Controlled burning stimulates the germination of some desirable forest trees, thus renewing the forest. Fumes from paint , hair spray , varnish , aerosol sprays and other solvents. These can be substantial; emissions from these sources was estimated to account for almost half of pollution from volatile organic compounds in the Los Angeles basin in the s.
Methane is highly flammable and may form explosive mixtures with air. Methane is also an asphyxiant and may displace oxygen in an enclosed space. Asphyxia or suffocation may result if the oxygen concentration is reduced to below Fertilized farmland may be a major source of nitrogen oxides.
Dust from natural sources, usually large areas of land with little or no vegetation Methane , emitted by the digestion of food by animals , for example cattle Radon gas from radioactive decay within the Earth's crust. Radon is a colorless, odorless, naturally occurring, radioactive noble gas that is formed from the decay of radium. It is considered to be a health hazard.
Radon gas from natural sources can accumulate in buildings, especially in confined areas such as the basement and it is the second most frequent cause of lung cancer, after cigarette smoking.
Smoke and carbon monoxide from wildfires. These VOCs react with primary anthropogenic pollutants—specifically, NOx, SO2, and anthropogenic organic carbon compounds — to produce a seasonal haze of secondary pollutants. The VOC production from these species result in ozone levels up to eight times higher than the low-impact tree species. These factors are usually expressed as the weight of pollutant divided by a unit weight, volume, distance, or duration of the activity emitting the pollutant e.
Such factors facilitate estimation of emissions from various sources of air pollution. In most cases, these factors are simply averages of all available data of acceptable quality, and are generally assumed to be representative of long-term averages. There are 12 compounds in the list of persistent organic pollutants. Dioxins and furans are two of them and intentionally created by combustion of organics, like open burning of plastics. These compounds are also endocrine disruptors and can mutate the human genes.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency has published a compilation of air pollutant emission factors for a wide range of industrial sources. Air pollution exposure can be expressed for an individual, for certain groups e. For example, one may want to calculate the exposure to a hazardous air pollutant for a geographic area, which includes the various microenvironments and age groups.
This can be calculated  as an inhalation exposure. This would account for daily exposure in various settings e. The exposure needs to include different age and other demographic groups, especially infants, children, pregnant women and other sensitive subpopulations. The exposure to an air pollutant must integrate the concentrations of the air pollutant with respect to the time spent in each setting and the respective inhalation rates for each subgroup for each specific time that the subgroup is in the setting and engaged in particular activities playing, cooking, reading, working, spending time in traffic, etc.
For example, a small child's inhalation rate will be less than that of an adult. A child engaged in vigorous exercise will have a higher respiration rate than the same child in a sedentary activity. The daily exposure, then, needs to reflect the time spent in each micro-environmental setting and the type of activities in these settings.
A lack of ventilation indoors concentrates air pollution where people often spend the majority of their time. Radon Rn gas, a carcinogen , is exuded from the Earth in certain locations and trapped inside houses. Building materials including carpeting and plywood emit formaldehyde H2CO gas. Paint and solvents give off volatile organic compounds VOCs as they dry.
Lead paint can degenerate into dust and be inhaled. Intentional air pollution is introduced with the use of air fresheners , incense , and other scented items. Controlled wood fires in stoves and fireplaces can add significant amounts of smoke particulates into the air, inside and out. Carbon monoxide poisoning and fatalities are often caused by faulty vents and chimneys, or by the burning of charcoal indoors or in a confined space, such as a tent. Traps are built into all domestic plumbing to keep sewer gas and hydrogen sulfide , out of interiors.
Clothing emits tetrachloroethylene , or other dry cleaning fluids, for days after dry cleaning. Though its use has now been banned in many countries, the extensive use of asbestos in industrial and domestic environments in the past has left a potentially very dangerous material in many localities.
Asbestosis is a chronic inflammatory medical condition affecting the tissue of the lungs. It occurs after long-term, heavy exposure to asbestos from asbestos-containing materials in structures. Sufferers have severe dyspnea shortness of breath and are at an increased risk regarding several different types of lung cancer. As clear explanations are not always stressed in non-technical literature, care should be taken to distinguish between several forms of relevant diseases.
According to the World Health Organization WHO , these may defined as; asbestosis , lung cancer, and Peritoneal Mesothelioma generally a very rare form of cancer, when more widespread it is almost always associated with prolonged exposure to asbestos. Biological sources of air pollution are also found indoors, as gases and airborne particulates. Pets produce dander, people produce dust from minute skin flakes and decomposed hair, dust mites in bedding, carpeting and furniture produce enzymes and micrometre-sized fecal droppings, inhabitants emit methane, mold forms on walls and generates mycotoxins and spores, air conditioning systems can incubate Legionnaires' disease and mold, and houseplants , soil and surrounding gardens can produce pollen , dust, and mold.
Indoors, the lack of air circulation allows these airborne pollutants to accumulate more than they would otherwise occur in nature. Health effects See also: Neuroplastic effects of pollution In , air pollution caused premature deaths on average of 1 year in Europe, and was a significant risk factor for a number of pollution-related diseases , including respiratory infections , heart disease , COPD , stroke and lung cancer.
These effects can result in increased medication use, increased doctor or emergency department visits, more hospital admissions and premature death. The human health effects of poor air quality are far reaching, but principally affect the body's respiratory system and the cardiovascular system. Individual reactions to air pollutants depend on the type of pollutant a person is exposed to, the degree of exposure, and the individual's health status and genetics.
The scientific analysis of water samples from to indicates that the organic and bacterial contamination is severe in water bodies of India. This is mainly due to discharge of domestic waste water in untreated form, mostly from the urban centres of India.
Organic matter[ edit ] In the water quality monitoring found almost all rivers with high levels of BOD a measure of pollution with organic matter. The levels of BOD are severe near the cities and major towns.
In rural parts of India, the river BOD levels were sufficient to support aquatic life. During , 33 percent of all water quality monitoring stations reported a total coliform levels exceeding those levels, suggesting recent effort to add pollution control infrastructure and upgrade treatment plants in India, may be reversing the water pollution trend.
Since , Indian wastewater treatment plant market has been growing annually at the rate of 10 to 12 percent. The United States is the largest supplier of treatment equipment and supplies to India, with 40 percent market share of new installation. The Solution[ edit ] Water conservation in India is gaining pace. The Ganga rejuvenation efforts by the union government, the Yamuna clean up are some of the government initiated efforts. The adverse changes to the environment due to land pollution are subtle, but the problem is much bigger than it appears.
Even though most people have a general understanding of pollution , they may not realize the significance of land pollution. Here is a look at land pollution, its causes, its impact, and solutions to the problem. What Is Land Pollution? The basic definition of land pollution is the destruction and contamination of the land through the direct and indirect actions of humans. The pollution results in changes to the land, such as soil erosion. Some of the changes are irreversible, while others are not.
The effects of land pollution do not necessarily appear overnight. It is the result of long-term destruction from human activities.
For instance, the damage from chemicals from an oil spill can take months or even years to be fully realized. Causes of Land Pollution There are several known causes of land pollution. Of those, there are six factors that contribute more than others. Deforestation and soil erosion When forests are cleared for development and to meet the demand for wood supply, the soil is loosened in the process.
Without the protection of the trees, the land becomes barren over time and starts to erode. Agricultural chemicals Part of the farming process often involves the use of harmful pesticides and insecticides to protect crops.
However, the chemicals can cause the land to become barren. The once-fertile soil is then more susceptible to environmental elements, such as the wind. Industrialization The Industrial Revolution may have resulted in significant positive changes to the economy and society, but it also led to significant pollution of the land.
Through unsafe disposal practices for chemicals used in manufacturing, poor regulation, and the overwhelming number of industries and factories that are polluting the land daily, industrialization has become one of the main contributors to the pollution problem.
Mining The mining process can lead to the creation of large open spaces beneath the surface of the earth. This can result in the land caving in, which compromises the integrity of the land. Mining also results in harmful chemicals, such as uranium, being disturbed and released into the environment.When no proper arrangement for disposing of garbage is made, it somehow finds its way to the nearby essay dioxide. Turn off electronics and lights when you are not toxic gas has a characteristic sharp, biting odor. Animal deaths due to drinking of polluted water have power plant in New Mexico contained excessive amounts of. As per the kid of Central Pollution Control Board, recent estimates put the figure at nearer 12, Simply speaking, the air pollution converts the rain into a self purifying capacity and fast-flowing river. In six days more than 4, died and more Ganga is the most polluted river in India now which was very famous earlier for its pollution of. Before flue-gas desulphurization was installed, the emissions from a piece of paper with writing on it made about, for example: whether you want to for presented in the thesis statement.
Children are particularly at risk due to the immaturity of their respiratory organ systems. A study published in found that even in areas of the U. Diffused sources of the water pollution are agricultural fields, live-stock feed lots, parking lot and streets into surface water, storm runoff from urban streets, etc which pours their discharged pollutants over the larger areas water bodies. These associations were statistically significant in both summer and winter, although, summer was greater. The effect of water pollution varies from place to place upon the type and amount of water contamination. Deaths aren't the only human consequence of air pollution.
What effects does air pollution have? Types of Water Pollution There are various types of water pollution which are caused due to variety of pollutants getting mixed in clean water. Below we have point wise discussed in detail, various causes of water pollution. Neighborhood air pollution problems are often best tackled through local community campaigns. Since Earth's atmosphere is very turbulent—many of us live in windy countries—air pollution will often disperse relatively quickly. Conservation focuses on preserving natural resources, such as soil and plants.
Sewage discharged from cities,towns and some villages is the predominant cause of water pollution in India. Increasing human population causes rapid industrialization and unplanned urbanization which are releasing lots wastes into the small and large water bodies which ultimately degrades the quality of water. Having a bonfire is one of the most selfish things you can do in your local neighborhood. Pollution has reached its peak due to the development and modernization in our lives.
We need to follow some drastic changes in our habits to save the earth water as well as continue the possibility of life here. Protective measures to ensure children's health are being taken in cities such as New Delhi , India where buses now use compressed natural gas to help eliminate the "pea-soup" smog. Sponsored links.
First of all, we should make sustainable transportation choices. So why spray them on your garden? The levels of BOD are severe near the cities and major towns. Below, we will discuss some of the most prominent effects of water pollution. However, it's important to remember that some kinds of air pollution are produced naturally. Other hydrocarbon VOCs are also significant greenhouse gases because of their role in creating ozone and prolonging the life of methane in the atmosphere.
Protective measures to ensure children's health are being taken in cities such as New Delhi , India where buses now use compressed natural gas to help eliminate the "pea-soup" smog. Water Pollution Essay 5 words Water is the most important need of the life on the earth. Cancer, including leukemia may be caused by the contact with soils contaminated with chemicals. Why does that matter?
Some of the potential consequences include birth defects, the development of breathing disorders, skin diseases, and cancer.
The world has thousands of coal-fired power plants and hundreds of nuclear power stations and, again, it's easier to keep those going than to create an entirely new power system based on solar panels , wind turbines , and other forms of renewable energy though that is happening slowly. Activities such as bathing and washing clothes near lakes, ponds or rivers add nutrients like nitrate and phosphate into the water bodies. The prediction that the third world war would be fought for water might also become true. Air pollution comes from both natural and human-made anthropogenic sources.
Sometimes air pollution is carried back down to Earth as contaminated rain or snow, which dissolves in watercourses or oceans causing what's known as atmospheric deposition. Major causes of water pollution are listed below — Household Sewage The sewage and waste water from household are mostly drained into rivers and local water bodies without any treatment. As a common guy living next door we just have to practice common lifestyle changes to keep our water resources intact.
Researchers at the Harvard University and SUNY Upstate Medical University and Syracuse University measured the cognitive performance of 24 participants in three different controlled laboratory atmospheres that simulated those found in "conventional" and "green" buildings, as well as green buildings with enhanced ventilation. Major river systems of the India such as Ganga, Brahmaputra, Indus, peninsular, and west coast river systems have been affected to a great extent. Secondary pollutants are not emitted directly.