At the undergraduate level, the majority of your research materials will be secondary sources. A good secondary source is written by a professional or academic historian and is based on extensive primary source research. Historians publish their latest research as chapters in edited works, books and in articles in scholarly journals. There are journals concerned with numerous facets of history, including the Middle Ages, China, Alberta, war, labour, women, science and so on.
You are advised to only use articles from peer-reviewed journals. Peer review means that other scholars in the field have critically reviewed the article and its research and found it to be sound. Use a variety of secondary sources for your paper. Books tend to have a broader scope, while articles and chapters are more specific.
You should be using both. Some sources are not clearly either primary or secondary. In this case it would also be important to consider how long after the events being described the memoirs were written.
Some sources can be both primary and secondary sources depending on the way in which you use them. However, if you were looking at the cultural impact of the event on a particular society it could become a primary source!
Tertiary sources are primarily encyclopedic and include dictionary entries as well as textbooks. Tertiary sources provide the basic facts about the past and are based on secondary sources. While you may find it useful to consult an encyclopedia or a dictionary for information about an important person or a definition of a word, tertiary sources do not count towards the total number of sources required for a paper.
Your textbook is a great springboard for topic ideas and primary and secondary sources, but the information a textbook contains is often too general to be directly applied to a research assignment. Scholarly versus Popular is an important distinction and one you need to keep in mind. You want to make sure your secondary sources are sound, and the way to do that is to make sure they are scholarly. Most things in the University Library or available through the University Library's website are scholarly, but not everything.
The Calgary Public Library contains both popular and scholarly books, and if you use books from there you should be more careful about examining their quality. Books that you use for your essays should have footnotes or endnotes and a bibliography. You should be able to easily determine what evidence was used to make the argument.
Journal articles will be similar, and should be in a scholarly journal. Most scholarly journals use a process called peer-review to ensure they only publish quality research. Each article that is submitted is reviewed by subject experts to make sure it is of reasonable quality.
Writing Strategies Time management. Students tend to underestimate how long a project will take. The sooner you start your research the more likely the books you need will be in the library. If a book you need is signed out it can take up to two weeks before you can get it.
If the book you need has to come from another library it can take even longer. Not getting the resources you need is no excuse for turning in a paper late although it could be the reason if you are not careful. Students should allow a few weeks to work on their essay, ideally allowing some time between stages for reflection. Allot at least two hours of work for each page of your essay. Thoughts and Feelings The Topic Selection Phase is often characterized by uncertainty and apprehension, but also anticipation as it can be exciting to learn about a new topic area.
Some causes of this are: Not understanding the assignment - you may feel uncertain about the assignment when you read through it at first. It may seem overwhelming, difficult, or even impossible. However, spending time reviewing all the criteria for the assignment helps to alleviate some uncertainty. Often professors and instructors provide detailed instructions in the assignment that you need to consider even before choosing your general topic.
Not knowing anything about a topic - professors often provide a list of topics from which you can pick. You may be apprehensive when scanning the list and realizing you don't know anything about any of the proposed topics. Or you are able to choose your own topic for the research paper, but you are unable to do so because you don't know anything yet about the topics discussed in class.
You can alleviate some of your apprehension by starting to think about appropriate topics right at the beginning of the term. As new ideas are presented in class and your assigned readings, your knowledge base builds so that you can make a more informed decision on topic selection. Now write Quiz 1 on Blackboard! Pre-Focus Research Overview Frequently characterized by confusion, uncertainty and doubt, this is often the most difficult part of the research process.
So if you are experiencing frustration, don't despair! This is normal. Really, it is. Many students feel they should be able to go straight from topic selection into the focused research stage or even presenting their arguement, and frequently try to do so.
This will seldom be productive. You need to learn more about your topic, the details, nuances, and issues surrounding it, in order to find a focus for your research. It is a misconception that the more information you find on a topic, the clearer things become.
In the process of exploring your topic, you will find information that is sometimes contradictory, questionable or incompatible with your ideas. It takes time and persistence and to wade through this information and make sense of it.
One researcher referred to this type of exploration as a process of "patience and faith". Eventually, you will be able to find a focus for your research. Research Strategies The purpose of this phase is to investigate information with the intent of finding a focus, choosing not only your topic but how you want to approach it or what you will say about it. This will mean using the library, whether it is print resources in the library itself or electronic ones that the library provides access to.
At this stage in your research you will be primarily looking for tertiary sources and some secondary sources. There are a few initial steps you can take to ensure your research time is effective and well spent. Skipping these steps often results in frustrating and unsuccessful searches, leaving the research with the feeling that there is nothing on the topic.
The reality however might be that there is plenty of information available, but unless it is approached in a particular way it can not be found. As a general rule make sure what you are looking at is scholarly.
There is a lot of information out there and many different sources, but scholarly or academic sources are most efficient as they provide you with the clues you need to find more items on the same topic.
Ideally every source you find should be able to lead you to another related source. Using what you already know. Searching the library, whether its print collection using the online catalogue or its online journals can be a challenge if you don't know exactly what you are looking for.
The search tools all work best when you are looking for something you already know exists, or should exist. The first place to start then is to look at your course readings and lecture notes. You will want to make some notes from these to guide your research. These notes are not necessarily about the topic itself but also about the research on the topic. Note the following types of information: authors of course readings that deal with your topic authors of other books or articles listed in the footnotes or bibliographies of your course readings dates of the relevant events you are looking at if you happen to have them in your notes particular individuals or places involved in the event - proper nouns are very effective search tools all the different names for the event or issue - do your readings and lecture notes describe the same event but call it something different?
If so note this down. There are a number of encyclopedias you can link to from the library's website. Oxford Reference Online is often a great tool to start your search with. Taking the notes you compiled from lectures and readings, search Oxford Reference Online for information on your topic. You will find articles from several different Oxford resources. These articles are not something you should cite or will count towards your total number of sources, they are tertiary.
You are looking at them to get a broader understanding of the topic, to find different terms or words to describe the topic which are necessary for effectively finding online articles , to make sure that you have all the relevant dates and spellings for places, persons and things, and finally and maybe most importantly for the list of related readings at the bottom.
They will not only give you other books or articles to look for on your topic but also the names of some researchers who work on your topic. You can then search the catalogue or online databases with the author's name to find what else they have written on the topic.
There are a number of subject guides setup on the library websites. It can take time to search through them but it can be time well spent. The most important thing to look for on these pages when you are just starting a topic are bibliographies. The majority of bibliographies are in print and while they may seem less convenient than, say, a google search from the comfort of your own home, they can make research both fast and easy. Bibliographies are books that organize, list, and often comment on all the published research on a given topic up to the date of the bibliography's publication.
Bibliographies often organize the existing research in the field by how authors have approached the topic -- what particular aspects of it they have looked at. This organization gives you a good idea how the information on your topic is organized and described.
From a bibliography you will get the following information: Titles of books or articles on your subject which can then be looked up in the catalogue and online resources The names of researchers working on your topic who you will want to look up in the catalogue and online resources Subject headings for how your topic is organized, which can be used as keywords in catalogue and online resource searches Background and context for how your topic has been approached.
A place to browse! The call number on the bibliography will be the same as other works on the same subject, so you can browse the shelves in the Library Tower and in the reference collection using the bibliography's call number as a guide. If the bibliography is a little bit older that is not necessarily a problem as research in history does not become irrelevant simply because it is old.
The bibliography will also give you names of researchers who work on the topic, and you can use those names in searches to find what they have written since the bibliography was published.
Using the library website: the catalogue. It works best when you are searching for a known title, author or subject heading.
The steps above give you the first of these three things. It also introduces some of the commonly used particles. More advanced topics such as the complex verb forms causative and comitative are not included in this pag. Intermediate Thematic Lessons These lessons are to supplement themes and grammar lesson activities in the classroom. Each lesson consists of a dialog, list of vocabulary related to the theme, a short narrative or an essay related to the theme, a suggested reading and writing task and a related song to be used as enrichment.
Intermediate Reading Lessons These are readings with follow-up activities. These readings are appropriate for High Intermediate and Advanced learners in the language. Literature, essays with social relevance are some of the related topics. For Language Teachers and k Mainstream Teachers Teacher Page This page was developed for language teachers as well as mainstream classroom teachers. Lesson Plans, Pedagogical Activities, and cultural notes are included in this page.Intermediate Thematic Lessons These lessons are to supplement themes and grammar lesson activities in the classroom. More advanced topics such as the complex verb forms causative and comitative are not included in this pag. Do newer works use sources and methods that make older sources obsolete? If you have chosen your own topic, run it to identify, locate and retrieve the relevant writings. Thoughts and Feelings The Pre-focus Exploration Phase is often your essay. You can then search the catalogue or online databases with the author's tutorial to find what else they have Sapir-whorf hypothesis intercultural communication theories on the tagalog.
Bibliographies are books that organize, list, and often comment on all the published research on a given topic up to the date of the bibliography's publication. Ideally every source you find should be able to lead you to another related source. Primary sources are the closest sources temporally to the time at which the event or events occurred that are available to historians to study an event or person. You should be using both. Take appropriate notes and read effectively.
You will likely not need to read the whole book, as most of it will be irrelevant. The thesis statement should make itself clear. Is there more you'd like to know about that you aren't finding out? Bibliographies are books that organize, list, and often comment on all the published research on a given topic up to the date of the bibliography's publication.
Paragraph Strength and Language To craft a strong paragraph, important facts, textual analysis and all of the information must be relevant. Not only will this provide you with the general facts surrounding possible topics, but the bibliography will also be a springboard for further research. Your professor may ask that you use one or more primary sources to complete your assignment. Scholarly articles are detailed and specific and are easier to use when you know exactly what it is you are looking for. It's very frustrating when you want to use a particularly interesting idea or great quote and can't remember where you found it! The sooner you start your research the more likely the books you need will be in the library.
As a general rule make sure what you are looking at is scholarly. Overview What is a history paper? It takes time and persistence and to wade through this information and make sense of it. Words such as "good," "nice" and "bad" are extremely vague and should not be used in professional writing. Please read this introduction first before you proceed to the activities. Record relevant citations.
Does the source contain useful information peripheral to the principle purpose of the document that might be less influenced by the personal motives of the author than other content? Definition of Linguistic Terms This is an outside page that can be access from this site. Scholars do not always agree and are frequently critical of one another's approach or findings. You will likely not need to read the whole book, as most of it will be irrelevant. The call number on the bibliography will be the same as other works on the same subject, so you can browse the shelves in the Library Tower and in the reference collection using the bibliography's call number as a guide.
The thesis statement should make itself clear. When comparing thesis statements and how they might be discussed in your essay, ask: What sources do the authors use? Inability to express information need. There are three different types of sources.
However, spending time reviewing all the criteria for the assignment helps to alleviate some uncertainty. Each lesson consists of a dialog, list of vocabulary related to the theme, a short narrative or an essay related to the theme, a suggested reading and writing task and a related song to be used as enrichment. It may seem overwhelming, difficult, or even impossible. Who are the key people involved?