The civil rights movement greatly vexed Lionel Earnest, who would arrive home from the factory, settle himself in front of the TV news and utter dire predictions for the country. In , after Virginia's governor closed a half-dozen Norfolk schools rather than see them integrated, Lionel and his wife gladly enrolled Frank's older sister in a private school. When I asked Frank whether his worldview had been shaped by his father's "very conservative politics," he paused, then stressed again that he is not a racist.
As for civil rights in the current era - including giving deference to multicultural sensitivities - he said he tries to be understanding, despite his aversion to "political correctness.
Wright f Photo: Timothy C. Wright, For The Washington Post Still, in the end, he acknowledged, we are all our parents' children. This is a horrible example, but it's like slavery. I understand if you were a slave, you wanted freedom now. But there were people questioning, 'How do you just turn them loose? And I think that really goes to desegregation. My father thought it needed to be incremental, done in a reasonable manner. Billie, who grew up on a farm south of Richmond, Virginia, became an X-ray technician after graduating from high school.
They were married in after he caught her eye at a heritage get-together. For the wedding his second, her third , Frank donned the dress uniform of a Confederate Navy master, and Billie wore a gown fashioned from an bridal pattern. Billie has three sons from her first marriage.
She said the siblings, all in their 40s, are "aware of their heritage" but "too busy with life" to devote themselves to preserving it.
Frank's son and namesake, from his previous marriage, is a year-old auto mechanic in Norfolk who goes by B. Then, about a decade ago, he said, he experienced an epiphany akin to a religious awakening during a pilgrimage with Frank to Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.
There, in a three-day battle in July , close to 5, rebels died in a disastrous defeat that put Lee's army terminally on its heels. Frank was wearing a Confederate cavalry uniform that day; B. He also shares his father's pessimism for the future of the cause, given the apparent tipping point of the Charleston mass murder. In it, a tow-haired boy of about 6 is outfitted for a make-believe battle - maybe like the Siege of Petersburg, at which an ancestral cousin of his fell. His rifle is a toy Sharps carbine.
Strapped to his waist are a holstered cap pistol and a plastic saber in a sheath. His belt buckle is stamped "CSA," for Confederate States of America, and atop his head sits a reproduction of a rebel soldier's kepi. He said we were going to secede again, and he and I could have a footrace down to the recruiting office.
We'd see who'd have the honor of being first to sign up for the new Confederate army. As for human bondage, the practice had been dying organically worldwide, and, in due course, it would have ended in Dixie without bloodshed - incrementally, in a reasonable manner, the way Lionel Earnest thought desegregation should have occurred. And it's true that a few weeks before hostilities began in , the Confederacy's vice president, Alexander Stephens, declared in a speech, "This old thorn of the tariff, which was the cause of so much irritation in the old body politic, is removed forever from the new.
South Carolina says remove the tariff or we'll secede. The president says you can't and sends additional troops to Fort Sumter. South Carolina responds by raising their own troops. Now, what's the year? It's a favorite rhetorical ploy of his. I said, "I'm guessing ," which I knew was too obvious. And the president is Andy Jackson!
He was the model for a Confederate monument there. In the back of the Dodge Caravan were new rebel flags for the Confederate graves in a burial ground there, deep in woods off a tire-track road. It used to be that you could buy these little Stars and Bars pennants at any hardware store in the South, Frank said. Now Billie has to order them online.
In the driver's seat, Billie was navigating on her own, past barren cotton patches, past dilapidated mobile homes. Frank is befuddled by Google Maps and might have gotten us lost. He wasn't out there protecting them. Burn my house! Just as long as you don't take my slaves away' - which, of course, he didn't own any! The boy was fighting for his family and his state.
I get so sick of hearing it. We were taught that just as in the first War of Independence, when we stood up to King George III, our ancestors saw the federal government as a tyranny. About of its pages are devoted to "the War Between the States," or "the great war between the North and the South," or "the struggle for Southern independence. Nowhere does the term "Civil War" appear. The dog-eared volume, feathered with sticky notes, is a resource for Frank in preparing the lectures he occasionally delivers at heritage assemblies.
Frank and his classmates were taught that, as a rule, the basic personal needs of slaves were humanely seen to by their overseers.
Thus, "a strong feeling of affection existed between masters and slaves," and the slaves "went about in a cheerful manner. Out of necessity, "It became unlawful to teach Negroes to read or write because of the fear that they would get dangerous ideas from the books and newspapers of the Abolitionists. I looked for the chapter about summary hangings of recalcitrant runaways, about floggings and other brutal punishments inflicted after underproductive days in the fields. As Frank might say, "Why am I not surprised they left that out?
And he guarded his profit margin with a whip when necessary. I searched the textbook in vain for this bit of gruesome history. Chapter When the Republican Party, ideological home of tariff zealots, gained the White House in , in the person of Lincoln, Southerners knew that "the time for action" had come. Having "joined the Union of their own free will," they "believed that the Constitution gave them the right to leave the Union of their own free will.
He quickly grew agitated - "Nobody's offended until somebody tells them they need to be offended! As he bent forward, palms on the pedestal, Billie reached to soothe him, whispering, "Easy, bud. A Richmond magazine said that it was wicked for Mrs. Stowe to use her imagination in such a bad way. Frank said he will argue to his "dying breath" that it was conceived as an appeal to anti-slavery sentiment in the European public, to discourage England and France from recognizing the Confederacy.
Although his adult readings about the war extend far beyond a junior high civics book, Frank has little use for most modern academic historians. He mentioned Princeton's James M. McPherson, an eminent critic of Lost Cause ideology, as being especially irksome. His favorite historian, Douglas Southall Freeman, was awarded a Pulitzer Prize in for an admiring, multivolume biography of Lee.
Like most Civil War historians of his era, Freeman belonged to the Lost Cause school, and today his ideas are in scholarly disrepute. It took some convincing on my part, and official permission from Billie, before Frank let me borrow his antiquarian textbook so I could peruse it at home.
Handing it over hesitantly, he warned me to bring it back. And Billie nodded, saying, "Because it's the truth. Back then, the debate over Confederate iconography focused mainly on displays of rebel flags at public buildings. The Stars and Bars had been flying above the State House dome in Columbia, South Carolina, since , first hoisted as a middle finger to the civil rights movement, or simply to commemorate the war's centennial, depending on whom you asked.
With the NAACP threatening a tourism boycott unless South Carolina officials removed the banner, busloads of flag supporters showed up, staging rallies and pressuring lawmakers to resist. Although the Sons' national leaders had been trying to distance the group from its segregationist past "Heritage not hate" was their slogan , their bedfellows in Columbia included the League of the South and the Council of Conservative Citizens, both overtly racist. The league and the council, unlike the Sons, are classified as hate groups by the nonprofit Southern Poverty Law Center, which monitors extremist organizations.
In the end, the heritage defenders left town happy: While the Stars and Bars disappeared from the State House dome, another rebel flag, even more visible, went up elsewhere on the grounds, atop a foot pole. Confederate Frank climbed the Sons' ranks in the s: camp commander, brigade commander, division commander, international chief of heritage defense and commander of the Army of Northern Virginia Lee's old title!
That made him a prime candidate to run for national commander in chief, until the Sons' internal politics, opaque and byzantine to most outsiders, conspired to deny him a nomination.
In , he became a monument himself, after another heritage group decided to finish a partially built memorial in a Norfolk graveyard, installing a statue on a pedestal that had stood empty since Clad as a rebel infantryman, Frank posed for photos so that sculptors could get the details right.
You can see him there now above the headstones - a leaner fellow rendered life-size, more or less, in a half-ton of granite, with his slouch hat and flinty visage, an eternal sentinel for the Confederate dead in Elmwood Cemetery. Frank said, "Right over there - that's where I found out I was division commander," the No. Lee statue. In , before Dylann Roof opened fire on a Bible study group at Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church in Charleston, South Carolina, killing nine African-Americans, he spent a day touring places associated with the subjugation of black people, including former plantations and a Confederate museum.
The state Department of Archives and History says the money the legislature provides to Beauvoir is allocated for preservation of the building, a National Historic Landmark, not for interpretation. But this focus is honored only in the breach. The museum celebrates the Confederate soldier in a cavernous hall filled with battle flags, uniforms and weapons.
Tour guides and re-enactors routinely denied the realities of slavery in their presentations to visitors. Fall Muster, a highlight of the Beauvoir calendar, is nothing if not a raucous salute to Confederate might.
Their servile instincts rendered them contented with their lot Never was there a happier dependence of labor and capital upon each other. Brian Palmer A statue of Jefferson Davis overlooks the mansion grounds. The notion that slavery was beneficial to slaves was notably expressed by Davis himself in the posthumously published memoir he wrote at Beauvoir. Nearby the gift shop stocks mugs, shirts, caps and other items, many emblazoned with Confederate symbols. Brian Palmer Costumed re-enactors take a selfie and greet local schoolchildren at the big annual event called Fall Muster at Beauvoir.
Brian Palmer An Alabaman named J. The state of Alabama acquired the property in as an old-age home for Confederate veterans, their wives and their widows. After the last residents died, the park closed.
Two women in hoop skirts stood to the side, looking at their cellphones. The park, which in served fewer than 40, visitors, recently expanded, with replica Civil War barracks completed in The museum in the Alabama park attempts a history of the Civil War through the story of the common Confederate soldier, an approach that originated soon after the war and remains popular today.
It is tragic that hundreds of thousands of young men died on the battlefield. The memorial barely mentions black people. There is a photograph of a Confederate officer, reclining, next to an enslaved black man, also clad in a uniform, who bears an expression that can only be described as dread.
Near the end of the exhibit, a lone panel states that slavery was a factor in spurring secession. Inside, books about Confederate generals and Confederate history lined the shelves. The South Was Right! Alabama laws, like those in other former Confederate states, make numerous permanent allocations to advance the memory of the Confederacy. Stephens State Park.
Most of that money is spent on campsites and trails, but as with other Confederate sites that boast recreational facilities—most famously, Stone Mountain, also in Georgia—the A. Stephens park was established to venerate Confederate leadership. And it still does. Alexander Hamilton Stephens is well known for a profoundly racist speech he gave in Savannah in a month after becoming vice president of the provisional Confederacy.
This, our new government, is the first, in the history of the world, based upon this great physical, philosophical, and moral truth. Our guide, a state employee, opened the door of a small two-room cabin once occupied by Harry and Eliza—two of the 34 people Stephens held in bondage.
His house has been recently restored, with state as well as private funds, and Wilkes County has taken over daily operations. When asked about that, the docent, a young volunteer, retrieved a binder containing a Works Progress Administration oral history given by Alonza Fantroy Toombs.
After the war erupted he heroically risked his freedom to join the United States Colored Troops. The warrant is important to your argument because it connects your reasoning and support to your thesis, and it shows that the information in the paragraph is related to your thesis and helps defend it. Supporting evidence induction and deduction Induction Induction is the type of reasoning that moves from specific facts to a general conclusion.
When you use induction in your paper, you will state your thesis which is actually the conclusion you have come to after looking at all the facts and then support your thesis with the facts.
The following is an example of induction taken from Dorothy U. Smith was shot in his bedroom between the hours of p. Smith was shot with a. Jones was seen, by a neighbor, entering the Smith home at around p. Conclusion: Jones killed Smith.
Assumption: The facts are representative, not isolated incidents, and thus reveal a trend, justifying the conclusion drawn. Deduction When you use deduction in an argument, you begin with general premises and move to a specific conclusion. There is a precise pattern you must use when you reason deductively. This pattern is called syllogistic reasoning the syllogism. Syllogistic reasoning deduction is organized in three steps: Major premise Minor premise Conclusion In order for the syllogism deduction to work, you must accept that the relationship of the two premises lead, logically, to the conclusion.
Here are two examples of deduction or syllogistic reasoning: Socrates Major premise: All men are mortal. Minor premise: Socrates is a man. Conclusion: Socrates is mortal. Lincoln Major premise: People who perform with courage and clear purpose in a crisis are great leaders.They put their hands on their hearts, in salute to the Confederate flag. He was the model for a Confederate monument there. So the place where the drum had the least continuity in terms of usage and the direct retention of African poly-rhythms is the place where the back-beat was emphasized and the So then the cultural context of industrialization and the specificities of Black musical development within the United States are the general cultural context that sits atop the inherent African aesthetics of music. Authors often use enthymemes to persuade audiences. Anxiety is one of the most classification ideas for essay about confederate problems psychologists see in the dental arena, says Daniel W.
Statement of Topic: What topic will you be researching for your final project? After the Civil War, the people of The United States had so much anger and hatred towards each other and the government that 11 Southern states seceded from the Nation and parted into two pieces. Frank and Billie Earnests' collection includes whiskey decanters featuring Confederate generals Thomas J. They act like -" "Easy, bud," said Billie, 70, shooting him a fretful look. After the last residents died, the park closed. As these local disputes play out, you can also hear the president of the United States defend Confederate statues as "beautiful," as he seeks successfully, it appears to capitalize politically on neo-Confederate dogma.
He waved a beefy hand and said to think nothing of it: "I would gladly drop dead on this floor to do my duty for the Confederacy. There was a newspaper open on the kitchen table, and, as he lowered himself into a chair, he jabbed a finger at an opinion column. The museum celebrates the Confederate soldier in a cavernous hall filled with battle flags, uniforms and weapons.
Although Frank assured me, again, that he is not a racist, he said I needed to realize: Freed slaves were woefully unprepared for civic responsibility. Instead of calmly processing the situation and rationally identifying solutions and ways forward, you are feeding energy classification ideas for essay about confederate something non-constructive. First you see George Washington, who has gained the victory in the war Fall Muster, a highlight of the Beauvoir calendar, is nothing if not a raucous salute to Confederate might.
And these were the years when a majority of the Confederate monuments in America went up, like crowns of the Old South's redemption. The clipped, halting sentences with which Macbeth speaks to Macduff and Lennox indicate his troubled mind and trepidation about the impending discovery has been flipped within Macbeth. They discuss the strange and ominous happenings of the past few and ate one another. Your structure needs to be flexible enough to meet the requirements of your purpose and audience. It left both sides, north and south struggling, trying to figure out what their next move towards reuniting the divided America was going to be. On our final trip together, a few months ago, we visited Blandford Cemetery in Petersburg, Virginia.
George E. All rights reserved. Frank's son and namesake, from his previous marriage, is a year-old auto mechanic in Norfolk who goes by B. Indeed, Black music is often that Black music came of age contemporaneously with modern industrial were born and developed during the same epoch. The first part of the enthymeme If you have a plasma TV is the stated premise. We passed beneath a towering arch of granite, inscribed, "Our Confederate Heroes," and exited through old iron gates, back into the 21st century.
Our guide, a state employee, opened the door of a small two-room cabin once occupied by Harry and Eliza—two of the 34 people Stephens held in bondage. Flowers, M.
Richard Poplar of the Sussex Light Dragoons. Frank is befuddled by Google Maps and might have gotten us lost. There's a cavalry saddle in the parlor that "belonged to this man," Frank said, gesturing to a sepia photo. Despite reconstruction efforts, African Americans faced discrimination.
I told Frank that the statue in the trash bag conjured images of African captives on the auction block. Smith was shot in his bedroom between the hours of p. She worries he'll keel over one day in the midst of a rant, leaving her a Confederate widow.
Handing it over hesitantly, he warned me to bring it back.