In the elaboration phase, each hypothesis is tested and either confirmed or contradicted, and through this process the typing of each student is refined. Some students will be regarded as deviant and it will be difficult for any of their future actions to be regarded in a positive light. Labelling and Social Class A lot of the early, classic studies on labelling focused on how teachers label according to indicators of social class background, not the actual ability of the student.
Research in one American Kindergarten by Ray C. Rist suggested that the process of labelling is not only much more abrupt than suggested by Hargreaves et al, but also that it is heavily influenced by social class. The labelling theory is a label applied to an individual based on their gender, ethnicity, age, religion, class ,etc.
The labelling is done by individuals and social groups but then acquires its own reality , we generate images of others for which we act and satisfy expectations. The deviation is not a quality of his act but the consequence of the application of the label for part of others of rules and sanctions.
The target is someone who has been labelled successfully ; deviant behaviour is behaviour from the label applied But what are norms, who sets them and how does one stray away with it.
While there are numerous amounts of theory in regards to social deviance, I have chosen a select few under the concept of social constructionism. Although deviance is not necessarily wrong in itself, using social constructionism, labelling theory, and primary deviance, demonstrates the adverse effects within an individual once internalized with an image as a deviant However, his impact on criminology can be seen in almost all theories that have followed him.
He changed the field of criminology when he claimed that crime is a product of society not one of the individual himself. He shifted the focus from individual to society Something is only deviant, or becomes deviant because someone has been successful in labelling it as, deviancy is ambiguous, definitions differ from society to society or even culture to culture.
Calling something deviant is a reaction to a type of behaviour. The labelling theory is very complex, it asks why some people committing crimes are named deviant but others are not Cooley develops the theoretical concept of the looking glass self, a type of imaginary sociability Cooley People imagine the view of themselves through the eyes of others in their social circles and form judgements of themselves based on these imaginary observations Cooley The main idea of the looking glass self is that people define themselves according to society's perception of them www.
Disparate from their positivist criminological predecessors, labelling theorists were solely interested in deviance, rather than crime Coleman and Norris The willingly accepted, deterministic approach of traditional criminologists was highly contested by labelling theorists due to their recognition of temporal, situational and spatial variation There are many different whys in the criminal justice world, which is known today as theories.
One in particular is called the labeling theory. Rather than looking at why some social gatherings carry out more wrongdoing, the labelling theory asks why some people committing some actions come to be defined as deviant, while others do not.
Labelling theory is also interested in the effects of labelling on individuals Furthermore, the reflection paper will be based on labelling and stigma week 2 and mental illnesses and social lecture 3 , however examples have been taken from depression and anxiety lecture 4 , child and adolescent mental health lecture 7 , understanding of schizophrenia lecture 9 and self-harm and suicide lecture There is nothing inherently deviant in any human act, something is deviant only because some people have been successful in labeling it so.
However, Edwin Lemert is widely considered the producer and founder of the original version of labelling theory Defining an act as deviant or criminal is not a simple straight forward process. A label is not neutral, it contains an evaluation of the person to whom it is applied.
If an individual is labelled as criminal, mentally ill or gay, such labels tend to override the individuals status as father, husband, worker, friend or neighbour From this point of view, deviance is not a quality of the act the person commits, but rather a consequence of the application by other of rules and sanctions to an 'offender.
An example of this would be the act of nudity, it is accepted in the bedroom between husband and wife or on a nudist camp, but when a stranger was to enter the bedroom, or someone was to streak across a sporting event, others would usually see this as deviant, and this deviancy would become a label on the individual These are prevention, intervention and suppression.
Prevention strategies include community awareness about gangs, changing the community conditions contributing to gang involvement and creating effective facilities for support and crime reporting Aizon, A. Intervention strategies include drug and alcohol treatment, counseling, training and employment Carr and Tam, Suppression includes policing, and probation searches Carr and Tam, Attachment theory is based on the joint work of Bowlby and Ainsworth Bretherton, Attachment theory provides an explanation on how parent and child relationships are formed and the important role they play in child development In numerous cases drug abuse becomes an addiction.
Drug abuse is frowned upon, as it is a poor life choice People discriminate AIDS more severe than other infectious disease. Stigmatization induces discrimination, which is more painful and stressful than physical discomfort of the illness itself In order to discuss whether crime is socially constructed an understanding of what crime is, is essential in forming an opinion to the proposed question.
Overall, "the interaction in the classroom seemed to disadvantage girls considerably and both teachers and students played a part in this. Yet it is also important to remember that female educational achievements vary very considerably according to their social class and ethnicity and that not all female pupils may experience positive labelling.
A detailed technical point It is perhaps well known that it is Chinese girls who achieve the best examination results at GCSE Level and one might expect there fore that it would be Chinese girls who are most likely to benefit from the effects of positive labelling in schools. Interactionism, Ethnicity and Educational Achievement Patterns of educational achievement among ethnic minority pupils are complex and it is certainly true that Chinese and Indian -Origin students out perform white students educationally.
There are concerns, however, that Afro-Caribbean boys and to some extent Pakistani and Bangladeshi students are under-performing in general and that Afro-Caribbean origin boys are especially likely to be excluded from school. They are told that their accent and language are inferior; white is associated with good and black with bad; white culture is celebrated while black culture is ignored; pupil racism is widespread and black pupils are adversely affected by labelling, streaming and self-fulfilling prophecies.
Thus in Cecile Wright's research in primary schools  it is suggested that teachers often failed to involve Asian pupils sufficiently in class discussion because of an inaccurate assumption that these students had poor language skills and that they also undervalued Asian culture in some respects. However, teachers also had higher expectations of Asian origin than of Afro-Caribbean origin pupils. Some studies indicated that although negative labels were often applied the students , far from passively accepting these negative labels tried to develop strategies which would enable them to make progress despite the negative labels applied although it does seem likely that some pupils continued to be adversely affected by th eeffects of negative labelling.
There were also many white teachers who genuinely wanted to help their black students but this help was sometimes misguided and the students actually received more effective help from black teachers. In some cases although the pupils were keen to do well, Mirza believed that they were held back because of poor relationships even with well meaning white teachers. Among the key conclusions are the following. There was no evidence that the young black women ion the study had negative self-images as a result of being black.
So much for doll studies! Heidi Mirza gives several examples of grossly racist attitudes and behaviour among teachers in the study. In the words of one History teacher "African history is so boring Heidi Mirza suggests that this meant that the real incidence of racism within the schools remained unaddressed with negative consequences for the prospects of ethnic minority pupils. The "liberal chauvinists" are presented as believing that they had the best interests of the black pupils at heart but as in reality making inaccurate assumptions about the attitudes and values of the black community.
In particular these teachers often argued that black pupils, encouraged by their parents, actually had unrealistic, over-ambitious expectations which it was the teachers' duty to curtail in order to prevent subsequent disappointment. Clearly this apparently well meaning approach was likely to undermine ambitions which were both high and realistic. These teachers were generally unpopular with the other teachers and unfortunately their anti-racist teaching initiatives were often seen by the black pupils as unrealistic and impractical.
Finally there were a small number of black teachers who did not support radical initiatives but aimed to help black pupils as much as they could in practical ways within the existing school environments.
The black pupils felt that these black teachers were supportive but not positively biased toward black rather than white pupils. Heidi Mrza concludes "On the whole the black teachers were more in tune with the needs of their black female pupils offering a more postive solution to the education of the black child. All of the students were conscious of racism in UK society generally but disagreed about the extent of racism in the education system.
Students did not necessarily allow racism and negative labelling to affect them adversely. Instead they adopted various survival strategies to improve their prospects: survival through accommodation, making friendships with helpful teachers and keeping out of trouble. In a significant study of two London Comprehensive schools, Gilbourn and Youdell argued that ethnic minority students were disadvantaged in several respects.
These senior teachers suggested that a school ethos existed whereby any teachers who did engage in such negative labelling could expect criticism from their peers and censure and possible disciplinary action from senior teachers.
Equally importantly the students felt that on balance they were treated fairly and respectfully by their teachers while admitting that a disruptive minority of students could still be heavily criticised by teachers.
This idea of the Labeling Theory comes from Becker, who claims that individuals will conform with what is said and assumed about them. The theory is a huge part of criminology that aims to dictate why certain people who commit crimes are defined as deviant, while others who commit crimes are not depicted as deviant. These youngsters are often labeled as 'juvenile delinquents '.
It centralizes around the idea that deviance is relative, as nobody is born deviant, but become deviant through social processes when surrounding peers consistently label a person as deviant.R Marks. It is argued also that teachers may well collude to some extent in colonising behaviour in order to reduce the likelihood that colonisers might become rebels or intransigents and thus present a greater threat to the school's social order. The use of positive and negative labels amounts to the construction of self fulfilling prophecies whereby the labels themselves generate the behaviour and educational outcomes which are predicted or prophesied in the labels themselves. Peter Woods argues that colonisation is possibly the most prevalent mode of adaptation in our schools but remember factors interact in various ways to influence educational achievement the late s. The children know what you're talking about and they think about it. On the Interaction of Internal and External Factors It is clear in any case that internal and external.
Heidi Mrza concludes "On the whole the black teachers were more in tune with the needs of their black female pupils offering a more postive solution to the education of the black child. The labelling theory is a label applied to an individual based on their gender, ethnicity, age, religion, class ,etc. Instead they adopted various survival strategies to improve their prospects: survival through accommodation, making friendships with helpful teachers and keeping out of trouble.
These theories can also be criticised very severely but their existence does suggest that labelling and other factors operating within the school are not the only explanations of differential educational achievement. Diane Reay found that peer pressure among many working class boys irrespective of their ethnicity was a significant factor inhibiting their educational achievement and in this respect Dianne Reay found strong continuities with the attitudes expressed by Paul Willis "lads" in The "liberal chauvinists" are presented as believing that they had the best interests of the black pupils at heart but as in reality making inaccurate assumptions about the attitudes and values of the black community. The question must be asked of whether or not these claims and seals of approval are always honest or if they are just a marketing tool.
However despite their variation all of these forms of negativity seem likely to impinge adversely on the pupil's educational prospects.