Note that writers make statementsnot quotes ; something isn't a "quote" until you've copied it out, so you never say, "The author quotes.
If you are trying to publish a paper in a specific journal, you will be required to follow the format of that journal. Some journals,e. That system will not be presented here, but you should expect to encounter it in your reading of the literature. Students develop a strong understanding of the content and writing conventions of subject areas through assignment tasks. Literacy researchers Johns, , pp. For example: McCrae, R. Moderated analyses of longitudinal personality stability. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, Social learning theory. These names should be followed by the date of publication enclosed in parentheses. If the work is a journal article, the title of the article should immediately follow the publication date. Next, the title of the book or journal should be listed in italics. The seminars that are often a part of humanities courses can provide opportunities for students to develop the communication and interpersonal skills that are valued by employers Lyon, The text reference above indicates to the reader that the point being made draws on a work by Lyon, published in An alternative format is shown in the example below. Knapper and Cropley p. Note that in this example reference has been made to a specific point within a very long text in this instance a book and so a page number has been added. This gives the reader the opportunity to find the particular place in the text where the point referred to is made. You should always include the page number when you include a passage of direct quotation from another writer's work. When a publication has several authors, it is usual to give the surname of the first author followed by et al. Do not forget that you should also include reference to the source of any tables of data, diagrams or maps that you include in your work. If you have included a straight copy of a table or figure, then it is usual to add a reference to the table or figure caption thus: Figure 1: The continuum of influences on learning from Knapper and Cropley, p. Even if you have reorganised a table of data, or redrawn a figure, you should still acknowledge its source: Table 1: Type of work entered by humanities graduates data from Lyon, Table 8. You may need to cite an unpublished idea or discussion point from an oral presentation, such as a lecture. The format for the text citation is normally exactly the same as for a published work and should give the speaker's name and the date of the presentation. Punctuation comes after the citation. Example: "Is it possible that dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" Foulkes, , ? An effective conclusion might answer the question "So what? Or it might echo the introduction, underscoring the larger significance of your thesis now that we understand its complexity. Most important: If you know all this, great. If it seems overwhelming, don't despair. If the document has numbered paragraphs, then use the abbreviation "para. Example: Smith, , para. If the paragraphs aren't numbered, but the article does have headings, then include, in the in-text citation, the heading where the information was found and specify the paragraph under the heading. Example: Franklin, ,. Pets and Therapy section, para. Note: don't use the page numbers you see in your printed out version of a web article. Different computers and printers will print out articles and page numbers differently. However, if you find that you need explanatory notes, APA does allow for two types of footnotes - content and copyright. Citing Indirect Sources If you use a source that was cited in another source, name the original source in your signal phrase. List the secondary source in your reference list and include the secondary source in the parentheses. Johnson argued that Note:When citing material in parentheses, set off the citation with a comma, as above. Unknown Author and Unknown Date: If no author or date is given, use the title in your signal phrase or the first word or two of the title in the parentheses and use the abbreviation "n. Another study of students and research decisions discovered that students succeeded with tutoring "Tutoring and APA," n. Sources Without Page Numbers When an electronic source lacks page numbers, you should try to include information that will help readers find the passage being cited.
Rather, use your own language to make your argument; use the quote as evidence that will support what you have to essay. Before or after the quote, connect it to your author using your own words: eg. Don't incorporate the page refer of a quotation as part how your sentence: "On page the author makes reference Write, rather, "The author makes reference to Note where the period is.
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You essay ALWAYS explicitly acknowledge these sources as: an in-text reference in the refer of your assignment AIR argumentative refer how and passages item in the list of references at the end of your work. There are a number of referencing styles in author at UNE, and you essay know the appropriate style for how study units.
London: The Falmer Press, pp. Journal articles Journal authors must also include: the name and author number of the journal; the first and last page numbers of the glass menagerie argumentative essay article.
The publisher and place of publication are not normally required for journals. Pask, G. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 46, pp.
Note how in the essay two authors above, it is the book title and the journal name that are italicised, not the title of the paper or article. The name highlighted should always be the name under which the work will have been filed on the library shelves or referenced in any indexing system.
It is often the name which is written on the spine of the volume, and if you remember this it may be easier for you to remember which is the appropriate title to refer.
Essay Writing Essentials - English Program - CSU Channel Islands
Other types of publications The three examples above cover the most common publication types. You may also wish to refer to other types of publications, including PhD dissertations, difficulty in writing essays works, newspaper articles, dictionary or encyclopaedia entries or legal or historical texts.
The same general principles apply to the referencing of all published sources, but for specific conventions consult your departmental handbook or your refer, or look at the more detailed essay how listed in the Further reading how of this guide. Referencing web pages The internet is increasingly used as a author of information and it is just as important to reference internet sources as it is to reference printed sources.
Information on the internet changes rapidly and web pages move or are sometimes inaccessible meaning it can often be difficult to validate or even find information cited from the internet. Start the refer on a new line, indented five spaces from the left margin. Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the author line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation five spaces from the new margin.
Maintain double-spacing throughout.Instead, write, "the reference to her brother's saintliness is ironic" or "the seemingly essay association of images suggests freedom. Remember, these words can begin a sentence or can connect two independent clauses using the following punctuation: "Woolf's writing can be highly sarcastic and playful; however, in To The Lighthousethe tone is somber and elegiac. Titles of books should be underlined or put in italics. Titles of stories, refers and authors are in "quotation marks. How subsequent references to the author, use his or her last name.
The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark. Jones's study found the following: Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources.
According to JonesAPA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners. APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners Jones,p. For example: McCrae, R.
How to Reference Authors in APA Format
Moderated analyses of longitudinal personality stability. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, Social author theory. These how should be followed by the date of publication enclosed in parentheses. If how work is a journal article, the title of the essay should immediately refer the publication date.Click and Clack demonstrated that mice treated with synthetic estrogen analogs react similarly. The reduction in phase three courtship behavior may also be linked to nutritional status Anon. Your Literature Cited section will contain the complete reference, and the reader can look it up there. Titles of books should be underlined or put in italics. Titles of stories, essays and poems are in "quotation marks. In subsequent references to the author, use his or her last name. If the title is very long and you are making numerous references to it, you can refer to it by a shortened version. Your essay should stand alone, quite independent of the assignment sheet. Don't begin with vast generalizations like "Within every human being there are unique thoughts and feelings that no other person has ever experienced before. If you are referring to an idea from another work but not directly quoting the material, or making reference to an entire book, article or other work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference. Here are some examples of in-text citations: Short quotations If you are directly quoting from a work, include the author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference preceded by "p. Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses. According to Jones , "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" p. Jones found "students often had difficulty using APA style" p. If the author is not named in a signal phrase, place the author's last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation. Long quotations Direct quotations longer than 40 words should be in a free-standing block of typewritten lines, and omit quotation marks. If you have included a straight copy of a table or figure, then it is usual to add a reference to the table or figure caption thus: Figure 1: The continuum of influences on learning from Knapper and Cropley, p. Even if you have reorganised a table of data, or redrawn a figure, you should still acknowledge its source: Table 1: Type of work entered by humanities graduates data from Lyon, Table 8. You may need to cite an unpublished idea or discussion point from an oral presentation, such as a lecture. The format for the text citation is normally exactly the same as for a published work and should give the speaker's name and the date of the presentation. Recent research on the origins of early man has challenged the views expressed in many of the standard textbooks Barker, If the idea or information that you wish to cite has been told to you personally, perhaps in a discussion with a lecturer or a tutor, it is normal to reference the point as shown in the example below. The experience of the Student Learning Centre at Leicester is that many students are anxious to improve their writing skills, and are keen to seek help and guidance Maria Lorenzini, pers. The examples given below are used to indicate the main principles. Book references The simplest format, for a book reference, is given first; it is the full reference for one of the works quoted in the examples above. Knapper, C. London: Croom Helm. The reference above includes: the surnames and forenames or initials of both the authors; the date of publication; the place of publication; the name of the publisher. The title of the book should be formatted to distinguish it from the other details; in the example above it is italicised, but it could be in bold, underlined or in inverted commas. There are a number of referencing styles in place at UNE, and you must know the appropriate style for your study units. These activities will assist you to understand the general principles of referencing which you can adapt to suit other referencing systems. Example: According to Smith , "Studies show pet owners have lower blood pressure as well as lower triglyceride levels than non-pet owners" p. If the author's name isn't included in the signal phrase, then place the author's name, year of publication and page number in parentheses directly after the quotation: She stated, "Studies show pet owners have lower blood pressure as well as lower triglyceride levels than non-pet owners" Smith, , p. Long Quotations: For quotations 40 words or longer, you should block quote them and omit the quotation marks and place the parenthetical citation after the closing punctuation mark. Keep the double spacing. For example: Chandler explains: Sometimes it is important to match a dog's personality with the population it is to work with. Most professional therapy dogs are versatile enough to serve just about any group; however, certain characteristics of the dog may suggest a better fit between pet practitioner and a certain clientele. For example, a younger and more playful dog might be more appropriate for work with high-energy adolescents, whereas a more mature and calmer dog may be more appropriate with elderly clients or very small children p. Summary or Paraphrase: If you're paraphrasing or summarizing from a work, you only need the author and the year of publication; however, APA guidelines encourage providing the page number as well though not required. For example: Abma, J. Vital and Health Statistics, 23 9 , Inclusion: Are we abandoning or helping students? More Than Seven Authors When a work is credited to more than seven authors, the reference is listed by providing the names of the first six authors followed by. The remainder of the reference follows the same format as that for seven or fewer authors. Author last names and initials are followed by the date of publication enclosed in parentheses. The name of the article is listed immediately after the publication date.
Next, the title of the book or journal should be listed in italics. Use the lower-case letters with the year in the in-text citation.
Example: Research by Smith a explained that. Personal Communication: When you are citing interviews, letters, emails and other personal communication, cite the person's name, the fact that it was a personal communication and the date of the communication in the text of your paper.
If you are trying to publish a paper in a specific journal, you will be required to follow the format of that journal. Some journals,e. That system will not be presented here, but you should expect to encounter it in your reading of the literature. A complete listing of citation formats for published materials may be found in Huth et al Citing References in the Body Intro and Discussion of the Paper Throughout the body of your paper primarily the Intro and Discussion , whenever you refer to outside sources of information, you must cite the sources from which you drew information. The simplest way to do this is to parenthetically give the author's last name and the year of publication, e. Smith, personal communication, January 4, Franklin stated that he spent several summers studying lighting before he planned and executed his experiment personal communication, February 14, Citing Indirect Sources: So, how do you cite a source that was cited in another source? In this case, you'll want to name the original source in your signal phrase, but, in the parentheses, cite the source where you actually found the information and put that source information on your reference list. Example: Johnson argued that. Electronic Sources: If it's possible, you should cite electronic documents in the same way any other document is cited with the author-date style. Example: Cameron explained. Unknown Author and Unknown Date:If there's no author or date given, then use the title in your signal phrase or the first word or two of the title in the parentheses and use the abbreviation "n. Example: Another study found that students often don't realize there are different citation styles for different academic areas "First Year Students," n. Sources Without Page Numbers: In the case of an electronic source that doesn't have page numbers, you should try to include information that will help your reader locate the information you're citing. If the document has numbered paragraphs, then use the abbreviation "para. Example: Smith, , para. If the paragraphs aren't numbered, but the article does have headings, then include, in the in-text citation, the heading where the information was found and specify the paragraph under the heading. Example: Franklin, ,. For example: Black, C. Smith, R. Citing seven or more authors in APA format. Clark, S. APA format for psychology students. Newark, NJ: Prentice-Hall. You can read more about a few different aspects of referencing sources in APA format if you have book references , article references , and electronic sources. Was this page helpful? Thanks for your feedback! Ever wonder what your personality type means? Sign up to find out more in our Healthy Mind newsletter. There was an error. Please try again. Six or More Authors: Use the first author's name followed by et al. Harris et al. Titles of books and reports are italicized or underlined; titles of articles and chapters are in quotation marks. A similar study was done of students learning to format research papers "Using APA," Note: In the rare case the "Anonymous" is used for the author, treat it as the author's name Anonymous, In the reference list, use the name Anonymous as the author. Organization as an Author: If the author is an organization or a government agency, mention the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source. According to the American Psychological Association , If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations. Berndt, ; Harlow, Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year: If you have two sources by the same author in the same year, use lower-case letters a, b, c with the year to order the entries in the reference list. Use the lower-case letters with the year in the in-text citation. Research by Berndt a illustrated that Personal Communication: For interviews, letters, e-mails, and other person-to-person communication, cite the communicator's name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication.
You will NOT include personal communication in the reference list. Example: E.
Smith, personal communication, January 4, Franklin stated that he spent essay summers studying lighting before he planned and executed his refer personal communication, February 14, Citing Indirect Sources: So, how do you cite a source that was cited in another source.
Top of Page Standard Text Citation Formats There are exceptions among the various journals, but generally, in biological journals, how most refer types of citations are shown in the following examples in red : "It has been found that author mice react to estrogen treatment by a reduction in essay three of courtship behavior Gumwad ; Bugjuice Click and Clack demonstrated that mice treated with synthetic estrogen analogs react similarly.
The reduction in phase three courtship behavior may also be linked to nutritional status Anon.