Origins Of Hte Modern World Marks Essay Question

Explanation 15.03.2020

At Fiveable, we are committed to an inclusive and comprehensive history of our World and we will take our cues from World Historians, including Marks, as we review this period in the weeks ahead.

By this term, Marks is referring to the fact that until very recently in world history, humans everywhere existed as part of the natural environment and were in turn limited by that environment. The primary source of energy was the sun, and the ability of humans to increase production depended on their ability to harness its renewable energy. This fact, combined with the existence of eight large zones of trade connecting Europe, Asia, and East Africa, explains why Eurasia dominated world trade while the biological old regime was in place. Interestingly, it also demonstrates that the idea of global trade is by no means a twentieth century invention. Finally, Marks demonstrates the power of his theme of conjuncture, using it to explain the Black Death. The disease that killed many millions in Europe and Asia originated in China, and the existence of the Mongol Empire, spanning most of the Eurasian landmass, provided the vector for transmission to Europe by maintaining overland trade routes across the Eurasian steppe. Burrowing rodents also lived along this trade route, and they became the carriers of bubonic plague. Italian traders in Europe frequented a second trade route, which overlapped with the Mongol route at the Black Sea city of Caffa. When the Venetians and Genoese sailed back to Italy in , the Black Death sailed with them, with devastating consequences. Other meaningful contingencies and conjunctures abound throughout the book. Portuguese sailors rounded the southern tip of Africa and entered the largely unfortified Indian Ocean just as the Chinese navy was withdrawing due to internal events in China. Had it remained to contest the navies of Portugal and other European nations, the European attempt to control trade routes in the Indian Ocean would possibly have turned out very differently. Similarly, without its colonies to provide the raw materials of industry, cotton especially, England would not have been able to industrialize as it did because the land base of the British Isles is far too small to provide the raw materials on its own and still grow food to feed the British population. One of the most profound insights offered in The Origins of the Modern World is the momentous role of China and India in the world economy under the biological old regime. Truly global in scope, and fully attentive to environmental contexts, this book is ideal for the classroom: it will provoke both thought and discussion—and occasional disagreement. Fair-minded but not bland, it has the potential to spark classroom discussion that conventional textbooks rarely have, while providing a helpful basic narrative around which to organize an appealing world history class. Marks has a clear focus on the Eurocentrism of most of the textbooks on world history, and he has developed an effective, solidly grounded strategy to counter the problem. The ideas are challenging, and the prose is readable and engaging. Ideal for introductory surveys of world history. But, Western Civilization and European History have often stood in for World History, either literally or as a framework. In my experiences teaching high school history for nearly thirty years in two large school districts, World History courses structured around a Western Civ framework often present history as a set of important events tightly linked by causation, although this understanding of causation is not essential to European History as an academic inquiry. It is not just that the events are European, but that they are understood as pieces in an unbreakable chain. Cover of Marks, Origins of the Modern World, 4th ed. Every history teacher who has been in a curriculum meeting where a colleague insists that some development, such as the Renaissance, must be covered in order for students understand another, such as European maritime empires, has witnessed this thinking. Such a view of history is at odds with the practice of professional historians who stress the contingency of historical events and the agency of historical actors. We should emphasize these nuanced treatments of causality in our World History classes. Some, on the other hand myself included , think it is important to place those voyages of discovery in a broader global context of the real structures of wealth and power in the world around From that perspective, the Indian Ocean can be seen as the most important crossroads for global exchanges of goods, ideas, and culture with China, Indian, and the Islamic near and middle East meeting there as the major players. The map on this books by the European Gerardus Mercator makes that point forcefully by placing the Indian Ocean at the center of his map. From the perspective of the Indian Ocean world Europe was a peripheral marginal player trying desperately to gain access to the sources of wealth generated in Asia. He persuasively argues that China and India stayed at the center of the world economy until c. His reasoning should inform how we talk about this period in World History classes. The composition in this concise book is clear and topics are interestingly presented, while the source references make it useful for classroom research projects. Although appreciating the complex nature of what Marks attempts here, this reviewer had a suspicion, which grew throughout the book, that this is an Asia-centric presentation of a heretofore Euro-centric topic: Africa and the Americas still do not play active roles in creating the "modern world. This section of the book is particularly valuable for the manner that major points are outlined for a study in world trade. He takes this topic even further, however, when he defines the "biological ancien regime" and hints at the changes to come when "massive biological exchange would radically alter" trade relationships by The processes of 19th century industrialization, then, created the transition from a world where life depended upon renewable solar sources of energy to a world where people and their trade priorities created radically altered environments.

Causal claims are often rote memorization masquerading as critically thinking. Too often facile causal chains structure high school World History courses.

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World History teachers who embrace these analytic tools hte facilitate mark historical thinking while simultaneously rooting out Eurocentric legacies. World History question be global history. But, Western Civilization and European History have world stood in for World History, either literally or as a origin. In my experiences teaching high school history for nearly thirty hte in two large school districts, World History courses structured around a Western Civ question often essay history as a set of important events tightly linked by causation, although this understanding of causation is not essential to European History as an modern essay.

He finds that military competition encouraged the rise of polities with large cities that allowed for capital accumulation, backed up by large rural hinterlands to provide manpower for standing armies. These strong states favored industrialization in their efforts to expand and project their military power. Areas of the world unable to create strong states, or colonized by the strong states, were destined to remain in the biological old regime, exporting materials to allow the European states to continue their economic and military dominance. Several aspects of The Origins of the Modern World elicit praise. The attempt to demonstrate that world history was not completely a European-driven phenomenon is a much-needed addition to scholarship. Though other scholars have addressed this issue, this effort at a comprehensive retelling of the story is still refreshing because of its attention to other regions of the world. Careful readers will find that Marks has indeed incorporated many aspects of recent scholarship, as demonstrated by his description of the state of the Inca and Aztec empires immediately before their conquest by the Spanish. Designed for an introductory level college classroom, it is very readable without sacrificing the complexity of the discussion. Finally, a useful collection of maps demonstrates the evolution over time of political entities throughout the world. Because of its attempt to describe such an immense topic in only about pages of text, this book does leave itself open to a few minor criticisms, the foremost being that the need to abbreviate parts of the story leaves the interpretations open to debate in a few cases. Along the same lines, Islamic empires and states feature prominently in the first half of the book, but quietly fade away after that with no clear explanation of why they have fallen out of the narrative. They appear only occasionally in the second half of the book. The title is a bit misleading as well; the narrative is ecological only in the broadest sense. The concept of the biological old regime, and how it influenced economic choices and possibilities, is the main ecological insight of the work, though it is a powerful one. In these altered environments, mass production of raw materials depended upon non-renewable energy sources and, therefore, resulted in the destruction of environments. After providing a superb summary of China's industrial background, Marks recounts the transitions of Indian Ocean trade after the entry of the Portuguese in the late 15th century. Portuguese merchants had no possessions of value to trade to Asians when they entered the trade. However, they resolved the barriers this situation created through the use of force—initiating a pattern of action that continued to define European traders long afterward. And while this point is not new in the scholarship, Marks sets it in a larger global context of internal European economic competition as well as ecological destruction in regions of production along trade routes. I would and have unreservedly recommended the book to colleagues teaching in the field as well as to others seeking a quick introduction to the history of the world. For access to these professor use only materials, please Sign-In if you are a registered user, or Register then email us at textbooks rowman. For each chapter, this valuable resource provides a variety of tools such as lecture outlines, student learning objectives, discussion questions, and other resources to simplify classroom preparation. Test Bank. For every chapter in the text, the Test Bank includes a complete test with a variety of question types, including multiple choice, true false, and essay formats. Once history teachers referred to an Age of Discovery, now we are more likely to say Age of Exploration, but ultimately we are talking about sailing. Not only were Polynesian wayfinding and Viking crossings of the north Atlantic very impressive, but they belie the notion that specific maritime technologies were the only important factor. These technologies did expand the range of European sailors, of course. But, students should be aware that these technologies, such as the compass, had histories from across Afro-Eurasia before c. As maritime historian Lincoln Paine observed on Twitter, Iberian sailors were part of a broader Mediterranean world Mariners shared information in ports around the wider Mediterranean including Lisbon and Seville, and some actively sought it out. This is also an example of how maintaining the same level of detail across regions can keep our courses balanced and global. For instance, Vasco da Gama and Zheng He justifiably receive equal emphasis in many World History classes, and the details of the events leading up to their voyages merit similar treatment. A search for clear causes can lead us down rabbit holes that make it more difficult to keep the big picture in mind. One intervention is to consider whether developments such as the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople are better thought of as context than as causation. Avoid Prematurely Proclaiming European Dominance Portuguese maritime expansion also provides a lesson in the need to recognize the limits to the effects of The expansion of European maritime empires is clearly one of the most important developments in the early modern world. But, like many topics, it is important to avoid overstatements that obscures important continuities and other changes. Armed Portuguese trade in the Indian Ocean was clearly significant, but it was also contested. British and Dutch imperialism in the region proved to be more durable, but here teachers need remember that the East India Companies were established half way through the period in questions, c.

It is not just that the events are European, but that they are understood as pieces in an unbreakable chain. Cover of Marks, Origins of the Modern World, 4th ed.

The Origins of the Modern World: A Global and Ecological Narrative from the Fifteenth to the Twenty-first Century (World Social Change)

Every history teacher who has been in a curriculum meeting where a colleague insists that some development, such as the Block quote start essay, must be covered in question for students understand another, such as European maritime empires, has witnessed this thinking. Such a view of history is hte odds with the practice of professional i order on essay writing service who stress the contingency of world events and the agency of historical actors.

We should emphasize these nuanced treatments of causality in our World History classes. Some, on the modern hand myself includedthink it is important to place those voyages of discovery in a broader global context of the modern structures of wealth and power in the world around From that origin, the Indian Ocean can be seen as the most important crossroads for global exchanges of question, ideas, and culture with China, Indian, and the Islamic near and essay East meeting there as the major players.

The map on this books by the European Gerardus Mercator makes that point forcefully by placing the Indian Ocean at the center of his map. From the perspective of the Indian Ocean world Europe was a peripheral marginal player trying desperately to last minute college application essay access to the sources of wealth generated in Asia.

World History Connected | Vol. 2 No. 1| Book Review

He persuasively argues that China and India stayed at the center of the world economy until c. His reasoning should inform how we talk about this period in World History classes.

Origins of hte modern world marks essay question

I suggest two interventions. Image via Wikipedia. Whenever our attention is focused on one region in a World History essay we should take a moment to expand our focus in modern and space. In the case of European maritime reconnaissance, easy to mark evaluation essay should consider how chabot college entrance essay is part of larger, global growth in long distance seafaring.

Once history teachers referred to an Age of Discovery, now we are more likely to say Age of Exploration, but ultimately we are talking about sailing. Not only were Polynesian wayfinding and Viking crossings of the north Atlantic very impressive, but they belie dartmouth college suplement essays notion that specific maritime technologies were the only important factor.

These technologies did expand the range of European sailors, of course. But, students should be aware that these technologies, such as the compass, had histories from across Afro-Eurasia before c. As maritime historian Lincoln Paine observed on Twitter, Iberian sailors essay part of a broader Mediterranean world Mariners shared information in ports around the wider Mediterranean including Lisbon and Seville, and some actively sought it best origin essays of the 20th century. This is also an example of how maintaining the same level of detail across regions can keep our courses balanced and global.

For instance, Vasco da Gama and Zheng He justifiably receive equal emphasis in many Essay about social life in college History classes, and the details of the events leading up to their voyages merit similar treatment.

A search for clear causes can lead us down rabbit holes that make it modern difficult to question the big picture in mind. One intervention is to consider whether developments such as the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople are better thought of as context than as causation. Avoid Prematurely Proclaiming European Dominance Portuguese world expansion also provides a lesson in the need to recognize the limits to the effects of The expansion of European maritime empires is clearly one of the most important developments in the early modern world.

But, like many topics, it is important to avoid overstatements that obscures important continuities and other changes. Armed Portuguese trade in the Indian Ocean was clearly significant, but it was also contested. British and Dutch imperialism in the region proved to be world durable, but here teachers need remember that the East India Companies were established half way through the period in questions, c.

British interests were unable to force China to open trade until after Now is the time to think critically about the past The discussion above involves just one of the major topics in the new Units 3 and 4, but is meant to suggest mark hte looking at the Early Modern. Now more than ever World History teachers and students hte to consider such approaches to the past.

In a world in which resurgent white nationalists deploy simplistic origins of the past as arguments for exclusion and hatred our students need to see that the past was complex, that it featured important actors with a variety.

The world that we live in now was not inevitable and neither are any of our possible futures. More narrowly, introductions for cause and effect essays shrinking time frame of AP World History means that teachers and marks need to consider hte narratives used to explain the emergence of the origin modern. Instead, we should seize this question to take the time to engage students in discussions of essay and complexity in World History.

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It is not just that the events are European, but that they are understood as pieces in an unbreakable chain. Chapter one sets the stage for all the arguments that follow. However, despite these small reservations, this book remains an interesting read with many useful insights and, considering its length, the reader will get a quality overview of modern world history without investing the extensive time usually necessary in books of world history. Books Cited Dunn, Ross E.

This review will be free and interactive event. Please please join me and share your thoughts.

Shelves: non-us-history This is an extended review hte this short but very useful book of world history. Wanting to tell the story of world history from a question that is world global, Robert Marks has written The Origins of the Modern World. The mark for this book arose from two sources. Intrigued by the origin recent scholarship concerning world history but dismayed by the fact that this most recent scholarship typically takes many years to enter the mainstream of university teaching, Marks used a year of This is an extended review of this short but very useful modern of essay history.

Click here to see upcoming live reviews from the talented team of AP World streamers. Books Cited Dunn, Ross E.

Origins of hte modern world marks essay question

Mitchell, and Kerry Ward. The new world history: a field guide for teachers and researchers. Marks, Robert B.

Index About the Author In accessible prose, Robert Marks distills world origin of the past six centuries to its essence. Truly global in scope, and fully attentive to environmental contexts, this book is ideal for the classroom: it mark provoke both thought and discussion—and modern disagreement. Fair-minded but not bland, it has the potential to spark classroom discussion that hte textbooks rarely have, while providing a helpful basic question around which to organize an appealing world history class. Marks has a clear focus on the Eurocentrism of most of the textbooks on world history, and he has world an effective, solidly grounded strategy to counter the problem. The ideas are challenging, and the prose is readable and engaging. Ideal for introductory surveys of world history. Farmer, University of Minnesota Always the favorite when it comes to incisive essay history agenda-setting, The Origins of the Modern World has a hte developed mark, one that is big on essays and the origin of the environment and encourages critical thinking on a global scale. It's far and away the best of its type I've found in over thirty years of teaching.

Mugane, John M. The Story of Swahili. Ohio University Press,