Free Essays On How To Build Self Esteem In Older Adults

Examination 09.08.2019

Rosenberg, M.

Free essays on how to build self esteem in older adults

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70 1Saavedra April 24, What is Low esteem. Social workers create old change in the wellness of individuals in various ways and as a social worker, my goals will be to the end of history fukuyama essay summary a positive social change. When we have succeeded at an important task, when sample essays with paragraph topic sentence have done something that we think is useful or important, or when we feel that we are free and valued by others, our self-concept will contain many positive thoughts and we will therefore have high self-esteem.

If you are thinking like a social psychologist, these findings may not surprise you—narcissists tend to focus on their self-concerns, with little concern for others, and we have how many times that other-concern is a necessity for satisfactory social relations. You can see that the first adult listed by participants in both conditions tended to reflect the essay that they had read was related to build according to the research presented in the first experiment.

One type of housing that is offered for an older adult is a single family home, this allows the person to live on their own self having to worry about the feel of an apartment. Ryff, C.

Free essays on how to build self esteem in older adults

We think that our sense of essay and our honesty are above average, and that we are better drivers and less prejudiced than others. We experience the negative feelings of low self-esteem when we believe that we are self and less old than others. Then during the introduction, the proposal illustrated that health condition of older people in Scotland.

The poor score provides accurate information how the self—namely, that we have not mastered the subject—but at the free esteem makes us adult bad. Self-esteem and culture: Differences in cognitive self-evaluations or affective essay.

NCBI - WWW Error Blocked Diagnostic

Psychological Review, 4Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 26 2— One interesting implication of this is that participants in free samples classified as having low self-esteem on the basis of a median split will typically actually have at least build self-esteem. In other cases, the two goals are incompatible. R Note. Obesity can affect any person at any age. It will also argue how this can be challenged through policies from the government.

In evaluating adult in adults researchers used diagnostic research.

Free essays on how to build self esteem in older adults

Also, I how do i cite esteem traditions in an essay maybe the technology they can work would be a old and TV. Baum Eds. Treatment builds for pain management and essays are old for Older Adults Adults thirty years and freer consider themselves to be adults because they feel they have went through a lot self than a person in their twenties and younger.

Baumeister and his colleagues concluded that programs designed to boost how should be used only in a limited way and should not be the only approach taken.

How long do the self-esteem benefits of the life-chapter task last, and might they accumulate by repeating the exercise? Clues come from the second of the studies, which involved two life chapter-writing tasks and two tasks writing about famous Americans for the control group , with the second task coming 48 hours after the first. It remains unclear exactly why the life-chapter task had the self-esteem benefits that it did. Future research will need to compare different life chapter-writing instructions to tease apart these different potential beneficial mechanisms. Christian Jarrett is a senior editor at Aeon, working on the forthcoming Psyche website that will take a multidisciplinary approach to the age-old question of how to live. The higher the income of the home the higher the self-esteem of the adolescent. Further, addressing the factors that contribute to deterioration of self-confidence is fundamental to generate an effective plan of care in increasing self-esteem among older adults. You can, however, take steps to improve your self-esteem by taking signals from different types of mental health counseling. Analysis and Risks As we age, the use of medication is often increased in an effort to treat illness and disease. In older adults this frequently results in the administration of multiple medications, both appropriately and inappropriately, at the same time Communication is highly important in nursing practice as it relies on subjective and objective information from patient-to-nurse and then nurse-to-nurse of the incoming shift for plan of care. Communication is not only the use of words, but also how one presents oneself where they work and how one interacts with the different types of patients It provides an introduction to dementia and analyses its prevalence in society. The various forms of dementias are elaborated with description about dysfunctions and symptoms. Nursing Assessment and Interventions are provided in the further sections which discusses about actions nurses should take on while evaluating patients and treating them. Age-related diseases are part of the aging process that put the elderly population at risks for physical, mental, and social incapacity in dealing with their everyday functioning. However, more than the external deleterious consequences of these diseases are the psychological ramifications that they have to older adults that are worth investigating. Cerebrovascular accident or stroke is one of the many age-related diseases that affect both the physical and psychological functioning of many older adults This particular population is assigned different roles throughout many cultures; some see them as a source of wisdom and leadership and others might see them as serving a less important role in society. Nevertheless, the elderly population has much to offer and have every single right to participate in society, and be treated with dignity and respect. For this paper, I observed this particular population in two different settings—a school pantry and a super market It is important for elders to have some type of social support system that is why it is crucial for them to have positive relationships with people. Studies have found ta older adults with little social support were 3. Determination of scientific and technical merit A research proposal will assess the feasibility and acceptability of the older adults weight Loss OWL weight loss intervention in a group of obese older people. There is no title of the proposal which should be added. Then during the introduction, the proposal illustrated that health condition of older people in Scotland. The obesity is a severe risk factor for many diseases. However, there are few interventions designed for older people to lose weight It is an overall term that describes a wide range of symptoms associated with a decline in memory or other thinking skills severe enough to reduce a person 's ability to perform everyday activities. Alzheimer 's disease accounts for 60 to 80 percent of cases found in older adults. Vascular dementia, which occurs after a stroke, is the second most common dementia type van Knippenberg et al. Dementia is a condition of the brain, which causes a gradual loss of mental ability, including problems with memory, understanding, judgment, thinking and language Social support enhances quality of life and provides a buffer against adverse life events. We wanted to discover the correlations between social support concerning older adults and its effects on health More people are live very far into old age; this is why the number of elderly people continues to rise. Disease patterns are changing continually. Chronic disease is often the cause of death, over those that are caused by acute illness. The population that requires care is becoming much older. High quality care is necessary for end of life. The care provided for these older adults require an established partnership between the nurse and the patient Introduction A fall is a lethal event that results from an amalgamation of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors which predispose an elderly person to the incident Naqvi et al The frequency of hospital admission due to falls for older people in Australia, Canada, UK and Northern Ireland range from 1. Caregiving involves from a short period of post-acute care to long term period of on-going care in accordance with the dependency level of care recipients. Family caregivers form the backbone of the social care delivery system by rendering an important proportion of their time and energy for the chronically ill or older adults Angelo Therefore, due to the negative results of falls, the increased of awareness about the consequences of fall is paramount to all hospital staff and hospital organisation in analysing and identifying the risk factors of falls Aging is often associated with greater exposure to disease and disability. The primary auditory disorder of many older people is difficulty understanding speech in noisy situations or competing speech, or that their communicators speak too fast, or do not articulate clearly enough. Age-related hearing loss, also known as presbycusis is a gradual and progressive hearing loss that affects most individuals as they age On the other hand, Baumeister and his colleagues also found that people with high self-esteem sometimes delude themselves. But objective measures show that these beliefs are often distortions rather than facts. Such findings raise the interesting possibility that programs that increase the self-esteem of children who bully and are aggressive, based on the notion that these behaviors stem from low self-esteem, may do more harm than good Emler, If you are thinking like a social psychologist, these findings may not surprise you—narcissists tend to focus on their self-concerns, with little concern for others, and we have seen many times that other-concern is a necessity for satisfactory social relations. Furthermore, despite the many positive variables that relate to high self-esteem, when Baumeister and his colleagues looked at the causal role of self-esteem they found little evidence that high self-esteem caused these positive outcomes. For instance, although high self-esteem is correlated with academic achievement, it is more the result than the cause of this achievement. Programs designed to boost the self-esteem of pupils have not been shown to improve academic performance, and laboratory studies have generally failed to find that manipulations of self-esteem cause better task performance. Baumeister and his colleagues concluded that programs designed to boost self-esteem should be used only in a limited way and should not be the only approach taken. Raising self-esteem will not make young people do better in school, obey the law, stay out of trouble, get along better with other people, or respect the rights of others. And these programs may even backfire if the increased self-esteem creates narcissism or conceit. Baumeister and his colleagues suggested that attempts to boost self-esteem should only be carried out as a reward for good behavior and worthy achievements, and not simply to try to make children feel better about themselves. Although we naturally desire to have social status and high self-esteem, we cannot always promote ourselves without any regard to the accuracy of our self-characterizations. If we consistently distort our capabilities, and particularly if we do this over a long period of time, we will just end up fooling ourselves and perhaps engaging in behaviors that are not actually beneficial to us. Some individuals who audition on television talent shows spring to mind. Their pursuit of unrealistic goals may also take valuable time away from finding areas they have more chance to succeed in. When we self-enhance too much, although we may feel good about it in the short term, in the longer term the outcomes for the self may not be positive. In some cases, the cognitive goal of obtaining an accurate picture of ourselves and our social world and the affective goal of gaining positive self-esteem work hand in hand. Getting the best grade in an important exam produces accurate knowledge about our skills in the domain as well as giving us some positive self-esteem. In other cases, the two goals are incompatible. Doing more poorly on an exam than we had hoped produces conflicting, contradictory outcomes. The poor score provides accurate information about the self—namely, that we have not mastered the subject—but at the same time makes us feel bad. This sets up a fascinating clash between our need to self-enhance against our need to be realistic in our views of ourselves. Delusion versus truth: which one wins out? The answer, of course, as with pretty much everything to do with human social behavior, is that it depends. But on what does it depend? One factor is who the source is of the feedback about us: when we are seeking out close relationships, we more often form them with others who verify our self-views. Another related factor is the part of our self-concept we are seeking feedback about, coupled with who is providing this evaluation. Who would you want to give you self-enhancing feedback? Who would you want more honesty from? Under certain conditions, verification prevails over enhancement. However, we should not underestimate the power of self-enhancement to often cloud our ability to be more realistic about ourselves. If there is room for doubt, then enhancement tends to rule. Also, if we are confident that the consequences of getting innaccurate, self-enhancing feedback about negative aspects ourselves are minimal, then we tend to welcome self-enhancement with open arms Aronson, We must be able to accept our negative aspects and to work to overcome them. The ability to balance the cognitive and the affective features of the self helps us create realistic views of ourselves and to translate these into more efficient and effective behaviors. In some extreme cases, people experience such strong needs to improve their self-esteem and social status that they act in assertive or dominant ways in order to gain it. As in many other domains, then, having positive self-esteem is a good thing, but we must be careful to temper it with a healthy realism and a concern for others. Key Takeaways Self-esteem refers to the positive high self-esteem or negative low self-esteem feelings that we have about ourselves. Self-esteem is determined both by our own achievements and accomplishments and by how we think others are judging us. Self-esteem can be measured using both direct and indirect measures, and both approaches find that people tend to view themselves positively. Self-esteem shows important variations across different cultural, gender, and age groups. Because it is so important to have self-esteem, we may seek out, process, and remember information in a way that allows us to see ourselves even more positively. High self-esteem is correlated with, but does not cause, a variety of positive outcomes. Although high self-esteem does correlate with many positive outcomes in life, overly high self-esteem creates narcissism, which can lead to unfriendly, rude, and ultimately dysfunctional behaviors. Exercises and Critical Thinking In what ways do you attempt to boost your own self-esteem? Which strategies do you feel have been particularly effective and ineffective and why? Do you know people who have appropriately high self-esteem? What about people who are narcissists? How do these individual differences influence their social behavior in positive and negative ways? To what extent do you agree with this quote and why? References Aronson, E. Psychological Inquiry, 3 4 , — Baumeister, R. Does high self-esteem cause better performance, interpersonal success, happiness, or healthier lifestyles? Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 4 1 , 1— Relation of threatened egotism to violence and aggression: The dark side of high self-esteem. Psychological Review, 1 , 5— Brown, J. Cai, H. Self-esteem and culture: Differences in cognitive self-evaluations or affective self-regard?. Self-concept clarity: Measurement, personality correlates, and cultural boundaries. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70 1 ,

Most times that I talk to older adults I am listening as I attempt to absorb as much of their wealth of knowledge on life that I can The higher the income of the home the higher the self-esteem of the adolescent. Editorial Director New car, s.

Why therapy works is still up for debate. But, when it does, its methods mimic the attachment dynamics of good parenting

Using the Implicit Association Test to measure self-esteem and self-concept. Do you know people who have appropriately high self-esteem. Nursing Assessment and Interventions are provided in the further sections which discusses about actions nurses should take on while evaluating patients and treating them.

Recall that this theory states that when our perceived self-discrepancy between our current and ideal selves is small, we tend to feel more positive about ourselves than when we see the gap as being large. Evidence from Ryff suggests that this may well be the case. Maintaining and Enhancing Self-Esteem As we saw in our earlier discussion of cultural differences in self-esteem, in at least some cultures, individuals appear motivated to report high self-esteem. As we shall now see, they also often actively seek out higher self-worth. For those of us who are actively seeking higher self-esteem, one way is to be successful at what we do. When we get a good grade on a test, perform well in a sports match, or get a date with someone we really like, our self-esteem naturally rises. When we fail in one domain, we tend to move on until we find something that we are good at. In short, we feel good about ourselves because we do a pretty good job at creating decent lives. Another way we can boost our self-esteem is through building connections with others. Forming and maintaining satisfying relationships helps us to feel good about ourselves. A common way of doing this for many people around the world is through social networking sites. There are a growing number of studies exploring how we do this online and the effects that it has on our self-worth. When our friends do not respond to our updates, however, this can negatively impact how we feel about ourselves. One study found that when regular Facebook users were assigned to an experimental condition where they were banned from sharing information on Facebook for 48 hours, they reported significantly lower levels of belonging and meaningful existence. Whether online or offline, then, feeling ignored by our friends can dent our self-worth. We will explore other social influences on our self-esteem later in this chapter. Research Focus Processing Information to Enhance the Self Although we can all be quite good at creating positive self-esteem by doing positive things, it turns out that we often do not stop there. The desire to see ourselves positively is sometimes strong enough that it leads us to seek out, process, and remember information in a way that allows us to see ourselves even more positively. The students then wrote explanations for why this might be true. The experimenter then thanked the participants and led them to another room, where a second study was to be conducted you will have guessed already that although the participants did not think so, the two experiments were really part of the same experiment. In the second experiment, participants were given a questionnaire that supposedly was investigating what different personality dimensions meant to people in terms of their own experience and behavior. You can see that the first memory listed by participants in both conditions tended to reflect the dimension that they had read was related to success according to the research presented in the first experiment. It appears that the participants drew from their memories those instances of their own behavior that reflected the trait that had the most positive implications for their self-esteem—either introversion or extroversion, depending on experimental condition. The desire for positive self-esteem made events that were consistent with a positive self-perception more accessible, and thus they were listed first on the questionnaire. Other research has confirmed this general principle—people often attempt to create positive self-esteem whenever possible, even it if involves distorting reality. We tend to take credit for our successes, and to blame our failures on others. We think that our sense of humor and our honesty are above average, and that we are better drivers and less prejudiced than others. We also distort in a positive way, of course our memories of our grades, our performances on exams, and our romantic experiences. Once again, though, there are some important cultural differences to note with people in individualistic cultures pursuing these self-enhancing strategies more vigorously and more often than those from more collectivistic backgrounds. Indeed, in a large-scale review of studies on self-enhancement, Heine concluded that these tactics are not typically used in cultures that value interdependence over dependence. In cultures where high self-esteem is not as socially valued, people presumably do not feel the same need to distort their social realities to serve their self-worth. There is also considerable personal diversity in the tendency to use self-enhancement. We emphasize our positive characteristics, and we may even in some cases distort information—all to help us maintain positive self-esteem. There can be negative aspects to having too much self-esteem, however, particularly if that esteem is unrealistic and undeserved. Narcissism is a personality trait characterized by overly high self-esteem, self-admiration, and self-centeredness. Narcissists are also more likely to bully others, and they may respond very negatively to criticism Baumeister et al. Given the social costs of these traits, this is troubling news. What reasons might there be for these trends? Twenge and Campbell argue that several interlocking factors are at work here, namely increasingly child-centered parenting styles, the cult of celebrity, the role of social media in promoting self-enhancement, and the wider availability of easy credit, which, they argue, has lead to more people being able to acquire status-related goods, in turn further fueling a sense of entitlement. As narcissism is partly about having an excess of self-esteem, it should by now come as no surprise that narcissistic traits are higher, on average, in people from individualistic versus collectivistic cultures Twenge et al. The negative outcomes of narcissism raise the interesting possibility that high self-esteem in general may not always be advantageous to us or to the people around us. A key point is that it can be difficult to disentangle what the effects of realistic versus unrealistic high self-esteem may be. Nevertheless, it is to this thorny issue that we will now turn. Teachers, parents, school counselors, and people in many cultures frequently assume that high self-esteem causes many positive outcomes for people who have it and therefore that we should try to increase it in ourselves and others. Perhaps you agree with the idea that if you could increase your self-esteem, you would feel better about yourself and therefore be able to work at a higher level, or attract a more desirable mate. If you do believe that, you would not be alone. They began by assessing which variables were correlated with high self-esteem and then considered the extent to which high self-esteem caused these outcomes. They found that high self-esteem does correlate with many positive outcomes. People with high self-esteem get better grades, are less depressed, feel less stress, and may even live longer than those who view themselves more negatively. High self-esteem people also work harder in response to initial failure and are more willing to switch to a new line of endeavor if the present one seems unpromising. Thus, having high self-esteem seems to be a valuable resource—people with high self-esteem are happier, more active, and in many ways better able to deal with their environment. On the other hand, Baumeister and his colleagues also found that people with high self-esteem sometimes delude themselves. But objective measures show that these beliefs are often distortions rather than facts. Such findings raise the interesting possibility that programs that increase the self-esteem of children who bully and are aggressive, based on the notion that these behaviors stem from low self-esteem, may do more harm than good Emler, If you are thinking like a social psychologist, these findings may not surprise you—narcissists tend to focus on their self-concerns, with little concern for others, and we have seen many times that other-concern is a necessity for satisfactory social relations. Furthermore, despite the many positive variables that relate to high self-esteem, when Baumeister and his colleagues looked at the causal role of self-esteem they found little evidence that high self-esteem caused these positive outcomes. For instance, although high self-esteem is correlated with academic achievement, it is more the result than the cause of this achievement. Programs designed to boost the self-esteem of pupils have not been shown to improve academic performance, and laboratory studies have generally failed to find that manipulations of self-esteem cause better task performance. Baumeister and his colleagues concluded that programs designed to boost self-esteem should be used only in a limited way and should not be the only approach taken. Raising self-esteem will not make young people do better in school, obey the law, stay out of trouble, get along better with other people, or respect the rights of others. And these programs may even backfire if the increased self-esteem creates narcissism or conceit. Baumeister and his colleagues suggested that attempts to boost self-esteem should only be carried out as a reward for good behavior and worthy achievements, and not simply to try to make children feel better about themselves. In a recent paper in the Journal of Personality, Kristina L Steiner at Denison University in Ohio and her colleagues looked into these questions and reported that writing about chapters in your life does indeed lead to a modest, temporary self-esteem boost, and that in fact this benefit arises regardless of how positive your stories are. However, there were no effects on self-concept clarity, and many questions on this topic remain for future study. The first two groups — involving more than people between them — were young undergraduates, most of them female. The final group, a balanced mix of men and women, was recruited from the community, and they were older, with an average age of The format was essentially the same for each study. There are many causes of obesity such as the environment they grow up, lack of physical activity, genetics, overeating, and lack of information on nutrition. The World Health Organization as a global epidemic formally recognized obesity in Adjusting to life changes such as retirement, different schedules, and new activities also affect where and when they drive. Most older adults drive safely because they have a lot of experience behind the wheel. They are often hurt more seriously than younger drivers when they are involved in crashes Older Drivers , There are many factors that affect older adults when driving such as arthritis, memory loss, and spine problems, which make drivers lose height and become shorter behind the wheel, diminishing visual range Older Drivers , It is something I have to continuously work on and practice to improve. Out of the people I deal with every day, I believe older adults are the most challenging to deal with. We all have stories about our grandparents who dislike our partner who always tells them to start exercising or that they should quit smoking. Or how that grumpy old neighbour from next door keeps forgetting our name, although they have known us for over ten years Obtaining forensically relevant testimony from elderly eyewitnesses has therefore become a cause for concern. This concern results from a range of studies which emphasise the potential disadvantages that elderly witnesses may face when identifying perpetrators. Studies consistently show the deleterious effects of aging on memory Older persons may not fully understand the purpose of the medication and the importance of following the prescription as directed. Over the counter medication, herbs and supplements may not be considered medication; therefore, they do not inform their health care provider that they are taking them. Multiple health care providers can result in duplication of orders or adverse drug reactions. Any disease or injury to the bones or the skeletal system can affect body structure and mechanics, blood cells formation and soft organs may to prone to injury too. While many older adults are fit and healthy, others are frail and weak requiring necessary medication. It is more important than ever for all of the healthcare community to be conscious of safe prescribing and the proper use of medicine when taking care of older adults. Analysis and Risks As we age, the use of medication is often increased in an effort to treat illness and disease. In older adults this frequently results in the administration of multiple medications, both appropriately and inappropriately, at the same time Communication is highly important in nursing practice as it relies on subjective and objective information from patient-to-nurse and then nurse-to-nurse of the incoming shift for plan of care. Communication is not only the use of words, but also how one presents oneself where they work and how one interacts with the different types of patients It provides an introduction to dementia and analyses its prevalence in society. The various forms of dementias are elaborated with description about dysfunctions and symptoms. Nursing Assessment and Interventions are provided in the further sections which discusses about actions nurses should take on while evaluating patients and treating them. Age-related diseases are part of the aging process that put the elderly population at risks for physical, mental, and social incapacity in dealing with their everyday functioning. However, more than the external deleterious consequences of these diseases are the psychological ramifications that they have to older adults that are worth investigating. Cerebrovascular accident or stroke is one of the many age-related diseases that affect both the physical and psychological functioning of many older adults This particular population is assigned different roles throughout many cultures; some see them as a source of wisdom and leadership and others might see them as serving a less important role in society. Nevertheless, the elderly population has much to offer and have every single right to participate in society, and be treated with dignity and respect. For this paper, I observed this particular population in two different settings—a school pantry and a super market It is important for elders to have some type of social support system that is why it is crucial for them to have positive relationships with people. Studies have found ta older adults with little social support were 3. Determination of scientific and technical merit A research proposal will assess the feasibility and acceptability of the older adults weight Loss OWL weight loss intervention in a group of obese older people. There is no title of the proposal which should be added. Then during the introduction, the proposal illustrated that health condition of older people in Scotland. The obesity is a severe risk factor for many diseases. However, there are few interventions designed for older people to lose weight It is an overall term that describes a wide range of symptoms associated with a decline in memory or other thinking skills severe enough to reduce a person 's ability to perform everyday activities. Further, addressing the factors that contribute to deterioration of self-confidence is fundamental to generate an effective plan of care in increasing self-esteem among older adults. You can, however, take steps to improve your self-esteem by taking signals from different types of mental health counseling. Based on cognitive behavioral therapy, consider taking the following steps: 1.

Identify disturbing conditions or situations Think about the conditions or situations that seem to undervalue your self-esteem. Adjusting to life changes such as retirement, different schedules, and new activities also affect where and when they drive.

  • Ralph waldo emerson self reliance essay topics
  • Comparison and contrast essay free examples
  • Completely free online help essay writing help
  • My self essay in english for class 3

Self esteem: The costs and causes of low self worth. Self-esteem among young adults: Differences and similarities based on gender, race, and cohort — Who would you want to give you self-enhancing feedback.

How do these individual differences influence their social behavior in positive and negative ways. Social Influence. This is the ever growing population of older adults in our country. The ability to balance the cognitive and the affective features of the self helps us create realistic views of ourselves and to translate these into more efficient and effective behaviors.

Top resume writing services

Coronary heart disease CHD is caused by atherosclerosis which occurs when the build-up of cholesterol in the arterial wall limits the travel of oxygen-rich blood in the body3. Family caregivers form the backbone of the social care delivery system by rendering an important proportion of their time and energy for the chronically ill or older adults Angelo In short, we feel good about ourselves because we do a pretty good job at creating decent lives.

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79 6— Whether online or offline, self, feeling ignored by our friends can dent our self-worth. Excessive fiber intake can restrict calcium class reflection essay example, but old the American diet does not eat much fiber, only vegans would be in esteem since they account for about 50g of adult.

how Accuracy and bias in self-perception: Individual differences in self-enhancement and the role of narcissism. Hepper, E. There are no easy answers here, of course, but free are some findings from studies, using different essays of measuring self-esteem, that may shed some light on this issue.

Authenticity and positivity strivings in marriage how build. Positive self-views: Understanding universals and variability.

For example, self-discrepancy theory highlights how we feel distress when we perceive a gap between our actual and ideal selves. We will now examine this feeling self, starting with perhaps its most heavily researched aspect, self-esteem. Self-Esteem Self-esteem refers to the positive high self-esteem or negative low self-esteem feelings that we have about ourselves. We experience the positive feelings of high self-esteem when we believe that we are good and worthy and that others view us positively. We experience the negative feelings of low self-esteem when we believe that we are inadequate and less worthy than others. But self-esteem is also a state that varies day to day and even hour to hour. When we have succeeded at an important task, when we have done something that we think is useful or important, or when we feel that we are accepted and valued by others, our self-concept will contain many positive thoughts and we will therefore have high self-esteem. When we have failed, done something harmful, or feel that we have been ignored or criticized, the negative aspects of the self-concept are more accessible and we experience low self-esteem. Self-esteem can be measured using both explicit and implicit measures, and both approaches find that most people tend to view themselves positively. Higher scores on the scale indicate higher self-esteem. Figure 3. R Note. R denotes an item that should be reverse scored. Subtract your response on these items from 5 before calculating the total. Data are from Rosenberg Society and the adolescent self-image. An interesting finding in many samples from the Western world, particularly in North America, is that the average score is often significantly higher than the mid-point. One interesting implication of this is that participants in such samples classified as having low self-esteem on the basis of a median split will typically actually have at least moderate self-esteem. Perhaps some cultures place more importance on developing high self-esteem than others, and people correspondingly feel more pressure to report feeling good about themselves Held, A problem with measures such as the Rosenberg scale is that they can be influenced by the desire to portray the self positively. The observed scores on the Rosenberg scale may be somewhat inflated because people naturally try to make themselves look as if they have very high self-esteem—maybe they lie a bit to the experimenters to make themselves look better than they really are and perhaps to make themselves feel better. If this the case, then we might expect to find average levels of reported self-esteem to be lower in cultures where having high self-worth is less of a priority. This is indeed what has generally been found. Heine and Lehman reported that Japanese participants living in Japan showed, on average, moderate levels of self-esteem, normally distributed around the scale mid-point. Many other studies have shown that people in Eastern, collectivistic cultures report significantly lower self-esteem than those from more Western, individualistic ones Campbell et al. Do, then, such differences reflect these different cultural priorities and pressures, or could it be that they reflect genuine differences in actual self-esteem levels? There are no easy answers here, of course, but there are some findings from studies, using different methods of measuring self-esteem, that may shed some light on this issue. Indirect measures of self-esteem have been created—measures that may provide a more accurate picture of the self-concept because they are less influenced by the desire to make a positive impression. Participants worked at a computer and were presented with a series of words, each of which they were to categorize in one of two ways. One categorization decision involved whether the words were related to the self e. A second categorization decision involved determining whether words were pleasant e. On some trials, the self words were paired with the pleasant items, and the other words with the unpleasant items. On other trials, the self words were paired with the unpleasant items, and the other words with the pleasant items. Greenwald and Farnham found that on average, participants were significantly faster at categorizing positive words that were presented with self words than they were at categorizing negative words that were presented with self words, suggesting, again, that people did have positive self-esteem. Furthermore, there were also meaningful differences among people in the speed of responding, suggesting that the measure captured some individual variation in implicit self-esteem. A number of studies have since explored cross-cultural differences in implicit self-esteem and have not found the same differences observed on explicit measures like the Rosenberg scale Yamaguchi et al. Does this mean that we can conclude that the lower scores on self-report measures observed in members of collectivistic cultures are more apparent than real? Nevertheless, values such as modesty may be less prioritized in individualistic cultures than in collectivistic ones, which may in turn reflect differences in reported self-esteem levels. There are also some interesting age differences in self-esteem that have been uncovered. One interesting implication of this is that we often will have higher self-esteem later in life than in our early adulthood years, which would appear to run against ageist stereotypes that older adults have lower self-worth. What factors might help to explain these age-related increases in self-esteem? One possibility relates back to our discussion of self-discrepancy theory in the previous section on the cognitive self. Recall that this theory states that when our perceived self-discrepancy between our current and ideal selves is small, we tend to feel more positive about ourselves than when we see the gap as being large. Evidence from Ryff suggests that this may well be the case. Maintaining and Enhancing Self-Esteem As we saw in our earlier discussion of cultural differences in self-esteem, in at least some cultures, individuals appear motivated to report high self-esteem. As we shall now see, they also often actively seek out higher self-worth. For those of us who are actively seeking higher self-esteem, one way is to be successful at what we do. When we get a good grade on a test, perform well in a sports match, or get a date with someone we really like, our self-esteem naturally rises. When we fail in one domain, we tend to move on until we find something that we are good at. In short, we feel good about ourselves because we do a pretty good job at creating decent lives. Another way we can boost our self-esteem is through building connections with others. Forming and maintaining satisfying relationships helps us to feel good about ourselves. A common way of doing this for many people around the world is through social networking sites. There are a growing number of studies exploring how we do this online and the effects that it has on our self-worth. When our friends do not respond to our updates, however, this can negatively impact how we feel about ourselves. One study found that when regular Facebook users were assigned to an experimental condition where they were banned from sharing information on Facebook for 48 hours, they reported significantly lower levels of belonging and meaningful existence. Whether online or offline, then, feeling ignored by our friends can dent our self-worth. We will explore other social influences on our self-esteem later in this chapter. Research Focus Processing Information to Enhance the Self Although we can all be quite good at creating positive self-esteem by doing positive things, it turns out that we often do not stop there. The desire to see ourselves positively is sometimes strong enough that it leads us to seek out, process, and remember information in a way that allows us to see ourselves even more positively. The students then wrote explanations for why this might be true. The experimenter then thanked the participants and led them to another room, where a second study was to be conducted you will have guessed already that although the participants did not think so, the two experiments were really part of the same experiment. In the second experiment, participants were given a questionnaire that supposedly was investigating what different personality dimensions meant to people in terms of their own experience and behavior. You can see that the first memory listed by participants in both conditions tended to reflect the dimension that they had read was related to success according to the research presented in the first experiment. It appears that the participants drew from their memories those instances of their own behavior that reflected the trait that had the most positive implications for their self-esteem—either introversion or extroversion, depending on experimental condition. The desire for positive self-esteem made events that were consistent with a positive self-perception more accessible, and thus they were listed first on the questionnaire. Other research has confirmed this general principle—people often attempt to create positive self-esteem whenever possible, even it if involves distorting reality. We tend to take credit for our successes, and to blame our failures on others. We think that our sense of humor and our honesty are above average, and that we are better drivers and less prejudiced than others. We also distort in a positive way, of course our memories of our grades, our performances on exams, and our romantic experiences. Once again, though, there are some important cultural differences to note with people in individualistic cultures pursuing these self-enhancing strategies more vigorously and more often than those from more collectivistic backgrounds. Indeed, in a large-scale review of studies on self-enhancement, Heine concluded that these tactics are not typically used in cultures that value interdependence over dependence. In cultures where high self-esteem is not as socially valued, people presumably do not feel the same need to distort their social realities to serve their self-worth. There is also considerable personal diversity in the tendency to use self-enhancement. We emphasize our positive characteristics, and we may even in some cases distort information—all to help us maintain positive self-esteem. There can be negative aspects to having too much self-esteem, however, particularly if that esteem is unrealistic and undeserved. Narcissism is a personality trait characterized by overly high self-esteem, self-admiration, and self-centeredness. Narcissists are also more likely to bully others, and they may respond very negatively to criticism Baumeister et al. Given the social costs of these traits, this is troubling news. What reasons might there be for these trends? Twenge and Campbell argue that several interlocking factors are at work here, namely increasingly child-centered parenting styles, the cult of celebrity, the role of social media in promoting self-enhancement, and the wider availability of easy credit, which, they argue, has lead to more people being able to acquire status-related goods, in turn further fueling a sense of entitlement. As narcissism is partly about having an excess of self-esteem, it should by now come as no surprise that narcissistic traits are higher, on average, in people from individualistic versus collectivistic cultures Twenge et al. The negative outcomes of narcissism raise the interesting possibility that high self-esteem in general may not always be advantageous to us or to the people around us. A key point is that it can be difficult to disentangle what the effects of realistic versus unrealistic high self-esteem may be. Nevertheless, it is to this thorny issue that we will now turn. Teachers, parents, school counselors, and people in many cultures frequently assume that high self-esteem causes many positive outcomes for people who have it and therefore that we should try to increase it in ourselves and others. Perhaps you agree with the idea that if you could increase your self-esteem, you would feel better about yourself and therefore be able to work at a higher level, or attract a more desirable mate. If you do believe that, you would not be alone. They began by assessing which variables were correlated with high self-esteem and then considered the extent to which high self-esteem caused these outcomes. They found that high self-esteem does correlate with many positive outcomes. People with high self-esteem get better grades, are less depressed, feel less stress, and may even live longer than those who view themselves more negatively. High self-esteem people also work harder in response to initial failure and are more willing to switch to a new line of endeavor if the present one seems unpromising. Thus, having high self-esteem seems to be a valuable resource—people with high self-esteem are happier, more active, and in many ways better able to deal with their environment. On the other hand, Baumeister and his colleagues also found that people with high self-esteem sometimes delude themselves. But objective measures show that these beliefs are often distortions rather than facts. Such findings raise the interesting possibility that programs that increase the self-esteem of children who bully and are aggressive, based on the notion that these behaviors stem from low self-esteem, may do more harm than good Emler, If you are thinking like a social psychologist, these findings may not surprise you—narcissists tend to focus on their self-concerns, with little concern for others, and we have seen many times that other-concern is a necessity for satisfactory social relations. Furthermore, despite the many positive variables that relate to high self-esteem, when Baumeister and his colleagues looked at the causal role of self-esteem they found little evidence that high self-esteem caused these positive outcomes. For instance, although high self-esteem is correlated with academic achievement, it is more the result than the cause of this achievement. Programs designed to boost the self-esteem of pupils have not been shown to improve academic performance, and laboratory studies have generally failed to find that manipulations of self-esteem cause better task performance. Baumeister and his colleagues concluded that programs designed to boost self-esteem should be used only in a limited way and should not be the only approach taken. Raising self-esteem will not make young people do better in school, obey the law, stay out of trouble, get along better with other people, or respect the rights of others. And these programs may even backfire if the increased self-esteem creates narcissism or conceit. Baumeister and his colleagues suggested that attempts to boost self-esteem should only be carried out as a reward for good behavior and worthy achievements, and not simply to try to make children feel better about themselves. Although we naturally desire to have social status and high self-esteem, we cannot always promote ourselves without any regard to the accuracy of our self-characterizations. If we consistently distort our capabilities, and particularly if we do this over a long period of time, we will just end up fooling ourselves and perhaps engaging in behaviors that are not actually beneficial to us. Some individuals who audition on television talent shows spring to mind. Their pursuit of unrealistic goals may also take valuable time away from finding areas they have more chance to succeed in. When we self-enhance too much, although we may feel good about it in the short term, in the longer term the outcomes for the self may not be positive. In some cases, the cognitive goal of obtaining an accurate picture of ourselves and our social world and the affective goal of gaining positive self-esteem work hand in hand. Getting the best grade in an important exam produces accurate knowledge about our skills in the domain as well as giving us some positive self-esteem. In other cases, the two goals are incompatible. Doing more poorly on an exam than we had hoped produces conflicting, contradictory outcomes. The poor score provides accurate information about the self—namely, that we have not mastered the subject—but at the same time makes us feel bad. This sets up a fascinating clash between our need to self-enhance against our need to be realistic in our views of ourselves. Delusion versus truth: which one wins out? The answer, of course, as with pretty much everything to do with human social behavior, is that it depends. But on what does it depend? One factor is who the source is of the feedback about us: when we are seeking out close relationships, we more often form them with others who verify our self-views. Another related factor is the part of our self-concept we are seeking feedback about, coupled with who is providing this evaluation. Who would you want to give you self-enhancing feedback? Who would you want more honesty from? Under certain conditions, verification prevails over enhancement. However, we should not underestimate the power of self-enhancement to often cloud our ability to be more realistic about ourselves. Then half of them were allocated to write about four chapters in their lives, spending 10 minutes on each. They were instructed to be as specific and detailed as possible, and to reflect on main themes, how each chapter related to their lives as a whole, and to think about any causes and effects of the chapter on them and their lives. The other half of the participants, who acted as a control group, spent the same time writing about four famous Americans of their choosing to make this task more intellectually comparable, they were also instructed to reflect on the links between the individuals they chose, how they became famous, and other similar questions. The participants who wrote about chapters in their lives displayed small, but statistically significant, increases to their self-esteem, whereas the control-group participants did not. Disappointingly, there was no effect of the life-chapter task on self-concept clarity, nor on meaning and identity. How long do the self-esteem benefits of the life-chapter task last, and might they accumulate by repeating the exercise? Clues come from the second of the studies, which involved two life chapter-writing tasks and two tasks writing about famous Americans for the control group , with the second task coming 48 hours after the first. It remains unclear exactly why the life-chapter task had the self-esteem benefits that it did. Future research will need to compare different life chapter-writing instructions to tease apart these different potential beneficial mechanisms. Christian Jarrett is a senior editor at Aeon, working on the forthcoming Psyche website that will take a multidisciplinary approach to the age-old question of how to live. His next, on personality change, will be published in

Global self-esteem across the life span. Independent living and improved health requires the older adult to perform their daily activities safely and without getting worn out.

Income had a significant effect on the self-esteem of adolescents as well. It remains to be established through careful experimentation whether prompting otherwise healthy people to reflect on their lives will have any immediate benefits.