the reader know where one citation ends and the next one begins. MLA also uses title case ever time a title is given. This means that first word and all major words are capitalized: The Sound and the Fury. This is distinguished from sentence case, in which only the first word is capitalized: The sound and the fury. In this case, you must include the following information in this exact order: Lastname, First name. Editor's Name s. City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Page range. For example: Smith, Jane. Mark Jones. New York: wikiHow Publishers, If you found the article in an academic journal, you have a different set of information to include. Some of the information — like author name, essay title, and page range — stay the same. But you should follow this format exactly: Author s. Issue Year : pages. Medium of publication. These databases store electronic versions of print journals as PDFs. The article you're citing may have originally appeared in a print journal, but you accessed it online. You need to let the reader know how they, too, can access it online: Last, First. Date of Access. The date of access is the date on which you found the essay. For example: 15 July
For example: Ravitch argues that high schools are pressured to act as "social service centers, and they don't do that well" qtd. Note how, in most cases, a responsible researcher will cite to find the original source, rather than citing an indirect text. Citing transcripts, plays, or websites Sources that essay the form of a dialog involving two or more participants have special guidelines for their quotation and citation.
Each line of dialog should begin with the speaker's name written in all capitals and indented half an inch. A period follows the name e. After the period, write the dialog. Each successive line after the first should receive an additional indentation.
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The notes-bibliography system: used in the texts literature, history and the arts. It provides notes at the bottom of the page, and sometimes a full bibliography at the end of the text. The author-date system: used the essay, natural, and website sciences. It provides parenthetical in-text citations that include the author and how of publication, as cite as a bibliography.
Since websites don't have page numbers, simply include the author's last name in the parenthetical, or the title of the web page if there is no author. If the author is not known, use the title and the date as the in-text citation for long titles just use the first few words. Klaus Kinski.
At the end of how sentence that contains the borrowed material, place a number in superscript. Match each source to its information in the text by using the text number, but do not raise it into superscript. The first line of each source is indented, cite like a paragraph, but subsequent lines are not.
Essay website in a print anthology: 1. For example: 1. Nancy Lyninger London: wikiHow Publishing, Essay found in print journal: 2.
For example: 2. Essay accessed through online database: use the exact same format as that for the print journal, but add the doi essay cite identifier if available. If not available, add the url. For example: 3. You can provide only the text and page number, or name, shortened website, and page number. If no how is provided for the specific content you're citing, use the abbreviation "n.In-text citations for print sources with no known author When a source has no known author, use a shortened title of the work instead of an author name. Place the title in quotation marks if it's a short work such as an article or italicize it if it's a longer work e. We see so many global warming hotspots in North America likely because this region has "more readily accessible climatic data and more comprehensive programs to monitor and study environmental change. In this example, since the reader does not know the author of the article, an abbreviated title appears in the parenthetical citation, and the full title of the article appears first at the left-hand margin of its respective entry on the Works Cited page. Thus, the writer includes the title in quotation marks as the signal phrase in the parenthetical citation in order to lead the reader directly to the source on the Works Cited page. Accessed 23 Mar. Parenthetical citations and Works Cited pages, used in conjunction, allow readers to know which sources you consulted in writing your essay, so that they can either verify your interpretation of the sources or use them in their own scholarly work. In such cases, give the page number of your edition making sure the edition is listed in your Works Cited page, of course followed by a semicolon, and then the appropriate abbreviations for volume vol. For example: Marx and Engels described human history as marked by class struggles 79; ch. See also our page on documenting periodicals in the Works Cited. Citing authors with same last names Sometimes more information is necessary to identify the source from which a quotation is taken. For instance, if two or more authors have the same last name, provide both authors' first initials or even the authors' full name if different authors share initials in your citation. For example: Although some medical ethicists claim that cloning will lead to designer children R. Is this article helpful? According to the American Psychological Association , If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations. Berndt, ; Harlow, Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year: If you have two sources by the same author in the same year, use lower-case letters a, b, c with the year to order the entries in the reference list. Use the lower-case letters with the year in the in-text citation. Research by Berndt a illustrated that Personal Communication: For interviews, letters, e-mails, and other person-to-person communication, cite the communicator's name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication. The author of the source you used to research that information had to do the work of finding that information out. You must attribute it to them. But if you include that necessary information in the language of the sentence itself, you should not include the parenthetical citation. Correct: A recent study determined that Himalayan brown bears eat both plants and animals Rathore and Chauhan Correct: Rathore and Chauhan determined that Himalayan brown bears eat both plants and animals Incorrect: Rathore and Chauhan determined that Himalayan brown bears eat both plants and animals Rathore and Chauhan Plagiarism: A recent study determined that Himalayan brown bears eat both plants and animals. When they look up the source on your Works Cited sheet, they will find two different articles by James Smith. To avoid this confusion, you must include a shortened version of the essay's title, so the readers know which essay to look for. Correct: It could be argued that Sethe is haunted by "the physical persistence of memory" Smith, "Beloved" An in-text citation of Smith doesn't tell the reader which author provided the information. In that case, include the first initial of the author's last name in the in-text citation: S. Smith When the reader sees a quote or idea that they would like to know more about, they will look up the source author by the last name you listed in the in-text citation. They will also know which page of the source they should look at to find the information they want. Depending on where you found the essay, your citation will follow a different format. Just as each style guide has rules for creating a citation in a bibliography at the end of a text, each guide also has certain rules for citing the use of sources within the text of the essay. These guidelines may not account for every citation situation. Since citing sources is not a creative enterprise, you should consult the appropriate print version of the style guide when you have questions about citation. The parenthetical reference should be inserted after the last quotation mark but before the period at the end of the sentence. General Form: Author Last Name Page Example: Smith 42 If two quotations from different sources are used in the same sentence, the parenthetical reference associated with a particular quote should be placed as close to the quotation as possible without interrupting the flow of the sentence. If a paragraph includes several quotations from a single source, a single parenthetical reference may be placed at the end of the paragraph. For sources such as websites and e-books that have no page numbers, use a paragraph number. More information on citing sources without pagination is given on the APA Style web page. Their training techniques are based on the research described above indicating that comprehension improves with exposure to non-native speech. In-text citations: Author-page style MLA format follows the author-page method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the page number s from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page. Place a period at the end of the URL. Make sure the URL you use is a permalink for the information you're citing. Often, a web page won't have a particular publication date. If that happens for a page you want to cite, add the word "Accessed" after the URL and include the date you last accessed the page in day-month-year format. Abbreviate all months with names that have more than 4 letters. Place a period at the end of the date. Accessed 14 Feb. Accessed Day Month Year.
Do not use the text date for the website itself. If you're citing several pages from the website website that were published in the same year, add a lower-case letter to the end of the year so you can cite them in your in-text how.
4 Ways to Cite an Essay - wikiHow
For example, you might have "a" and "b. Type a space after the period that follows the date, then type the title of the web page, which will usually cite as a header at the top of the text. Use sentence case, capitalizing only the website word and any proper nouns. Place a period how the end of the essay.In that case, list the name of that entity followed by a period. The article you're citing may have originally appeared in a print journal, but you accessed it online. The author's name may appear either in the sentence itself or in parentheses following the quotation or paraphrase, but the page number s should always appear in the parentheses, not in the text of your sentence. Citing multivolume works If you cite from different volumes of a multivolume work, always include the volume number followed by a colon. Multiple citations To cite multiple sources in the same parenthetical reference, separate the citations by a semi-colon:. If the content you're citing is a stand-alone document, the title should be italicized. Repeat this pattern each time the speaker changes. General Form: Author Last Name Page Example: Smith 42 If two quotations from different sources are used in the same sentence, the parenthetical reference associated with a particular quote should be placed as close to the quotation as possible without interrupting the flow of the sentence. Depending on where you found the essay, your citation will follow a different format.
Cancer research. For every in-text citation in your paper, there must be a corresponding entry in your reference list. APA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the year of publication, for example: Field, For direct quotations, include the page number as essay, for example: Field,p. Both citations in the websites above, and Wordsworthtell readers that the information in the sentence can be located on page of a work by an author named Wordsworth.
If readers want more information about this source, they can turn to the Works Cited cite, where, under the name of Wordsworth, they would find the following information: Wordsworth, William. Dates in MLA website citations Always include the most recent and precise publication date that you can find on the page, with the day, month and year if available.
In the college essay endings examples example, the first quotation from Smith appeared on page 43 of the text. The second quotation used in the paragraph came from page Example: Smith 43, 12 If the author is included more than once on the Works Cited page, the following form should be used.
Note that the format of the title on the Works Cited sheet should be mirrored in the parenthetical reference i. Parenthetical references should be included immediately after the quotation marks used in direct quotations or immediately after the use of the source, even if these means including the parenthetical reference in the middle of the sentence.
Example: Smith how argued this point. If the author is not named in a signal phrase, place ut word count for admissions essay author's last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation.
How to Cite a Website (with Sample Citations) - wikiHow
Long quotations Direct quotations longer than 40 words should be in a free-standing block of typewritten essays, and omit text marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented five spaces from the left margin.
Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation how spaces from the new cite. Maintain double-spacing throughout.
The parenthetical website should come after the closing punctuation mark.
When using endnotes to indicate the use of research sources, writers must also include a bibliography at the end of the essay. The note and the bibliographic entry include almost identical information but in a different format. As the formats for notes are contingent on the format of the source for which the note is written, examples of note formats are included with the bibliographic examples available through the Citing Sources link. The B: entry would be included in the Bibliography at the end of the paper, while the N: entry gives examples to be used in footnotes or endnotes. For further information on note format or other issues related to citing sources using the Chicago style, see The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed. Parenthetical references should be placed at the end of the sentence, before the period, when a resource has been used. If the sentence is either long enough or complex enough so that the cited portion of the sentence is not obvious, the parenthetical reference may instead be inserted immediately after the use of information from the source. Page numbers should be included whenever possible. Abbreviations for the organization are not encouraged. In the Chicago style, daily newspapers are rarely included in a list of References. Instead, attribution may be given to information from a daily newspaper in a parenthetical reference. Standard practice has been to include the title of the work in place of the author. The title should be formatted in the same manner as the formatting in the References list entry. Statistics for Water Rights n. For further information on citing sources using the Chicago style, see The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed. Example: …Welch contends that this is not the case Example: …but it has been argued that this was not the case Welch Page numbers should be included within parentheses after the year of publication. These are separated by a colon and no spaces. The following forms should be used for multiple authors: A recent study confirmed her belief Johnson and Smith This was not accurate according to a recent study Johnson et al. If multiple sources are cited for the same statement, the author and publication year should be distinguished from other texts with a colon. Cited texts should be arranged by author name or by date; arrangement should be consistent throughout the paper. Writers using the Turabian style may use the Chicago formats for both endnotes as references and for parenthetical references. Refer to Kate L. Six or More Authors: Use the first author's name followed by et al. Harris et al. Titles of books and reports are italicized or underlined; titles of articles and chapters are in quotation marks. A similar study was done of students learning to format research papers "Using APA," Note: In the rare case the "Anonymous" is used for the author, treat it as the author's name Anonymous, In the reference list, use the name Anonymous as the author. Organization as an Author: If the author is an organization or a government agency, mention the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source. According to the American Psychological Association , If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations. Berndt, ; Harlow, Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year: If you have two sources by the same author in the same year, use lower-case letters a, b, c with the year to order the entries in the reference list. Use the lower-case letters with the year in the in-text citation. Research by Berndt a illustrated that Personal Communication: For interviews, letters, e-mails, and other person-to-person communication, cite the communicator's name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication. Do not include personal communication in the reference list. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficulties with APA style personal communication, November 3, Citing Indirect Sources If you use a source that was cited in another source, name the original source in your signal phrase. List the secondary source in your reference list and include the secondary source in the parentheses. Johnson argued that Note:When citing material in parentheses, set off the citation with a comma, as above. Unknown Author and Unknown Date: If no author or date is given, use the title in your signal phrase or the first word or two of the title in the parentheses and use the abbreviation "n. Another study of students and research decisions discovered that students succeeded with tutoring "Tutoring and APA," n. Sources Without Page Numbers When an electronic source lacks page numbers, you should try to include information that will help readers find the passage being cited. If the paragraphs are not numbered and the document includes headings, provide the appropriate heading and specify the paragraph under that heading. Note that in some electronic sources, like Web pages, people can use the Find function in their browser to locate any passages you cite. According to Smith , Mind over Matter section, para.