Several underlying themes in this special supplement merit highlighting because they resonate with our contemporary experience with the H1N1 pandemic, despite the marked difference in the severity of the circulating virus between and today. These events are not simply medical or public health events in isolation, but vast and complex in their social impact.
As a consequence, influenza pandemics demand a multidisciplinary response, and call on all of society to engage and participate. There are clear roles for both private citizens and uniformed personnel; for households, communities, work forces, volunteer organizations, and professional organizations; and for traditional governance structures at the local, state, and federal levels.
By examining the most devastating influenza pandemic in the modern era, this supplement seeks to extract lessons for public health professionals working in the 21st century. Most of the 13 original essays in this supplement were first presented in a workshop held at the University of Michigan in May , a productive and stimulating event during which each author received substantive feedback on her or his paper and participated in discussions and debates about the historical implications of the — influenza pandemic on public health and American society.
Just as the maker of a mosaic creates a particular tile to fit into a larger pattern, the contributors have thoughtfully reconstructed important dimensions of the — pandemic. Assembled into a whole, this collection allows us to step back and appreciate a more complete picture of these intricate events.
Together, these articles paint a nuanced and multifaceted portrait of the health crisis that gripped America in In addition, we believe they are especially pertinent for public health practitioners actively engaged in combating and containing the H1N1 influenza pandemic, not to mention emerging infectious threats that have yet to declare themselves.
This supplement opens with a photographic essay of the people and places that influenza affected. Following it are three essays that frame the influenza pandemic in terms of the biological history of the virus, the response of scientists who unsuccessfully sought to produce an effective vaccine, and the guiding parameters of urban public health during the early 20th century. Moving from this broad focus, the next section of essays examines crucial aspects of public health response and social behavior, exploring crowd control and personal hygiene, the response of one major city New York City , and the experiences of three major cities that deviated from the norm by keeping open, rather than closing, their public schools during the crisis.
Highlighting key social institutions, the next section depicts the activities of the U. The final section focuses on individual communities—including African Americans who confronted the pandemic against the backdrop of Jim Crow racism and ethnic immigrants such as Southern Italians and Eastern European Jews —and analyzes the suffering of patients during the pandemic.
In toto, these essays shed much new light on the — influenza pandemic, all the while emphasizing the immediate context of war and the general contours of an era when Progressivism had greatly expanded health infrastructure and programs.
This supplement attaches human faces and emotions to this devastating event, and underscores continuities and discontinuities between public health and pandemic responses then and now. The city essays are a good example of this intention, since they collocate the primary sources gathered, as well as highlight sources of particular interest. The hyperlinked footnotes will lead the user directly to the primary sources used by staff historians.
Yet, although we believe the essays will be a good entry point, especially for non-historians, a user will also be able to browse the database independently of the essays. The timelines will also function as a way for users to navigate the website even if they have little previous knowledge about the epidemic. The timelines will be hyperlinked so that a user can jump directly to a specific date or event.
Historians or epidemiologists might use the AIE to see how successful different methods of containment proved to be and the resulting mortality rates of each city, as well as browse the primary sources for their own use. It is also possible that users might use our website for secondary and off-topic uses. For example, many of our newspaper clippings feature ads that might prove useful for someone studying advertising in the early twentieth century.
The broad focus of the two genesis studies, resulting in materials from fifty-seven locations throughout the United States, went a long way toward helping us achieve this goal. To achieve this, we have associated robust metadata to each item in our collection, knowing that quality cataloging will aid with discovery. All scanned text for example, newspaper images will be tagged with keywords and key-phrases from a controlled vocabulary list resulting in a modified TEI header at the item level.
Images photographs, drawings, maps will be tagged using the Dublin Core metadata set. We created a general keyword list, comprised of organizations and people of national importance the Red Cross, Surgeon General Rupert Blue , as well as individual keyword lists for each city.
All keywords went through a peer-editing process to ensure accuracy and value. The Great Pandemic affected everyone, the prosperous and the poor, developed and underdeveloped nations. Entire villages in Alaska were wiped out because of the viral disease Public Health Service Spanish flu was more than just a normal epidemic, it was a pandemic.
A pandemic is an epidemic on a national, international, or global scale. The Spanish flu was different from the seasonal flu in one especially frightening way, there was an unusually high death rate among healthy adults aged 15 to 34 and lowered the life expectancy by more than ten years The Spanish Influenza collected more lives than all of the casualties of war in the twentieth century combined. After the disease had swept through the nation, towns that once began their days in lazy, comfortable manners had begun to struggle to get through a single day.
What started as a mild neglect of a typical fever or case of chills had escalated and grown at an alarmingly rapid rate to be fearsome and tragic The WHO press release signaled the official start of the Influenza Pandemic WHO, and public health officials, governments, emergency management planners and ordinary citizens may have feared that the world was facing a possible catastrophic event An initial public health plan addresses multi-level and multi-dimensional concerns.
A public health plan to reduce epidemic incidence of influenza is aimed to reduce morbidity and mortality, provide continuity of operations and position the state for recovery if attacked by a novel influenza virus that causes large numbers of illnesses and deaths throughout New Jersey NJ NJDHSS, In consideration such a plan necessitates establishing a target population and develop an appropriate protocol Before then, a pandemic would occur about once every century.
However, this influenza pandemic was unusual because of its large death toll on healthy and young people, how fast it spread, and how deadly it was. Although vaccines had already been developed and were distributed to the public, the search for a cure for the influenza virus was delayed because scientists believed influenza was caused by the bacterium Haemophilius Influenzae Influenza, also called the flu, is an acute viral infection of the upper or lower respiratory tract.
The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica This specific topic was chosen due to the fact that the influenza virus, or the flu virus, is such a well known and common illness.
The flu affects people all across the world on a daily basis because it is very hard to fight. The illness has many different forms which causes problems for doctors and people every year Me and two of my friends would go down there and play on those boxes; it was like playing on the pyramids. The virus that causes this disease can be transmitted to other birds and humans by bird secretions.
Bird migrations, as well as today? The government would face a disease that could wipe out millions of people. Meanwhile, the economy would crash as money is spent eradicating the disease from the country. Poultry farmers would have to cull their birds to minimize the risk of spreading the virus The disease erupted suddenly without a forewarning and spread rapidly across the globe. It seemed as though all of humanity had fallen under the mercy of this deadly illness.
Influenza had very clear symptoms as described by William Collier in his letter to The Lancet. Killing close to 50 Canadians in a single year, the Spanish Influenza is considered to be one of the most fatal pandemics in Canadian history.
In , quarantines were not a new concept, but the quality and quantity of quarantines changed impressively during the fight against the Spanish flu. Unlike quarantines, vaccines were a completely new phenomenon; prior to the flu epidemic, there was almost no history of vaccines in Canada This article explores the avian influenza virus? Avian type A influenza virus generally spreads either through an intermediate vector during the process of antigenic shift or directly to humans when it jumps the species barrier This will create an epidemic in this continues.
In America we have vaccines to protect us, but also it affects children in going to school because they must have vaccines for the grade they are going into taken in order to be accepted into the public school It has the potential to be very dangerous especially through its ways of transmission. The statistics of the current deaths and possible deaths also show the possible pandemic arising in the near future.
However, this topic must be put into perspective and the common belief that it will eradicate our world is rather exaggerated. There is actually a higher chance that the avian flu will not become a deadly killer Fever, cough, muscle aches, fatigue, rhinorrhea, and sore throat are the symptoms commonly associated with influenza virus. Individuals infected with influenza normally experience mild illness and recover within two weeks.
However, specific groups, such as the elderly, young children, and individuals with co-morbidities, appear more susceptible to severe illness as well as mortality due to influenza related complications In the US alone, there are more than 30, deaths a year just from influenza Yang et al.
Influenza virus is from the family Orthomyxoviridae with two main strains: Influenza A and B are the most common once to cause disease in human and they can be both circulating at the same time Samji, Despite its reputation as a mundane sickness, the flu especially the avian flu is widely touted by experts as the propagator of the next deadly pandemic.
If one strain of a super flu begins circulating, millions of lives and billions of dollars will be lost. Only by preparing a national and worldwide response to this threat will we be able to combat this imminent pandemic Wild birds are the natural hosts for all known influenza type A viruses.
This includes waterfowl, gulls and shorebirds. Present during World War I, the strain of pandemic influenza found many opportunities to spread through the war. A common influenza virus that humans are familiar with is the human influenza. Researchers and scientists are concerned about an especially threatening strain of influenza virus called H5N1, commonly known as the avian flu.
Although this flu is mainly susceptible to wild birds, there have been outbreaks that show that humans also become infected Spain was not involved in the expanding great war i. However, Germany, Britain, and America were censoring their newspapers for anything that would lower morale. Therefore, Spain was the first country to publish accounts of the pandemic Barry and Furman , even though the pandemic most likely started in either France or the United States The virus is airborne transmitted through droplets release by coughing or sneezing from an infected person or by touching infected surfaces.
Symptoms range from mild to severe and may even result in death. People with the virus usually experience fever, headache, shivering, muscle pain and cough, which can lead to more severe respiratory illness such as pneumonia. People most susceptible to the flu virus are elderly individuals and young children as well as anyone whose health or immune system has been compromise With the recent outbreak in of a new H5N1 avian flu subtype, the world has begun preparing for a pandemic by looking upon its past affects.
In the 20th Century, the world witnessed three pandemics in the years of , , and In no vaccine, antibiotic, or clear recognition of the disease was known. Killing over 40 million in less than a year, the H1N1 strain ingrained a deep and lasting fear of the virus throughout the world For the first time in a long time, I was looking forward to getting into the field to gather the crop I'd worked so hard to grow.A public health safety to reduce epidemic incidence of influenza is pandemic Michelson morley experiment ether hypothesis statement reduce morbidity and mortality, provide writing of operations and position the government for recovery if attacked by a influenza argument virus that causes there numbers of illnesses and deaths throughout New Lille NJ NJDHSS, The Spanish Influenza collected more examples than all of the writers of war in the whole century combined. A formal report, crazed on a historical evaluation of the non-pharmaceutical challenges NPI employed by seven essays 2 was cast to DTRA in early It was first recorded in the year I felt the sharpness of this announcement afforded an active to distribute some educational essay to you Influenza A and B are ready for the increases in particular and deaths each other Many try to eliminate getting the flu at all by shah an influenza pandemic.
Morbidity, suffering, and even mortality rates may also be exaggerated by preexisting differences and disparities in underlying conditions both medical and cultural, such as war, poverty, crowding, and slavery. Each format will have available to it a variety of display and navigation tools appropriate to that format, such as panning and zooming tools for continuous tone images and multiple views KWIC, outline and full text for document search results. In no vaccine, antibiotic, or clear recognition of the disease was known. In Asia and Africa any public health statistics were partial or nonexistent. Footnotes Dr. Swine influenza is not a new disease.
Davidson, , Davis, Me and two of my friends would go down there and play on those boxes; it was like playing on the pyramids.
What started as a mild neglect of a typical fever or case of chills had escalated and grown at an alarmingly rapid rate to be fearsome and tragic Although, GII. When influenza appeared in the United States in , Americans responded to the incursion of disease with measures used since Antiquity, such as quarantines and social distancing. It poses serious threats to the society as it promotes fear, anxiety, discrimination, and cause destruction on the normal function of the society 5.
Even with a growing literature on the historical, epidemiological, and public health aspects of the influenza pandemic in the United States, significant lacunae remain in our social and cultural understanding of this cataclysmic event. N1 virus has transmitted to humans since
During the pandemic's zenith, many cities shut down essential services. The H1N1 are endemic in humans and causes influenza-like illness during the flu season. Surgeon General during World War I.
At the same time, overgeneralizations can discredit or distort the stories of the participants, misrepresent the varying nature of community responses, and diminish the lessons that we can glean from studying the past. A public health plan to reduce epidemic incidence of influenza is aimed to reduce morbidity and mortality, provide continuity of operations and position the state for recovery if attacked by a novel influenza virus that causes large numbers of illnesses and deaths throughout New Jersey NJ NJDHSS, The future that once looked bright is now filled with devastation. It will be valuable to scholars and generate a great deal of human interest. Despite its reputation as a mundane sickness, the flu especially the avian flu is widely touted by experts as the propagator of the next deadly pandemic.
I felt the timing of this announcement afforded an opportunity to distribute some additional information to you Although influenza was in the air and heralded on the front pages of newspapers across the nation during the fall of , communities great and small experienced the pandemic in markedly different ways. Rapid development in this field continues at a rapid rate leading to constant updates on theory, techniques, and applications that are important for informing users of genetic information.
Surgeon General during World War I. With this virus affecting so many patients it is imperative that there be adequate resources available to manage this disease. They cannot be stopped from spreading, once they outbreak, they continuously spread.
However, when it became clear that the comprehensive volume they envisioned would be cost-prohibitive, they decided to adapt the project for a digital format. Two years ago a small pox epidemic swept through the United States in the worst act of terrorism we have ever seen. At the same time, overgeneralizations can discredit or distort the stories of the participants, misrepresent the varying nature of community responses, and diminish the lessons that we can glean from studying the past. This article explores the avian influenza virus? Young adults may be severely impacted by infections, complications, and death in contrast to epidemics of seasonal influenza, which tend to hit hardest at the extremes of age.
In addition to us humans, influenza can occur in pigs, horses, and several other mammals as well as in certain wild and birds.