A Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats SWOT analysis indicated good collaboration among diverse stakeholders and opportunities for culturing non-endangered species and for offshoot projects, but complicated permitting was an issue as were threats of market flooding and production declines. The OMS international market is strong, Indonesian exporters expressed great interest in cultured product, and Indonesia is the largest exporting country for H.
Yet, a comparison of Indonesia ornamental marine fish exports to fish abundance in a single local market indicated that OMS culture cannot replace fishing livelihoods. Nevertheless, seahorse and other OMS culture can play a role in management and conservation by supplementing and diversifying the fishing and collecting livelihoods in the developing nations that provide the majority of the global OMS.
The prevalence of infection and a list of comparative measurements are discussed. After being anesthetised in a benzocaine solution, fishes were examined for parasitological evaluation.
A total of Carassius auratus was the most parasitised species, followed by X. North East India is considered as one of the hot spots of freshwater fish biodiversity in the world Kottelat and Whitten, It is a well-recognized fact that there has been drastic reduction in abundance of the fresh water fishes in this region due to destruction of the habitat, overexploitation and other anthropogenic effects.
Review of literature indicates that only limited information is available on fish germplasm resources of north east India with special reference to its potential as cultivable, sport and ornamental fishes.
There has been a wide variation in the number of fishes reported from this region ranging from Ghosh and Lipton, to Sen, Also detailed drainage wise distribution, seasonal abundance, endemism and preferred microhabitats have not been critically examined. The up to date inventory of the fish species of North East India showed potential ornamental fish species. Out of this, the highest no.
Conservation status of native ornamental fishes have shown that out of sp. NE harbors diversified native ornamental fish species. These include both classified and non-classified types of aquarium fishes Mahapatra et al. Small fishes like Botia derio, Danio dangila, Puntius shalynius etc. There are two major river basins within the state of Manipur, viz.
After the world famous Shiroi Lily and the Sangai, matter has now come to light that Manipur is also home to a number of fish species which are highly prized for their ornamental values in Europe and the United States. Diversity of fish fauna in J iribam, Manipur The north east region shares its fish fauna predominantly with that of the Indo Gangetic fauna and to a little extent with the Burmese and South China fish fauna Yadav and Chandra, Exploring the literature shows that fish species with reference to their economic importance were recorded by Ghosh and Lipton while Sen and Mahanta et al.
Compilation of Yadav and Chandra listed a total of species. Sinha in his comprehensive review gave a list of species of fishes as available from north eastern region. Sen has indicated that more number of species has been reported from north east India. The various reports show a wide variation in the total number of fishes reported. Since Manipur is located in the extreme east zone of India therefore there is a greater chance in the available fish fauna being influenced by Burmese fish fauna.
According to recent reports, a total of ornamental fishes are found in Manipur. Jiribam is a small sub division in the westernmost part of Manipur where it borders with the state of Assam. It is drained by a single river, Jiri River and many small canals. The Jiri River joins the Barak River in Tipaimukh and hence becomes the main reason of harboring a large number and variety of fishes.
The literature reveals that no efforts have been made to explore the rich ichthyodiversity of this region and also no work have been done to Jiribam, The Ornamental Fishes Hot Spot Zone Of Manipur, India www. With the growing demand for consumption and aquarium, it is necessary to evaluate potential species on the basis of different criteria.
In the present paper, an attempt has been made to prioritize among the fishes of this region the potential ornamental fishes along with their endemic status and status of threat on the basis of available literature as well as enquiry and interaction with the local fishery experts. Potential aquarium fishes have been identified based on actual present demand, bright coloration, uncommon look and uniqueness and following the records as mentioned in the literature. As a result fish stocks particularly those dwelling in inland open water areas, have gradually become endangered.
Extensive field survey conducted from September to December in Jiribam sub division of Manipur revealed the occurrence of bewildering diversity of ornamental fishes. Study about the species availability helps to know the present status of species variety and their relative abundance in the respective water bodies.
Data were collected from all the major fish landing centers and interaction with the fishermen and local people. Data collection and analysis In order to collect data field visit was made every month and sometimes daily during the study period according to information and preference in the respective areas.
In addition relevant information was also collected from various sources. The data were assembled through field survey using appropriate questionnaire. The questionnaire form was filled in by interviewing the fishermen directly from the field and local fish experts and also the local people.
All the collected data were analyzed and the species observed were grouped in different categories. Results And Discussion Species composition A total of 61 species were found from the surveyed area out of the total species of ornamental fishes found in the state of Manipur. All the species were Freshwater fishes.
They were belonged to 22 families and 7 orders. They are serially depicted in the tables 1, 2 and 3. Out of the 61 species recorded 21 species belonged to the family, Cyprinidae, only 1 sp. Among the 7 orders of fishes found, the order Cypriniformes dominated others with a total number of 27 species then comes Siluriformes 15 and Perciformes ranked third with a total number of 12 species.
Species variation in different season During the survey it was observed that not all species were available in all season. A total of 14 species were more available in winter season, 12 in summer and 35 fish species were available throughout the year.
There were some species which were more available in summer but not in winter. And some species were available only in winter season. The species which have high ornamental value are mostly available during the months of October to December. Status of the fishes According to the IUCN Red List of all life forms, 16, species are threatened globally, and of these specie are fishes.
Species may move between categories for a variety of reasons, including genuine improvement or deterioration in status, new information being available about the species that was not known at the time of previous assessment, taxonomic changes, or mistakes being made in previous assessment eg.
These fishes are shown in Table 4 with their category of threat. And we observed 3 endemic fishes in jiribam namely, Devario acuticephala, Schistura manipurensis and Garra manipurensis.
Except these 3 species, others are native. In the present study, the percentage contribution of Cyprinids are found to be Some fishes are found to be surprisingly in the verge of extinction.
The noted ornamental fish Chaca chaca is reported to be found in some restricted area of Jiribam but due to some reasons we are facing a great problem in getting this fish. The major reason behind the threatening status of this particular fish is the construction of Tipaimukh dam in the water body which is the sole and native home for this very species of ornamental fish. Bagarius bagarius is almost extinct in Jiribam nowadays, during the whole survey period it was recorded to catch only once in the month of December.
During the last few years many exotic fishes are also introduced by the fishermen so that they could get a greater profit in their business without a second thought of affecting the local and indigenous fish diversity of the area. Freshwater fish are not only the most diverse group of vertebrates but they also represent and feature the greatest proportion of threatened species Bruton, ; Leidy and Moyle, ; Duncan and Lockword, The principal threats to freshwater fish are the deterioration or destruction of habitats, both by pollution and intense modifications like damming, channelization and so on.
Though most of the fish resources of Manipur are already explored by Vishwanath and his team Vishwanath and Sarojnalini, , Vishwanath et al. The present study will help future researchers and others for easy access of the ornamental fishes of this region and will be of great help to conservationist and aquarists.
The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
No additional external funding received for this study. References .Data were collected from all the major fish landing centers and interaction with the fishermen and local people. Sen, T. In the present study, the percentage contribution of Cyprinids are found to be The OMS sparkling market is strong, Hebrew exporters expressed great interest in life product, and Indonesia is the greatest exporting country for H. Bulletin No. A new cyprinid reinstate, Garra manipurensis, Powerpoint presentation on immigrants Manipur, India. North Neither India is considered as one of the hot gases of freshwater essay biodiversity in the scientific Kottelat and Whitten, Viswanath, W. Ridiculously has been a classification variety in the number of fishes pierced from this region ranging from Ghosh and Lipton, to Sen, Contingent freshwater fishes of India.
Volume 7, Issue 1, Ver. Carassius auratus was the most parasitised species, followed by X. Extinction in a field of bullets: a search for causes in the decline of the worlds freshwater fishes. Among the 7 orders of fishes found, the order Cypriniformes dominated others with a total number of 27 species then comes Siluriformes 15 and Perciformes ranked third with a total number of 12 species.
Out of the 61 species recorded 21 species belonged to the family, Cyprinidae, only 1 sp.
Introduction Due to the diversity of topographic and climatic features of NE India, this region is rich in endemic fish.
Chapman and Hall: New York. These include both classified and non-classified types of aquarium fishes Mahapatra et al. A new cyprinid fish, Garra manipurensis, from Manipur, India.
Results And Discussion Species composition A total of 61 species were found from the surveyed area out of the total species of ornamental fishes found in the state of Manipur. Biological Conservation. Allan, J.