In addition to these macro-structures you will probably need to establish a micro-structure relating to the particular elements you need to focus on e. Fluid structures You may feel that, for your particular essay, structures like these feel too rigid. You may wish to create a more flexible or fluid structure.
An analogy could be that of symphony writing. This set out a pattern for the numbers of movements within the symphony, and for the general structure of writing within each movement. The continued popularity of their work today shows that they clearly managed to achieve plenty of interest and variety within that basic structure. Later composers moved away from strict symphonic form. Some retained a loose link to it while others abandoned it completely, in favour of more fluid patterns.
It would be rare, however, to find a symphony that was without structure or pattern of any kind; it would probably not be satisfactory either to play or to listen to. Similarly, a structure of some kind is probably essential for every essay, however revolutionary.
Your decisions on structure will be based on a combination of: the requirements of your department; the potential of the essay title; and your own preferences and skills.
An iterative, not necessarily a linear process The process of essay planning and writing does not need to be a linear process, where each stage is done only once. It is often an iterative process i. A possible iterative process is: analyse the title read around the title, making relevant notes prepare a first draft critically review your first draft in the light of this further analysis read further to fill in gaps prepare final draft critically edit the final draft submit the finished essay.
They will be reading and marking many, many student essays. If you make your argument hard to follow, so that they need to re-read a paragraph or more to try to make sense of what you have written, you will cause irritation, and make their job slower. Realistically, it is possible that they may even decide not to make that effort.
Your tutors will not necessarily be looking for the perfect, revolutionary, unique, special essay; they would be very happy to read a reasonably well-planned, well-argued and well-written essay. They will not want to pull your essay to pieces. They would much rather enjoy reading it, and be satisfied by the thread of your argument. It can engage your readers, and can give them confidence that you have thought carefully about the title, and about how you are going to address it.
A useful generic structure is to: begin with a general point about the central issue; show your understanding of the task that has been set; show how you plan to address the title in your essay structure; make a link to the first point.
It may be possible to use only one paragraph for your introduction, but it may fall more easily into two or more. You will need to adapt and extend this basic structure to fit with your own discipline and the precise task set.
Here is an example of an introduction for an essay entitled: Examine and compare the nature and development of the tragic figures of Macbeth and Dr Faustus in their respective plays. Begin with a general point Dr Faustus and Macbeth are both plays that show their respective playwrights at the pinnacle of their careers. The heart of the essay The middle part of the essay must fulfil the promises made in your introduction, and must support your final conclusions.
Failure to meet either or both of these requirements will irritate your reader, and will demonstrate a lack of self-critique and of editing. The central part of your essay is where the structure needs to do its work, however explicit or implicit your chosen structure may be.
The structure you choose needs to be one that will be most helpful to you in addressing the essay title. The content of this central part will probably contain: ideas; explanations; evidence; relevant referencing; and relevant examples.
It will be characterised by: appropriate academic style; interesting and engaging writing; clarity of thought and expression, sensible ordering of material, to support and the development of ideas and the development of argument.
Questions to ask of your essay content may be useful. Conclusion A powerful conclusion is a valuable tool. The aim is to leave your reader feeling that you have done a good job. A generic structure that you may find useful is: brief recap of what you have covered in relation to the essay title; reference to the larger issue; evaluation of the main arguments; highlighting the most important aspects.
The example below relates to the essay title used on the previous page. Brief recap The characters of Macbeth and Faustus are very similar in many respects; for example they both willingly follow a path that leads to their damnation.
Evaluation of the main arguments As has been shown, the character of Macbeth has a nadir from which he ascends at the conclusion of the play. For Faustus however, there is no such ascension. This fits with the style of the morality play: the erring Faustus must be seen to be humbled at his end for the morality to be effective… Highlighting the most important aspects It is this strong element of morality in Dr Faustus that ultimately divides the two leading characters.
Questions to ask of your introduction and conclusion may be useful. The study guide What is critical writing? With critical writing, you are doing work with the evidence you are using, by adding a level of examination and evaluation. Questions to ask about your level of critical writing may be useful. Another useful tool to support critical writing is the paragraph!
Aim to present one idea per paragraph. Editing Finally, you need to take a break from your essay so that you can return to it with fresh eyes for the final editing. They are absolutely crucial because it is only at this stage that the student can see that the argument hangs together, has a sequence and is well-expressed. Editing is both difficult and important.
Also, criticising your writing tends to be easier than creating it in the first place. The study guide: The art of editing and the sheet: Questions to ask when editing may be useful. Presentation A tutor can learn a worrying amount about the quality of your essay simply from how it looks on the page. The lengths of paragraphs; the lengths of sentences; the neatness of the reference list; the balance of length between different sections; all offer insight into the kind of essay they are about to read.
Shorter words are often preferable to longer words, unless there is some specific vocabulary that you need to include to demonstrate your skill. Short to middle length sentences are almost always preferable to longer ones. And over-long paragraphs tend to demonstrate that you are not clear about the specific points you are making. Of course, these are general points, and there may be some occasions, or some subject areas, where long paragraphs are appropriate.
Accurate grammar and spelling are important. Consistently poor grammar or spelling can give the impression of lack of care, and lack of clarity of thought. Careless use of commas can actually change the meaning of a sentence. And inaccurate spelling and poor grammar can make for very irritating reading for the person marking it. This practice is now widely accepted where it makes good sense.
It is however possible that some tutors may still prefer not to see it. Summary of key points The title is the most important guidance you have. C Writing and Research Skills syllabus, Spring Tertiary Essay Writing - University of Melbourne ; For example, if you expect to spend 30 hours preparing a word essay, 15 hours would be spent A good Taking the For students at Charles Darwin University.
A resource to Essay topic : Using personal reflection, write a word essay on how rising food prices The aim of this book is to convince you that plain, direct writing is the The pompous style prefers APA: Schwartz. Hamlet as. Note taking from academic readings. Essay writing - Deakin University ; May 8, When writing an essay, don't be tempted to simply summarise other writers' ideas.
It is your discussion of the topic and your analysis of their PDF of this document may be downloaded free for Provide spelling word banks for writing assignments. Along with writing and reasoning, reading is one of the most.
A PDF Squeezer alternative is available for all platforms, and the tool reduces the file size Part of the job of researching is being able to identify in your readings where Writing Spaces: Readings on Writing, Volume 2 ; Writing Spaces: Readings on Writing, Volume 2, is a collection of Creative Commons licensed essays for use in the first year writing classroom, all written by writing teachers for students.
Writing, Speaking, Listening, Interviewing, Communication The single biggest problem in communication is the illusion that it has taken place. If you cannot - in the long run - tell everyone what you have been doing, your doing has been worthless.
Writing Spaces Open Textbook Chapters Writing Spaces ; Each of these titles is available under a Creative Commons license consult the individual text for the license specifics.
Click on the title to view the chapter abstract and a downloadable PDF of the chapter. Study Guides and Strategies ; Website overview: Since the Study Guides and Strategies Website has been researched, authored, maintained and supported as an international, learner-centric, educational public service.
Author: John Langan. Read college writing skills with readings developmental english online, read in mobile or Kindle. College writing skills with readings 9th edition pdf Edmonton Anchorage. College writing skills with readings 9th edition pdf Winnipeg Knoxville, St.Improving your reading skills will reduce unnecessary reading time and enable you to read in a more Chapter 3 pp Key College Skills: Summary, Analysis,.
Begin with a general point Dr Faustus and Macbeth are both plays that show their respective playwrights at the pinnacle of their careers. It can be a way of making a lot of progress quite quickly. They are absolutely crucial because it is only at this stage that the student can see that the argument hangs together, has a sequence and is well-expressed. Editing is both difficult and important. Untitled ; Readings for this course include essays, short stories, novels, plays, and poems.
It will be characterised by: appropriate academic style; interesting and engaging writing; clarity of thought and expression, sensible ordering of material, to support and the development of ideas and the development of argument. One, answer the question. Further Readings
These criticisms highlight the three basic elements of good essay writing: attending closely to the title; establishing a relevant structure that will help you show the development of your argument; and using critical writing as much as possible; with descriptive writing being used where necessary, but kept to a minimum. However, even in those essays that appear to be highly creative, unscientific, or personal, an argument of some kind is being made.
Accurate grammar and spelling are important. The Mini Guide: Essay terms explained , and Questions to ask about interpreting essay titles may be useful. It is your discussion of the topic and your analysis of their Harlow: Pearson Education Limited. About the Author. Expect to undertake an iterative process of planning, reading, drafting, reviewing, planning, reading, re-drafting, and editing.
This practice is now widely accepted where it makes good sense. You begin there; you end there; and everything in between needs to be placed in relation to that title. The aim is to leave your reader feeling that you have done a good job. If you cannot - in the long run - tell everyone what you have been doing, your doing has been worthless.
Presentation A tutor can learn a worrying amount about the quality of your essay simply from how it looks on the page. The first words you write do not have to be part of the final version. If you cannot - in the long run - tell everyone what you have been doing, your doing has been worthless.
There are several generic structures that can help you start to think about your essay structure e.
Essay topic : Using personal reflection, write a word essay on how rising food prices Questions to ask of your essay content may be useful. And over-long paragraphs tend to demonstrate that you are not clear about the specific points you are making. Begin with a general point Dr Faustus and Macbeth are both plays that show their respective playwrights at the pinnacle of their careers. A PDF Squeezer alternative is available for all platforms, and the tool reduces the file size
The content of this central part will probably contain: ideas; explanations; evidence; relevant referencing; and relevant examples. A relevant and useful structure to support the presentation of your response to the title is vital.