For a chronology of Whitehead's major publications, readers are encouraged to consult the Primary Literature section of the Bibliography below. Attempts to sum up Whitehead's life and influence are complicated by the fact that, following his death and in accordance with his instructions, all his papers were destroyed. As a result, there is no nachlass, except for papers retained by his colleagues and correspondents. Today Whitehead's ideas continue to be felt in varying degrees in all four of the main areas in which he worked: logic and mathematics, the philosophy of science, the philosophy of education and metaphysics.
A critical edition of his work is currently in the process of being prepared. Whitehead on Mathematics and Logic Whitehead began his academic career at Trinity College, Cambridge where, starting in , he taught for a quarter of a century. In , Bertrand Russell arrived as a student and during the s the two men came into regular contact with one another. He took a personal interest in those with whom he had to deal and knew both their strong and their weak points.
He would elicit from a pupil the best of which a pupil was capable. He was never repressive, or sarcastic, or superior, or any of the things that inferior teachers like to be. By the early s, both Whitehead and Russell had completed books on the foundations of mathematics. Russell's The Principles of Mathematics had expanded on several themes initially developed by Whitehead. Russell's book also represented a decisive break from the neo-Kantian approach to mathematics Russell had developed six years earlier in his Essay on the Foundations of Geometry.
Since the research for a proposed second volume of Russell's Principles overlapped considerably with Whitehead's own research for a planned second volume of his Universal Algebra, the two men began collaboration on what eventually would become Principia Mathematica , , According to Whitehead, they initially expected the research to take about a year to complete.
In the end, they worked together on the project for a decade. Logicism, the theory that mathematics is in some important sense reducible to logic, consists of two main theses.
The first is that all mathematical truths can be translated into logical truths or, in other words, that the vocabulary of mathematics constitutes a proper subset of the vocabulary of logic. The second is that all mathematical proofs can be recast as logical proofs or, in other words, that the theorems of mathematics constitute a proper subset of the theorems of logic.
Like Gottlob Frege , Whitehead and Russell immediately saw the advantages of such a reduction. In Principia Mathematica, Whitehead and Russell were able to provide many detailed derivations of major theorems in set theory, finite and transfinite arithmetic, and elementary measure theory. They were also able to develop a sophisticated theory of logical relations and a unique method of defining the real numbers. Even so, the issue of whether set theory itself could be said to have been successfully reduced to logic remained controversial.
For additional discussion, see the entry on Principia Mathematica , as well as George and Velleman Following the completion of Principia, Whitehead and Russell began to go their separate ways.
Perhaps inevitably, Russell's anti-war activities and Whitehead's loss of his youngest son during World War I led to something of a split between the two men. Nevertheless, the two remained on relatively good terms for the rest of their lives.
Whitehead on the Philosophy of Science In London, Whitehead turned his attention primarily to issues in the philosophy of science. Of particular note was his rejection of the idea that each physical object has a simple spatial or temporal location. Instead, Whitehead came to the conclusion that all objects should be understood as fields having both temporal and spatial extensions.
For example, just as we cannot perceive a Euclidean point that is said to have position but no magnitude, or a line that is said to have length but no breadth, it is impossible, says Whitehead, to conceive of a simple spatial or temporal location. As Whitehead describes his position, among the primary elements of nature as apprehended in our immediate experience, there is no element whatever which possesses this character of simple location.
However, it would be a mistake to think of a spatial point as being anything more than an abstraction; instead, real positions involve the entire series of extended volumes. For every location involves an aspect of itself in every other location. According to Whitehead, every real-life object may then be understood as a similarly constructed series of events and processes. As Whitehead writes, Nature is nothing else than the deliverance of sense-awareness.
In other words, we must avoid dividing the world into separate categories of mind and matter, or into nature as it is apprehended in awareness and nature as the cause of that awareness.
As Whitehead explains, The nature which is the fact apprehended in awareness holds within it the greenness of the trees, the song of the birds, the warmth of the sun, the hardness of the chairs, and the feel of the velvet. The nature which is the cause of awareness is the conjectured system of molecules and electrons which so affects the mind as to produce the awareness of apparent nature.
Whitehead on the Philosophy of Education While in London, Whitehead became involved in many practical aspects of tertiary education, serving as Dean of the Faculty of Science at Imperial College and holding several other administrative posts. Many of his essays about education date from this time and appear in his book, The Aims of Education and Other Essays a.
At its core, Whitehead's philosophy of education emphasizes the idea that a good life is most profitably thought of as an educated or civilized life, two terms which Whitehead often uses interchangeably. As we think, we live. Thus it is only as we improve our thoughts that we improve our lives. This view in turn has corollaries for both the content of education and its method of delivery.
Boston and London, Essays in Science and Philosophy New One of the graduate students in that course was Edwin L. Marvin, who took detailed notes on the lectures for the entire year. Until now, the notes have been available only in typescript pages , and were not indexed.
Educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he was subsequently appointed lecturer, he later became lecturer in applied mathematics and mechanics at University College, London, and professor of applied mathematics at the Imperial College of Science and Technology.
Whitehead los recuerda como dos personas muy exitosas y educadas. Alfred North Whitehead Encyclopedia. Whitehead var i den fyrste tid mest oppteken av logikk og fysikk. Whitehead and the Modern World: Science, Metaphysics, and It explores and analyzes the relevance of Whitehead's thought in dialogue with contemporary philosophies in order to unfold his philosophy of organism Principia Mathematica, the landmark work in formal logic written by Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell, was first published in three volumes in , and In an abbreviated issue containing only the first 56 chapters appeared in paperback.
Han skrev om algebra, logikk, matematikkens fundament, vitenskapsteori, fysikk, metafysikk og pedagogikk. Whitehead's metaphysics for being obscure, yet several such philosophers have espoused positions in metaphysics and philosophy of mind that were advanced by Whitehead in the s. World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the In Aims of Education, Whitehead describes the role of freedom and limitation in the educational process.
Essays in Science Alfred North. Essays in Science and Philosophy, The Foundations of Whitehead's Philosophy of Education Introductory Essay by Leslie Kawamura. He enhances his lecture with the addition of chapters on Mathematics as an Element in the History of Thought, Religion and Science, Abstraction, and God.
With an academic career that spanned from Cambridge to Harvard, Whitehead wrote extensively on mathematics, metaphysis, and philosophy.In an abbreviated issue containing only the first 56 chapters appeared in paperback. Gifford Lectures delivered in the University of Edinburgh during the session German O conceito de natureza, trans. Rolf Lachmann, Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, As fellowship examiner for Bertrand Russell and academic supervisor for Willard Van. For Whitehead, an actual occasion or actual entity is not an enduring substance, but a process of becoming.
In fact the character of an event is nothing but the objects which are ingredient in it and the ways in which those objects make their ingression into the event. Joaquain Xirau, Buenos Aires: Losada, , pp. He enhances his lecture with the addition of chapters on Mathematics as an Element in the History of Thought, Religion and Science, Abstraction, and God. This view in turn has corollaries for both the content of education and its method of delivery. The second includes practice in the observation of natural phenomena as well as exposure to the testing of theories and of the presumed law-like connections we find in the natural world. Universidade de Brasilia, , 43 pp.
Modos de pensamiento, trans. Events include among their ingredients what we normally think of as objects. As fellowship examiner for Bertrand Russell and academic supervisor for Willard Van Orman Quine , Whitehead exerted enormous influence on the development of twentieth-century philosophy. Since the research for a proposed second volume of Russell's Principles overlapped considerably with Whitehead's own research for a planned second volume of his Universal Algebra, the two men began collaboration on what eventually would become Principia Mathematica , ,
Reiner Wiehl, trans. Of particular note was his rejection of the idea that each physical object has a simple spatial or temporal location.
Introductory Essay by Leslie Kawamura. PDF download.
In other words, we must avoid dividing the world into separate categories of mind and matter, or into nature as it is apprehended in awareness and nature as the cause of that awareness. Abel J. One of the graduate students in that course was Edwin L.
Russell's The Principles of Mathematics had expanded on several themes initially developed by Whitehead. Like Gottlob Frege , Whitehead and Russell immediately saw the advantages of such a reduction. Lucien Price, intro. Together, his three books The Concept of Nature , Science and the Modern World and Process and Reality c provide a relatively complete statement of Whitehead's mature metaphysical system.