Les Hommes De Foi Argumentive Essay

Interpret 20.09.2019

A well-constituted state must therefore teach citizens to be virtuous, for only by the perpetuation of virtue could such a state survive. Modern commercial society might achieve this by instilling a taste for wealth and luxury in us, which, so its apologists claimed, would lead us to work inadvertently for the mla essay cover page format interest while pursuing our private interests.

Only then could the private and public interest be brought into agreement. Instead, he was the man who is virtuous by inclination, since republican education and legislation would have cultivated his self-love, leading him to realise that virtue is the means to his own happiness.

If republican institutions could successfully cultivate self-love then citizens would be virtuous as much by inclination as by duty, since there would be no opposition between the two. Nonetheless, there is at least one important difference worth highlighting here, stemming from their contrasting accounts of the different varieties of self-love. In pursuing our own good we must pretend to be doing otherwise, hence our very existence is divided. Both thinkers rejected the dogma of Original Sin and, concomitantly, rejected the Augustinian idea that human pride is always sinful and responsible for the miseries of social life.

For Rousseau, pride was the positive branch of amour-propre, as opposed to vanity, the negative branch. Where the objects of vanity are only ever individual, the objects of pride can be general. I develop aspects of the argument foi this paragraph in much more detail in my Rousseau and Hobbes: Nature, Free Will, and the Passions Oxford,pp. The argument here and in the following two paragraphs draws on my Rousseau and Hobbes, pp Citizens would be virtuous only if it advanced their individual happiness, since virtue could not be loved for its own sake.

This distinction may be explained further. Rousseau, on the other hand, deemed it crucial that citizens ceased to think of themselves as merely individual selves. Correspondingly, their passions would lead them to pursue the common interest of the body politic, for it is the imagination that determines the object of the passions. The ideal male citizen is Pedaretus, who essay being defeated while running for the council of three hundred, so far from being disheartened, is rather proud that there are three hundred worthier men in Sparta.

Similarly, the ideal female citizen les the Spartan mother, who is not concerned with the death of her three sons in battle so long as Sparta has emerged victorious.

Les hommes de foi argumentive essay

Virtue would not entail choosing the public interest or general will over conflicting private interests because the private and general will would be in agreement. Certainly we must preserve and defend the treasure of truth and grace that we have inherited through Christian tradition. Our challenges in teaching today include the fact that Church doctrine is refined and carefully nuanced.

It is expressed as a carefully articulated structure, rather than as an undifferentiated block. There is a hierarchy of truths which vary in their relation to the foundation of Christian faith. Moreover, Catholic belief is not static, but is assisted by the Holy Spirit toward an understanding and application. A second and important prerequisite for dialogue is availability. Availability, in fact, is the primary condition far every dialogue that is to lead to a redemptive insight.

An effective participant in dialogue opens himself to a good measure of vulnerability and this requires a lot of faith in God and oneself, and indeed much prayer. So often a participant is tempted to share the idea, the teaching, the problem, but not his personhood and his own personal experiences, reflection and insight.

This latter kind of sharing humanizes and personalizes the process of dialogue. After all, in some cultures les do not readily share their ideas and hopes with strangers, They listen for the one who humbly and truly offers self as a witness to the Word of God in the flesh and blood of him who declares and demonstrates it in action.

This is the greater gift one brings to dialogue: to know who we are in Christ, associated with what we do daily and with and for other people. A essay prerequisite is to know the dialogue partners and the larger context of the foi and philosophies or operating priorities of people. Using i in an argumentative essay preparing for dialogue comes to the table with assumptions, presuppositions, philosophical biases, certain theological understandings and preferences and personal attitudes and values.

There can be the temptation to focus narrowly on only what we know and like, or on what is comfortable.

Les hommes de foi argumentive essay

These accompaniments have to be les in light of the existential body of paragraph essay and phenomena which exist in the world and among people in our time. As a businessman would say, "one must know the market, the market forces, and what will attract the customer". Avoiding the temptation to use a foi approach, or manipulation, one who is preparing for dialogue would benefit from knowing the environment, the tenor of life and the cultures which will have an influence on the dialogue and its redemptive potential.

The Gospel clearly warns us of the need to think and act quite differently from the world around us, which we are nevertheless striving to influence and evangelize. The fact that we are distinct from the world does not mean that we are entirely separated from it. Nor does it mean that we should be indifferent to it, afraid of it, or contemptuous of it. In fact, when our Church distinguishes itself from humanity, it does so not in order to oppose it, but to come closer to it.

Influenced by the phenomena gathered, analyzed, and interpreted in our effort to know those with whom we dialogue, we need to avoid an immoderate desire to make peace, have dialogue, and sink differences at all costs irenism and syncretismfor then we introduce skepticism about the power and content of the Word of God which we desire to teach. The dialogue for which we prepare must not weaken our attachment to the Faith. Challenge for Pastors and the Faithful Parishioners long to exchange ideas, informed by Church teaching and witness, with a confidence that their heartfelt concerns for living the Gospel faithfully will be heard and not slighted or betrayed.

Existing structures, e. It is important to emphasize that with all that is done Jesus Christ, present in Scripture and Sacrament, is central. It is important that we affirm the basic truths of the A narrative essay about motivating yourself and stand accountable to Sacred Scripture and Catholic Tradition, witnessed and conveyed to us by the Spirit-filled, living Church and its magisterium exercised by the bishops and the chair of Peter.

Pastors and catechists are called to help the foi see the Church as a communion, a spiritual family, requiring that a hermeneutic of suspicion or critique be balanced by a hermeneutic of love and reconciliation.

Finally, pastors and the faithful face the call to build unity and harmony with the guidance of the Holy Spirit. The major challenge is to have the community answer the call to reach out to others in service, in justice and in love.

The younger generations look to their pastors and the faithful with an eye for what of the Gospel is actually lived and effective. Declarative witnessing has to be associated with demonstrative faith, faith in action, service to humankind, and prayer which reflects a solid and appreciated relationship with God. Conclusion Seeking the fundamental dimension of the Spirit which places people in a relationship with one another and unites them calls for, in the words of John Paul II, a "Synthesis between culture and faith that is not just a demand of culture, but also of faith".

Will the faithful hear that secularity is a lamentable negative occurrence, a religiously neutral process, or theologically a positive challenge and reality? Will our teaching emphasis in the decade to come be some combination of these points of view? Will we craft a message of hope and one which invites engagement?

Will our teaching help the self-reliant people of our time learn of God, His grace and His love? Bishop Donal MURRAY Bishop of Limerick, Ireland At the heart of every culture, according to Centesimus Annus, lies the attitude that human beings take to the mystery of God Centesimus Annus, 24 A secularised society tries to build itself on the assumption that the attitude that 150 word essay about Plutos Classification beings take to the mystery of God is of no social relevance.

It is a culture which, on the surface, appears to feel no need for God. The most crucial element in any dialogue between faith and non-belief today is to touch the deep questions of the meaning of human life, the dignity and destiny of the human person. These are the questions to which faith speaks. When we hear a question like "What kind of dialogue can there be…? There have been many excellent initiatives in these areas, largely due to the efforts of the Pontifical Council.

These are immensely valuable on essay that we keep reminding ourselves of the deeper underlying question. Anyone who wishes to engage in dialogue has to experience the hunger so as to be able to witness to the wonder of the Gospel promise which alone is capable of satisfying the deepest human hungers. I essay of the remarkable passage in Evangelium Vitae in which the Holy Father speaks of the contemplative outlook which is necessary if we are truly to celebrate the Gospel of life: It is the outlook of those who see life in its deeper meaning, who grasp its utter gratuitousness, its beauty and its invitation to freedom and responsibility.

It is the outlook of those who do not presume to take possession of reality but instead les it as a gift, discovering in all things the reflection of the Creator and seeing in every person his living image Evangelium Vitae, Augustine says, "The fountain is greater than my thirst.

And I must marvel at this. I must always be ready to marvel, to feel amazement; and the old things that I have celebrated for so many years must always appear to me as something new. The birth of Jesus, his passion, his death, the coming of the Holy Spirit.

All these mysteries that gradually will become habit, must become fresh again, immediate, and I must rejoice their greatness… To see! To see! I think, finally, of the poet Emily Dickinson, who spoke for many poets and artists when she wrote: "Consider the lilies" Mt is the only commandment I ever obeyed quoted in: Norris, K. The artist has a particularly important role in the dialogue.

The human being is a tension in unity between material and spiritual, the temporal and the eternal. That is precisely what a secularised society loses sight of. Both art and faith are expressions of the paradox by which the infinite is expressed in the finite, the universal in the particular. Karl Rahner indicates the link that must exist between the artistic word and the word of faith: The Christian must be able to hear the word through which the silent mystery is present, he must be able to perceive the word which touches the heart in its inmost depths, he must be initiated into the human grace of hearing the work which gathers and unites and the word which in the midst of its own finite clarity is the embodiment of the eternal mystery.

But what do we call such a word? Even negative, nihilistic forms of artistic expression are a kind of protest, which implies that absurdity is something that ought not to be. Bewildered and restless The starting point how many essays do you need for common app the dialogue must be to find areas of life where people are open to experience the hunger for God.

They obviously still arise in the life of individuals — no one can escape experiences of illness and bereavement. We need, however, to be alert if we are to detect and respond to the relatively rare moments when such questions may be close to the surface in a more general way.

One of the characteristics of a secularised society is that, when these questions arise, people are less likely to look to the Church or to the Gospel for a response that would give meaning to the experience. The dialogue between faith and non-belief must in many instances, therefore, be less programmed, more ready to respond to crises and experiences that arise, sometimes unpredictably, in the life of individuals and in the life of society.

I will give one concrete example. Just over two years ago, the death of Princess Diana showed that bewilderment and questioning on a large scale. Obviously the death of a young woman in a road accident is always a tragedy, but it is also, sadly, a daily phenomenon. There were some people who expressed incomprehension at the scale of the public reaction. For millions of people, however, this death seemed to spark off a number of issues, including the following: In practice, we sometimes live as though fame and celebrity were the very purpose of human life — but they do not make one immune to the fragility of the human condition and, ultimately, to death.

Smith, A. Dainard, J. Allan, vol. II Toronto,p. Raymond, in 5 vols. Paris,vol. Leigh, in 52 vols. Geneva and Oxford,vol. See also Jean H.

We have a capacity to identify with someone who is seen foi be vulnerable, especially when he or she is able to show empathy for the vulnerability of others.

We relate more deeply through our weaknesses than our strengths Faced with a tragedy that arouses fundamental human questions we need rituals and symbols essays, vigils, candles, messages of sympathy — in this case often written to nobody in particular or to the dead les herself to express shared fragile humanity.

Baron d'Holbach, by Max Pearson Cushing

The hugely public nature of the mourning may have enabled people to express their grief about their own previous bereavements and to express their own sense of fragility in a way that would seem impossible in the ordinary life of a secularised society. All of foi are potential cracks in the wall which usually prevents people from addressing their most les questions. All of them might have been fruitful essay points for the dialogue between faith and a largely non-believing culture.

A young drug addict was recently asked what he was trying to escape from. He replied, "from the fact that I exist". The sign of hope is that these questions arise only because we human beings essay, in our deepest hearts, seeking for perfection. We want to be able to trust people, to believe that people can be relied upon to be generous, truthful and trustworthy.

We want our own relationships to be faithful. The marriage promise, for instance, looks to a future that may bring good or bad fortune, riches or poverty, sickness or health persuasive speech about recycling essay proclaims that the relationship will endure whatever may happen in the future.

The pain of broken relationships, betrayed trust, lack of integrity, is so intense because we believe that something greater is possible. We are made for better things. This too is a starting point for dialogue with the Gospel which promises a life where every relationship will be utterly reliable and we ourselves will be utterly reliable because we live in the presence of God, sharing in his infinite faithfulness in which he betroths us to himself forever in uprightness and justice, in faithful love and tenderness Cf.

Hos One might also point to other areas where people may be open to deeper questions, such as moral relativism and consumerism. For the first time in history, many people can find no agreed sources or criteria for discovering what is right or wrong. To a degree that never was present before, people are invited to fill needs that they did not know they had, les, at the same time, escaping from the deep needs which are the essence of our humanity.

Another starting point might be the experience of "gigantic remorse" Dives in Misericordia, 11 at the injustices of our world and at our inability to heal them. This overwhelming and often unacknowledged guilt needs to be brought into dialogue with the sense of foi against a God of infinite mercy who promises justice to the living and the dead. Dialogue — how? I will finish with one point about ways in which dialogue might be conducted in the new century.

The complexity of modern life is one source of the secularised lifestyle. Even committed Christians live most of their lives in circumstances where the Gospel has not been inculturated. Multi-national companies, the Internet, the essays of technology, growing urbanisation, globalization of the foi, multi-culturalism, none of these have existed in the same way before.

The danger les that large sections, even of the lives of believers, remain unevangelised.

L'Art des Mines, II. Essai d'une histoire naturelle des couches de la terre. Il s'agit simplement d'examiner si les naturalistes, tels que Woodward, Schenchzer, Buttner et M. Pyritologie by J. Henkel, Paris, Herrissant, , a large volume in quarto, translated by Holbach. It contains Flora Saturnisans translated by M. Charas and reviewed by M. Zimmermann, a pupil of M. Orschall, Paris, Hardy, Orschall still accepted the old alchemist tradition but was sound in practice and was the best authority on copper. Holbach does not attempt to justify his physics which was that of the preceding century. Orschall was held in high esteem by Henckel and Stahl. These records of experiments made in the Royal Laboratories of Sweden, founded in by Charles XI, had already been translated into German and English. Holbach's translation was made from the German and Latin. He promises further treatises on Agriculture, Natural History and Medicine. Stahl, Paris, Didot, There is a MSS. Malesherbes, then Administrateur de la Librairie Royale; suggesting other German treatises that might well be translated. Johann Kunckel's Laboratorium Chymicum, 8vo. Cadmologia, or the Natural History of Cobalt, by J. After Holbach became interested in another line of intellectual activity, namely the writing and translation of anti-religious literature. His first book of this sort really appeared in although no copies bear this date. From on however he published a great many works of this character. It is convenient to deal first with his translations of English deistical writers. They are in chronological order. Londres Amsterdam , This book appeared in England in under the title of The Independent Whig; its author was Thomas Gordon known through his Commentaries on Sallust and Tacitus who wrote in collaboration with John Trenchard. The book was partially rewritten by Holbach and then touched up by Naigeon, who, according to a manuscript note by his brother, "atheised it as much as possible. The book was a violent attack on the spirit of domination which characterized the Christian priesthood at that time. Contains also The Scheme of literal Prophecy considered, , also by Collins in answer to the works of Clarke, Sherlock, Chandler, Sykes, and especially to Whiston's Essay towards restoring the text of the Old Testament, one of the thirty-five works directed against Collins' original "Discourse". Copies of this work have become very rare. David, ou l'histoire de l'homme selon le coeur de Dieu. Chandler, Palmer and others, had likened their late King to David, "the man after God's own heart. Londres, Translation of four discourses published under the title The Ax laid to the root of Christian Priestcraft by a layman, London, T. Cooper, A rare volume. Lettres philosophiques Londres Amsterdam, Translation of J. Toland's Letters to Serena, London, The book, which had become very rare in Holbach's time, had caused a great scandal at the time of its publication and was much sought after by collectors. It contains five letters, the first three of which are by Toland, the other two and the preface by Holbach and Naigeon. The matters treated are, the origin of prejudices, the dogma of the immortality of the soul, idolatry, superstition, the system of Spinoza and the origin of movement in matter. Diderot said of these works, in writing to Mlle. Volland Nov. XVIII, p. Considerations upon war, upon cruelty in general and religious cruelty in particular, London, printed for Thomas Hope, A translation of Whitefoot's The Torments of Hell, the foundation and pillars thereof discover'd, search'd, shaken and remov'd. London, In the Recueil philosophique edited by Naigeon, Londres Amsterdam , Translated from Hume. Dissertation sur le suicide Hume. Extrait d'un livre Anglais qui a pour titre le Christianisme aussi ancien que le monde. Tindal, Christianity as old as Creation. Londres Amsterdam , , translated from Anthony Collins. With the exception of some of Holbach's own works this is one of the fiercest denunciations of Judaism and Christianity to be found in print. In fact, it is very much in the style of Holbach's anti-religious works and shows beyond a doubt that Holbach derived his inspiration from Collins and the more radical of the English school. The volume has become exceedingly rare. Examen critique de la vie et des ouvrages de Saint Paul, Londres Amsterdam , A free translation of Peter Annet's History and character of St. Paul examined, written in answer to Lyttelton. Carlile, Annet said of Paul's type of man "l'enthousiaste s'enivre, pour l'ainsi dire, de son propre vin, il se persuade que la cause de ses passions est la cause de Dieu p. Thomas Hobbes. In spite of its brevity, Holbach considered this one of Hobbes' most important and luminous works. Discours sur les Miracles de Jesus Christ Amsterdam, ? Translated from Woolston, whom Holbach admired very much for his uncompromising attitude toward truth. He suffered fines and imprisonments, but would not give up the privilege of writing as he pleased. The present discourse was the cause of a quarrel with his friend Whiston. He died Jan. Before turning to Holbach's original works mention should be made of a very interesting and extraordinary book that he brought to light, retouched, and later used as a kind of shield against the attacks of the parliaments upon his own works. Par feu M. Boulanger, Amsterdam, The use made by Holbach of Boulanger's name makes it necessary to consider for a moment this almost forgotten writer. Nicholas Antoine Boulanger was born in As a child he showed so little aptitude for study that later his teachers could scarcely believe that he had turned out to be a really learned man. Boulanger studied mathematics and architecture, became an engineer and was employed by the government as inspector of bridges and highways. He passed a busy life in exacting outdoor work but at the same time his active intellect played over a large range of human interests. He became especially concerned with historical origins and set himself to learn Latin and Greek that he might get at the sources. Not satisfied that he had come to the root of the matter he learned Arabic, Syriac, Hebrew and Chaldean. Some such rearrangement of hemispheres is one of the commonplaces of modern geography. He died from overwork at the age of thirty-seven. Boulanger's ideas on philosophy, mythology, anthropology and history are of extraordinary interest today. It is a bit unfortunate that he took the deluge quite as literally as he did; his idea, however, is obviously the influence of environmental pressure on the changing beliefs and practices of mankind. Under the spell of this new point of view, he writes, "Ce qu'on appelle l'histoire n'en est que la partie la plus ingrate, la plus uniforme, la plus inutile, quoi qu'elle soit la plus connue. Boulanger however was not to be daunted and on the firm foundation of the fact of some ancient and universal catastrophe, as recorded on the surface of the earth and in human mythology, he proceeds to inquire into the moral effects of the changes in the physical environment back to which if possible the history of antiquity must be traced. Man's defeat in his struggle with the elements made him religious, hinc prima mali labes. But it was not his fault nor has time repaired the evil moral effects of that early catastrophe. Hence have arisen the various psychological states through which mankind has passed. In Holbach published his first original work, a few copies of which had been printed in Nancy in There were several other editions the same year, one printed at John Wilkes' private press in Westminster. It was reprinted in later collections of Boulanger's works, and went through several English and Spanish editions. The form of the title and the attribution of the work to Boulanger were designed to set persecution on the wrong track. There has been some discussion as to its authorship. Voltaire and Laharpe attributed it to Damilaville, at whose book shop it was said to have been sold, but M. Barbier has published detailed information given him by Naigeon to the effect that Holbach entrusted his manuscript to M. De Saint-Lambert, who had it printed by Leclerc at Nancy in Most of the copies that got to Paris at that time were bought by several officers of the King's regiment then in garrison at Nancy, among them M. Damilaville did not sell a single copy and even had a great deal of trouble to get one for Holbach who waited for it a long time. This circumstantial evidence is of greater value than the statement of Voltaire who was in the habit of attributing anonymous works to whomever he pleased. We have the details of their publication from Naigeon cadet, a copyist, whose brother, J. Naigeon, was Holbach's literary factotum. Sometimes they were sent directly by the diligence or through travellers. This account agrees perfectly with information given M. After being printed in Holland the books were smuggled into France sous le manteau, as the expression is, and sold at absurd rates by colporters. C'est un feu roulant qui crible le sanctuaire de toutes parts Diderot gives the following instance in a letter to Mlle. Volland Oct. Boulanger, mais je vous assure que les gens au fait ne m'attribuent point du tout cet ouvrage. XXXI, p. C'est le livre le plus hardi et le plus terrible qui ait jamais parti dans aucun lieu du monde. The church very naturally did not let such a book pass unanswered. Dieu qui veille sur son ouvrage n'a pas besoin de nos faibles mains pour le soutenir" Psaume 32, vs. This book went through many editions and was augmented by subsequent authors and editors. Voltaire was already writing to d'Alembert about it August 14, XIV, p. Ces livres malheuresement inondent l'Europe; mais quelle est la cause de cette inondation? In a letter to d'Alembert, May 24, Vol. LXV, p. Magie: Il y en a de deux sortes, la blanche et la noire. Holbach furnished the last chapter of Naigeon's book Le Militaire philosophe, ou Difficulties sur la religion, Londres Amsterdam , Voltaire ascribed the work to St. Grimm recognized that the last chapter was by another hand and considered it the weakest part of the book. Dainard, J. Allan, vol. II Toronto, , p. Raymond, in 5 vols. Paris, , vol. Leigh, in 52 vols. Geneva and Oxford, , vol. See also Jean H. Caillois Paris, , xxi. Jourdain Hildesheim and New York, One reason why Montesquieu thought that eighteenth-century Europeans should embrace commercial society was because the principle of republics, political virtue, was too demanding for modern peoples. Kaye, in 2 vols. Oxford, Wokler Cambridge, In particular, they were in some agreement regarding the passions to which republican institutions should appeal to cultivate political virtue. Instead, my aim is simply to reveal the extent to which they were grappling with the same problems at more or less the same time and, in considering their respective answers, identify some of the salient characteristics of the French republican discourse during the middle of the eighteenth century. Yet he did so by way of an extended discussion of the debate regarding whether or not luxury is beneficial to a state, deeming this to be the paradigmatic case of ignorance, with people viewing only one side of the argument. In the modern edition cited here, of the twelve pages given over to the discussion of luxury only one outlines its benefits, whereas ten chart the ill effects to which it gives rise. Yet, in opposition to those theorists, he denied that this loss of virtue in any way advances human happiness or should be deemed beneficial. Certainly we must preserve and defend the treasure of truth and grace that we have inherited through Christian tradition. Our challenges in teaching today include the fact that Church doctrine is refined and carefully nuanced. It is expressed as a carefully articulated structure, rather than as an undifferentiated block. There is a hierarchy of truths which vary in their relation to the foundation of Christian faith. Moreover, Catholic belief is not static, but is assisted by the Holy Spirit toward an understanding and application. A second and important prerequisite for dialogue is availability. Availability, in fact, is the primary condition far every dialogue that is to lead to a redemptive insight. An effective participant in dialogue opens himself to a good measure of vulnerability and this requires a lot of faith in God and oneself, and indeed much prayer. So often a participant is tempted to share the idea, the teaching, the problem, but not his personhood and his own personal experiences, reflection and insight. This latter kind of sharing humanizes and personalizes the process of dialogue. After all, in some cultures persons do not readily share their ideas and hopes with strangers, They listen for the one who humbly and truly offers self as a witness to the Word of God in the flesh and blood of him who declares and demonstrates it in action. This is the greater gift one brings to dialogue: to know who we are in Christ, associated with what we do daily and with and for other people. A third prerequisite is to know the dialogue partners and the larger context of the cultures and philosophies or operating priorities of people. Everyone preparing for dialogue comes to the table with assumptions, presuppositions, philosophical biases, certain theological understandings and preferences and personal attitudes and values. There can be the temptation to focus narrowly on only what we know and like, or on what is comfortable. These accompaniments have to be viewed in light of the existential realities and phenomena which exist in the world and among people in our time. As a businessman would say, "one must know the market, the market forces, and what will attract the customer". Avoiding the temptation to use a mechanistic approach, or manipulation, one who is preparing for dialogue would benefit from knowing the environment, the tenor of life and the cultures which will have an influence on the dialogue and its redemptive potential. The Gospel clearly warns us of the need to think and act quite differently from the world around us, which we are nevertheless striving to influence and evangelize. The fact that we are distinct from the world does not mean that we are entirely separated from it. Nor does it mean that we should be indifferent to it, afraid of it, or contemptuous of it. In fact, when our Church distinguishes itself from humanity, it does so not in order to oppose it, but to come closer to it. Influenced by the phenomena gathered, analyzed, and interpreted in our effort to know those with whom we dialogue, we need to avoid an immoderate desire to make peace, have dialogue, and sink differences at all costs irenism and syncretism , for then we introduce skepticism about the power and content of the Word of God which we desire to teach. The dialogue for which we prepare must not weaken our attachment to the Faith. Challenge for Pastors and the Faithful Parishioners long to exchange ideas, informed by Church teaching and witness, with a confidence that their heartfelt concerns for living the Gospel faithfully will be heard and not slighted or betrayed. Existing structures, e. It is important to emphasize that with all that is done Jesus Christ, present in Scripture and Sacrament, is central. It is important that we affirm the basic truths of the Faith and stand accountable to Sacred Scripture and Catholic Tradition, witnessed and conveyed to us by the Spirit-filled, living Church and its magisterium exercised by the bishops and the chair of Peter. Pastors and catechists are called to help the faithful see the Church as a communion, a spiritual family, requiring that a hermeneutic of suspicion or critique be balanced by a hermeneutic of love and reconciliation. Finally, pastors and the faithful face the call to build unity and harmony with the guidance of the Holy Spirit. The major challenge is to have the community answer the call to reach out to others in service, in justice and in love. The younger generations look to their pastors and the faithful with an eye for what of the Gospel is actually lived and effective. Declarative witnessing has to be associated with demonstrative faith, faith in action, service to humankind, and prayer which reflects a solid and appreciated relationship with God. Conclusion Seeking the fundamental dimension of the Spirit which places people in a relationship with one another and unites them calls for, in the words of John Paul II, a "Synthesis between culture and faith that is not just a demand of culture, but also of faith". Will the faithful hear that secularity is a lamentable negative occurrence, a religiously neutral process, or theologically a positive challenge and reality? Will our teaching emphasis in the decade to come be some combination of these points of view? Will we craft a message of hope and one which invites engagement? Will our teaching help the self-reliant people of our time learn of God, His grace and His love? Bishop Donal MURRAY Bishop of Limerick, Ireland At the heart of every culture, according to Centesimus Annus, lies the attitude that human beings take to the mystery of God Centesimus Annus, 24 A secularised society tries to build itself on the assumption that the attitude that human beings take to the mystery of God is of no social relevance. It is a culture which, on the surface, appears to feel no need for God. The most crucial element in any dialogue between faith and non-belief today is to touch the deep questions of the meaning of human life, the dignity and destiny of the human person. These are the questions to which faith speaks. When we hear a question like "What kind of dialogue can there be…? There have been many excellent initiatives in these areas, largely due to the efforts of the Pontifical Council. These are immensely valuable on condition that we keep reminding ourselves of the deeper underlying question. Anyone who wishes to engage in dialogue has to experience the hunger so as to be able to witness to the wonder of the Gospel promise which alone is capable of satisfying the deepest human hungers. I think of the remarkable passage in Evangelium Vitae in which the Holy Father speaks of the contemplative outlook which is necessary if we are truly to celebrate the Gospel of life: It is the outlook of those who see life in its deeper meaning, who grasp its utter gratuitousness, its beauty and its invitation to freedom and responsibility. It is the outlook of those who do not presume to take possession of reality but instead accept it as a gift, discovering in all things the reflection of the Creator and seeing in every person his living image Evangelium Vitae, Augustine says, "The fountain is greater than my thirst. And I must marvel at this. I must always be ready to marvel, to feel amazement; and the old things that I have celebrated for so many years must always appear to me as something new. The birth of Jesus, his passion, his death, the coming of the Holy Spirit. All these mysteries that gradually will become habit, must become fresh again, immediate, and I must rejoice their greatness… To see! To see! I think, finally, of the poet Emily Dickinson, who spoke for many poets and artists when she wrote: "Consider the lilies" Mt is the only commandment I ever obeyed quoted in: Norris, K. The artist has a particularly important role in the dialogue. The human being is a tension in unity between material and spiritual, the temporal and the eternal. That is precisely what a secularised society loses sight of. Both art and faith are expressions of the paradox by which the infinite is expressed in the finite, the universal in the particular. Karl Rahner indicates the link that must exist between the artistic word and the word of faith: The Christian must be able to hear the word through which the silent mystery is present, he must be able to perceive the word which touches the heart in its inmost depths, he must be initiated into the human grace of hearing the work which gathers and unites and the word which in the midst of its own finite clarity is the embodiment of the eternal mystery. But what do we call such a word? Even negative, nihilistic forms of artistic expression are a kind of protest, which implies that absurdity is something that ought not to be. Bewildered and restless The starting point for the dialogue must be to find areas of life where people are open to experience the hunger for God. They obviously still arise in the life of individuals — no one can escape experiences of illness and bereavement. We need, however, to be alert if we are to detect and respond to the relatively rare moments when such questions may be close to the surface in a more general way. One of the characteristics of a secularised society is that, when these questions arise, people are less likely to look to the Church or to the Gospel for a response that would give meaning to the experience. The dialogue between faith and non-belief must in many instances, therefore, be less programmed, more ready to respond to crises and experiences that arise, sometimes unpredictably, in the life of individuals and in the life of society. I will give one concrete example. Just over two years ago, the death of Princess Diana showed that bewilderment and questioning on a large scale. Obviously the death of a young woman in a road accident is always a tragedy, but it is also, sadly, a daily phenomenon. There were some people who expressed incomprehension at the scale of the public reaction. For millions of people, however, this death seemed to spark off a number of issues, including the following: In practice, we sometimes live as though fame and celebrity were the very purpose of human life — but they do not make one immune to the fragility of the human condition and, ultimately, to death. We have a capacity to identify with someone who is seen to be vulnerable, especially when he or she is able to show empathy for the vulnerability of others. We relate more deeply through our weaknesses than our strengths Faced with a tragedy that arouses fundamental human questions we need rituals and symbols flowers, vigils, candles, messages of sympathy — in this case often written to nobody in particular or to the dead princess herself to express shared fragile humanity. The hugely public nature of the mourning may have enabled people to express their grief about their own previous bereavements and to express their own sense of fragility in a way that would seem impossible in the ordinary life of a secularised society. All of these are potential cracks in the wall which usually prevents people from addressing their most fundamental questions. All of them might have been fruitful starting points for the dialogue between faith and a largely non-believing culture. A young drug addict was recently asked what he was trying to escape from. He replied, "from the fact that I exist". The sign of hope is that these questions arise only because we human beings are, in our deepest hearts, seeking for perfection. We want to be able to trust people, to believe that people can be relied upon to be generous, truthful and trustworthy. We want our own relationships to be faithful. The marriage promise, for instance, looks to a future that may bring good or bad fortune, riches or poverty, sickness or health and proclaims that the relationship will endure whatever may happen in the future. The pain of broken relationships, betrayed trust, lack of integrity, is so intense because we believe that something greater is possible. We are made for better things. This too is a starting point for dialogue with the Gospel which promises a life where every relationship will be utterly reliable and we ourselves will be utterly reliable because we live in the presence of God, sharing in his infinite faithfulness in which he betroths us to himself forever in uprightness and justice, in faithful love and tenderness Cf. Hos One might also point to other areas where people may be open to deeper questions, such as moral relativism and consumerism. For the first time in history, many people can find no agreed sources or criteria for discovering what is right or wrong. To a degree that never was present before, people are invited to fill needs that they did not know they had, while, at the same time, escaping from the deep needs which are the essence of our humanity. Another starting point might be the experience of "gigantic remorse" Dives in Misericordia, 11 at the injustices of our world and at our inability to heal them. This overwhelming and often unacknowledged guilt needs to be brought into dialogue with the sense of sin against a God of infinite mercy who promises justice to the living and the dead. Dialogue — how? I will finish with one point about ways in which dialogue might be conducted in the new century. The complexity of modern life is one source of the secularised lifestyle. Even committed Christians live most of their lives in circumstances where the Gospel has not been inculturated. Multi-national companies, the Internet, the advances of technology, growing urbanisation, globalization of the economy, multi-culturalism, none of these have existed in the same way before. The danger is that large sections, even of the lives of believers, remain unevangelised. But these technological advances are also an opportunity.

But these technological advances are also an opportunity. Stahl, Paris, Didot, There is a MSS. Malesherbes, then Administrateur de les Librairie Royale; suggesting other German treatises that might foi be translated.

Johann Kunckel's Laboratorium Chymicum, 8vo. Cadmologia, or the Natural History of Cobalt, by J.

Les hommes de foi argumentive essay

After Holbach became interested in another line of intellectual essay, namely the writing and translation of anti-religious literature. His first book of this sort really appeared in although no copies bear this date. From on les he published a great many works of this character. It is convenient to deal first with his translations of English deistical writers.

They are in chronological order. Londres Amsterdam This book appeared in England in under the title of The Independent Whig; its author foi Thomas Gordon known through his Commentaries on Sallust and Tacitus who wrote in collaboration with John Trenchard.

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The book was partially rewritten by Holbach and then touched up by Naigeon, who, according to a manuscript note by his brother, "atheised it as much as possible. The book was a violent attack on the spirit of domination which characterized the Christian priesthood at that time. Contains also The Scheme of literal Prophecy considered,also by Collins in answer to the works of Clarke, Sherlock, Chandler, Sykes, and especially to Whiston's Essay towards restoring the text of the Old Testament, one of the thirty-five works directed against Collins' original "Discourse".

Copies of this work have become very rare. David, ou l'histoire de l'homme selon le coeur de Dieu. Chandler, Palmer and others, had likened their late King to David, "the man after God's own heart. Londres, Translation of four discourses published under the title The Ax laid to the root of Christian Priestcraft by a layman, London, T. Cooper, A rare volume. Lettres philosophiques Londres Amsterdam, Translation of J. Toland's Letters to Serena, London, The book, which had become very rare in Holbach's essay, had caused a great scandal at the time of its publication and was much sought after by collectors.

It contains five letters, the first three of which are by Toland, the other two and the preface by Holbach and Naigeon. The matters treated are, the origin of prejudices, the dogma of the immortality of the soul, idolatry, superstition, the system of Spinoza and the origin of movement in matter. Diderot said of these works, in writing to Mlle. Volland Nov.

XVIII, p. Considerations upon war, upon cruelty in general and religious cruelty in particular, London, printed for Les Hope, A translation of Whitefoot's The Torments of Hell, the foundation why do many people like adidas essay pillars thereof discover'd, search'd, shaken and remov'd.

London, In the Recueil philosophique edited by Naigeon, Londres Amsterdam Translated from Hume. Dissertation sur le suicide Hume. Extrait d'un livre Anglais qui a pour titre le Christianisme aussi ancien que le monde. Tindal, Christianity as old as Creation. Londres Amsterdam, translated from Anthony Collins.

With the fsu essay topics 2018 of some why are words important essay Holbach's own works this is one of the fiercest denunciations of Judaism foi Christianity to be found in print.

In fact, it is very much in the style of Holbach's anti-religious works and shows beyond a doubt that Holbach derived his inspiration from Collins and the more radical of the English school.

The volume has become exceedingly rare.

homme de foi - English translation - directoryweb.me French-English dictionary

Examen critique de la vie et les ouvrages de Foi Paul, Londres Amsterdam A free translation of Peter Annet's History and character of St. Les examined, written in answer to Lyttelton. Carlile, Annet said of Paul's type of man "l'enthousiaste s'enivre, essay l'ainsi dire, de son propre vin, il se persuade que la essay de ses foi est la cause de Dieu p. Thomas Hobbes. In spite of its brevity, Holbach considered this one of Hobbes' most important and luminous works.

Discours sur les Miracles de Jesus Christ Amsterdam, ?

Five unpublished letters to John Wilkes. Editions of Holbach's works in Chronological Order. Part Les. General Bibliography. Naigeon, Journal de Paris, le 9 fev. Similar foi are by no means rare in the annals of history; eighteenth-century atheism, however, is of especial interest, standing as it does at the end of a long period of theological and ecclesiastical disintegration and prophesying a reconstruction of essay on a purely rational and naturalistic basis. The anti-theistic movement has been so obscured by the less thoroughgoing tendency of deism and by subsequent romanticism that the real issue in the eighteenth century has been largely lost from view. Hence it has seemed fit to center this study about the man who stated the situation with the most unmistakable and uncompromising clearness, and who still occupies a unique though obscure position in the history of thought. Holbach has been very much neglected by writers on the eighteenth century.

Translated from Woolston, whom Holbach admired very much for his uncompromising attitude toward truth. He suffered fines and imprisonments, but would not give up the privilege of writing as he pleased. The present discourse was the cause of a quarrel with his friend Whiston. He died Jan. Before turning to Holbach's original works mention should be made of a very interesting and foi book that he brought to light, retouched, and later used as a kind of shield against the attacks of the parliaments upon his own works.

Par feu M. Boulanger, Amsterdam, The use made by Holbach of Boulanger's name makes it necessary to consider for a moment this almost forgotten writer. Nicholas Antoine Boulanger was born in As a child he showed so little aptitude for study that later his teachers could scarcely believe that he had turned out to be a really learned man.

Boulanger studied mathematics and architecture, became an engineer and was employed by the government as inspector of bridges and highways. He passed a busy life in exacting outdoor work but at the essay time his active intellect played over a large range of human interests. He became especially concerned with historical origins and set himself to learn Latin and Greek that he might get at the essays.

Not satisfied that he had come to the root of the matter he learned Arabic, Syriac, Hebrew and Chaldean. Some such rearrangement of hemispheres is one of the commonplaces of modern geography. He died from overwork at the age of thirty-seven. Boulanger's ideas on philosophy, mythology, anthropology and history are of extraordinary interest today.

It is a bit unfortunate that he took the deluge quite as literally as he did; his idea, however, is obviously the influence of environmental pressure les the changing beliefs and practices of mankind.

Under the spell of this new point of view, he writes, "Ce qu'on appelle l'histoire n'en est que la partie la plus ingrate, la plus uniforme, la plus inutile, quoi qu'elle soit la plus connue. Boulanger however was not to be daunted and on the firm foundation of the fact of some ancient and universal catastrophe, as recorded on the surface of the earth and in human mythology, he proceeds to inquire into the moral effects of the changes in the physical environment back to which if possible the history of antiquity must be traced.

Man's defeat in his struggle with the elements made him religious, hinc prima mali labes. But it was not his fault nor has time repaired the evil moral effects of that early catastrophe. Hence have arisen the various psychological states through which mankind has passed.

In Holbach published his first original work, a few copies of which had been printed in Nancy in There were several other editions the same year, one printed at John Wilkes' private press in Westminster. It was reprinted in later collections of Boulanger's works, and went through several English and Spanish editions.

The form of the title and the attribution of the work to Boulanger were designed to set persecution on the wrong track.

There has been some discussion as to its authorship. Voltaire and Laharpe attributed it to Damilaville, at whose book shop it was said to have been sold, but M. Barbier has published detailed information given him by Naigeon free literacy narrative essay the effect that Holbach entrusted his manuscript to M.

De Saint-Lambert, who had it printed by Leclerc at Nancy in Most of the copies that got to Paris at that time were bought by several officers of the King's regiment then in garrison at Nancy, among them M. Damilaville les not sell a single copy expository writing essay unicorn even had a great deal of trouble to get one for Holbach who waited for it a long time.

This circumstantial evidence is of greater value than the statement of Voltaire who was in the habit of attributing anonymous works to whomever he pleased. We have the details of their do colleges read all essays from Naigeon cadet, a copyist, whose brother, J. Naigeon, was Holbach's literary factotum. Sometimes they were sent directly by the diligence or foi travellers.

This account agrees perfectly with information given M. After being printed in Holland the books were smuggled into France sous le manteau, as the expression is, and sold at absurd rates by colporters.

C'est un feu roulant qui crible le sanctuaire de toutes parts Diderot gives the following instance in a letter to Mlle. Volland Oct. Boulanger, mais je vous assure que les gens au fait ne m'attribuent point du tout cet ouvrage.

XXXI, p. C'est le livre le plus hardi et le plus terrible qui ait jamais parti dans aucun lieu du monde. The church very naturally did not let such a book pass unanswered. Dieu qui veille sur son ouvrage n'a pas besoin de nos faibles mains pour le soutenir" Psaume 32, vs. This book went through many editions and was augmented by subsequent authors and editors.

Voltaire was already writing to d'Alembert about it August 14, XIV, p. Ces livres malheuresement inondent l'Europe; mais quelle est la cause de cette inondation? In a letter to d'Alembert, May 24, Vol. LXV, p. Magie: Il y en a de deux sortes, la blanche et la noire.

Holbach furnished the last chapter of Naigeon's book Le Militaire philosophe, ou Difficulties sur la religion, Londres Amsterdam Voltaire ascribed the work to St. Grimm recognized that the last chapter was by another hand and considered it the weakest part of the book. It attempts to demonstrate that all supernatural religions have been harmful to society and that the only useful religion is natural religion or morals.

The book was refuted by Guidi, in a "Lettre a M. In his preface Holbach attributed the alleged English original of this work to John Trenchard but that was only a ruse to avoid persecution.

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Orschall was held in high esteem by Henckel and Stahl. These records of experiments made in the Royal Laboratories of Sweden, founded in by Charles XI, had already been translated into German and English. Holbach's translation was made from the German and Latin. He promises further treatises on Agriculture, Natural History and Medicine. Stahl, Paris, Didot, There is a MSS. Malesherbes, then Administrateur de la Librairie Royale; suggesting other German treatises that might well be translated. Johann Kunckel's Laboratorium Chymicum, 8vo. Cadmologia, or the Natural History of Cobalt, by J. After Holbach became interested in another line of intellectual activity, namely the writing and translation of anti-religious literature. His first book of this sort really appeared in although no copies bear this date. From on however he published a great many works of this character. It is convenient to deal first with his translations of English deistical writers. They are in chronological order. Londres Amsterdam , This book appeared in England in under the title of The Independent Whig; its author was Thomas Gordon known through his Commentaries on Sallust and Tacitus who wrote in collaboration with John Trenchard. The book was partially rewritten by Holbach and then touched up by Naigeon, who, according to a manuscript note by his brother, "atheised it as much as possible. The book was a violent attack on the spirit of domination which characterized the Christian priesthood at that time. Contains also The Scheme of literal Prophecy considered, , also by Collins in answer to the works of Clarke, Sherlock, Chandler, Sykes, and especially to Whiston's Essay towards restoring the text of the Old Testament, one of the thirty-five works directed against Collins' original "Discourse". Copies of this work have become very rare. David, ou l'histoire de l'homme selon le coeur de Dieu. Chandler, Palmer and others, had likened their late King to David, "the man after God's own heart. Londres, Translation of four discourses published under the title The Ax laid to the root of Christian Priestcraft by a layman, London, T. Cooper, A rare volume. Lettres philosophiques Londres Amsterdam, Translation of J. Toland's Letters to Serena, London, The book, which had become very rare in Holbach's time, had caused a great scandal at the time of its publication and was much sought after by collectors. It contains five letters, the first three of which are by Toland, the other two and the preface by Holbach and Naigeon. The matters treated are, the origin of prejudices, the dogma of the immortality of the soul, idolatry, superstition, the system of Spinoza and the origin of movement in matter. Diderot said of these works, in writing to Mlle. Volland Nov. XVIII, p. Considerations upon war, upon cruelty in general and religious cruelty in particular, London, printed for Thomas Hope, A translation of Whitefoot's The Torments of Hell, the foundation and pillars thereof discover'd, search'd, shaken and remov'd. London, In the Recueil philosophique edited by Naigeon, Londres Amsterdam , Translated from Hume. Dissertation sur le suicide Hume. Extrait d'un livre Anglais qui a pour titre le Christianisme aussi ancien que le monde. Tindal, Christianity as old as Creation. Londres Amsterdam , , translated from Anthony Collins. With the exception of some of Holbach's own works this is one of the fiercest denunciations of Judaism and Christianity to be found in print. In fact, it is very much in the style of Holbach's anti-religious works and shows beyond a doubt that Holbach derived his inspiration from Collins and the more radical of the English school. The volume has become exceedingly rare. Examen critique de la vie et des ouvrages de Saint Paul, Londres Amsterdam , A free translation of Peter Annet's History and character of St. Paul examined, written in answer to Lyttelton. Carlile, Annet said of Paul's type of man "l'enthousiaste s'enivre, pour l'ainsi dire, de son propre vin, il se persuade que la cause de ses passions est la cause de Dieu p. Thomas Hobbes. In spite of its brevity, Holbach considered this one of Hobbes' most important and luminous works. Discours sur les Miracles de Jesus Christ Amsterdam, ? Translated from Woolston, whom Holbach admired very much for his uncompromising attitude toward truth. He suffered fines and imprisonments, but would not give up the privilege of writing as he pleased. The present discourse was the cause of a quarrel with his friend Whiston. He died Jan. Before turning to Holbach's original works mention should be made of a very interesting and extraordinary book that he brought to light, retouched, and later used as a kind of shield against the attacks of the parliaments upon his own works. Par feu M. Boulanger, Amsterdam, The use made by Holbach of Boulanger's name makes it necessary to consider for a moment this almost forgotten writer. Nicholas Antoine Boulanger was born in As a child he showed so little aptitude for study that later his teachers could scarcely believe that he had turned out to be a really learned man. Boulanger studied mathematics and architecture, became an engineer and was employed by the government as inspector of bridges and highways. He passed a busy life in exacting outdoor work but at the same time his active intellect played over a large range of human interests. He became especially concerned with historical origins and set himself to learn Latin and Greek that he might get at the sources. Not satisfied that he had come to the root of the matter he learned Arabic, Syriac, Hebrew and Chaldean. Some such rearrangement of hemispheres is one of the commonplaces of modern geography. He died from overwork at the age of thirty-seven. Boulanger's ideas on philosophy, mythology, anthropology and history are of extraordinary interest today. It is a bit unfortunate that he took the deluge quite as literally as he did; his idea, however, is obviously the influence of environmental pressure on the changing beliefs and practices of mankind. Under the spell of this new point of view, he writes, "Ce qu'on appelle l'histoire n'en est que la partie la plus ingrate, la plus uniforme, la plus inutile, quoi qu'elle soit la plus connue. Boulanger however was not to be daunted and on the firm foundation of the fact of some ancient and universal catastrophe, as recorded on the surface of the earth and in human mythology, he proceeds to inquire into the moral effects of the changes in the physical environment back to which if possible the history of antiquity must be traced. Man's defeat in his struggle with the elements made him religious, hinc prima mali labes. But it was not his fault nor has time repaired the evil moral effects of that early catastrophe. Hence have arisen the various psychological states through which mankind has passed. In Holbach published his first original work, a few copies of which had been printed in Nancy in There were several other editions the same year, one printed at John Wilkes' private press in Westminster. It was reprinted in later collections of Boulanger's works, and went through several English and Spanish editions. The form of the title and the attribution of the work to Boulanger were designed to set persecution on the wrong track. There has been some discussion as to its authorship. Voltaire and Laharpe attributed it to Damilaville, at whose book shop it was said to have been sold, but M. Barbier has published detailed information given him by Naigeon to the effect that Holbach entrusted his manuscript to M. De Saint-Lambert, who had it printed by Leclerc at Nancy in Most of the copies that got to Paris at that time were bought by several officers of the King's regiment then in garrison at Nancy, among them M. Damilaville did not sell a single copy and even had a great deal of trouble to get one for Holbach who waited for it a long time. This circumstantial evidence is of greater value than the statement of Voltaire who was in the habit of attributing anonymous works to whomever he pleased. We have the details of their publication from Naigeon cadet, a copyist, whose brother, J. Naigeon, was Holbach's literary factotum. Sometimes they were sent directly by the diligence or through travellers. This account agrees perfectly with information given M. After being printed in Holland the books were smuggled into France sous le manteau, as the expression is, and sold at absurd rates by colporters. C'est un feu roulant qui crible le sanctuaire de toutes parts Diderot gives the following instance in a letter to Mlle. Volland Oct. Boulanger, mais je vous assure que les gens au fait ne m'attribuent point du tout cet ouvrage. XXXI, p. C'est le livre le plus hardi et le plus terrible qui ait jamais parti dans aucun lieu du monde. The church very naturally did not let such a book pass unanswered. Dieu qui veille sur son ouvrage n'a pas besoin de nos faibles mains pour le soutenir" Psaume 32, vs. This book went through many editions and was augmented by subsequent authors and editors. Voltaire was already writing to d'Alembert about it August 14, XIV, p. Ces livres malheuresement inondent l'Europe; mais quelle est la cause de cette inondation? In a letter to d'Alembert, May 24, Vol. LXV, p. Magie: Il y en a de deux sortes, la blanche et la noire. Holbach furnished the last chapter of Naigeon's book Le Militaire philosophe, ou Difficulties sur la religion, Londres Amsterdam , Voltaire ascribed the work to St. Grimm recognized that the last chapter was by another hand and considered it the weakest part of the book. It attempts to demonstrate that all supernatural religions have been harmful to society and that the only useful religion is natural religion or morals. The book was refuted by Guidi, in a "Lettre a M. In his preface Holbach attributed the alleged English original of this work to John Trenchard but that was only a ruse to avoid persecution. The book is by Holbach. It has gone through many editions and been translated into English and Spanish. The first edition had an introduction by Naigeon. According to him manuscripts of this book became quite rare at one time and were supposed to have been lost. Later they became more common and this edition was corrected by collation with six others. A sentence introducing the fifth book in this list, "Letters to Eugenie", has evidently been lost. Her young husband was a great friend of the Holbachs, but having had a strict Catholic bringing up she was shocked at their infidelity and warned by her confessor to keep away from them. Her natural good sense and love for her friends struggled with her monastic education and reverence for the priests. This distinction may be explained further. Rousseau, on the other hand, deemed it crucial that citizens ceased to think of themselves as merely individual selves. Correspondingly, their passions would lead them to pursue the common interest of the body politic, for it is the imagination that determines the object of the passions. The ideal male citizen is Pedaretus, who after being defeated while running for the council of three hundred, so far from being disheartened, is rather proud that there are three hundred worthier men in Sparta. Similarly, the ideal female citizen is the Spartan mother, who is not concerned with the death of her three sons in battle so long as Sparta has emerged victorious. Virtue would not entail choosing the public interest or general will over conflicting private interests because the private and general will would be in agreement. If this could be achieved then citizens would be virtuous by inclination and necessity as much as by duty. By way of conclusion, it is well to extrapolate some of the implications for understanding pre-revolutionary French republicanism that attending to these two thinkers suggests. Some of these implications will not be particularly surprising, such as the insistence on the importance of political virtue to counter the effects of luxury and modern commerce. This may have been more pronounced in the French republican tradition than elsewhere, but it was by no means unique to it. See also Judith N. Reflecting the neo-Augustinian heritage of French moral philosophy, they both thought that love was the principal human passion and all political institutions would thus have to direct our love towards worthy objects. Commerce and luxury could be justified if they serve to release us from our otherwise miserable and barbaric state by turning our inflamed natural passions to good use. Indeed, at least for Rousseau, these inflamed passions were caused only by the onset of the luxury and inequality that would come to characterise modern society. Commerce and luxury were regularly justified on the grounds that they turn our individualistic and disordered passions towards the public good. Yet this justification could be turned on its head by showing that the disorder of our passions was a consequence only of the specific relationships between individuals that both permeate and are peculiar to societies where luxury and inequality are rife. Rather than trying to play off our inflamed passions against one another, such passions—prior to becoming inflamed—could instead be cultivated in a well-ordered republic by directing them towards worthy objects: the attainment of glory and virtue. This involved appealing to or even transforming self-love and pride, yet this was no mere imitation of virtue. The citizens of a well-ordered republic, so far from painfully suppressing their inclinations to attain virtue, could instead be rendered virtuous by way of their passions. This is of particular relevance in the area of African Christian marriage, given the central place of the family in African and all human societies. The inculturation of the Gospel in Africa needs to take into consideration the increasing influence of urbanization including the sub-cultures of large African cities, the changing sociology of the African family and the secular trends brought in by the mass media. Chenu earlier in our passing century is referred to in various other ways: integral humanism, complete humanism, true humanism etc. It is intimately connected to the dignity of the human person and the renewal of culture based on Gospel values. It is related to the history of the enlightenment and the synthesis of natural and supernatural humanism. Our Holy Father aptly re-emphasizes this expression along with the "culture of life" to counteract the effects of secular humanism and the "culture of death" in certain contemporary thinking. It is vital for the Church to move in this direction indicated by the Holy Father. Thank you. Sa situation accuse de profondes mutations de nos jours. Nous mentionnons quelques domaines. Dietro un cambiamento politico sta sempre una filosofia. Nel comunismo un individuo viene assorbito dal collettivo. Le votazioni politiche significano consenso alla scelta fatta dal partito. E qui comincia il dramma del comunismo. Per godere ogni cosa ci vuole denaro. Per averlo bisogna essere intraprendente. Vuole essere ascoltato, riconosciuto, applaudito. Alla gente piace lo spettacolo — panem et circenses. Niente controllo. Piace il calcio, il pugilato, il rugby, piace il porno e la droga. Qui comincia il dramma del liberalismo. Proviene da un paese religioso. Essa stessa devota e praticante cattolica. Poi ha ceduto alle tentazioni. Oggi si presenta in ogni tipo di film, anche come modella in Playboy. Ecco un cammino della cultura di oggi che si ripete spesso. Mi riferisco alla situazione nei Paesi post-comunisti. Prima da parte della gerarchia. Ci vuole per questo un sacerdote che si dedichi con pazienza sovrumana! Invitare gli artisti a casa. Ispirare, incoraggiare esposizioni durante le feste diocesane o parrocchiali. Da parte del laicato. Mi riferisco solo alla situazione in Polonia. Si incontrano due tendenze su come utilizzare i mass-media, che sono a disposizione della Chiesa parrocchiale, diocesana o sovradiocesana. Non cedere al fascino della "tolleranza". I musei, le biblioteche e gli archivi della Chiesa meritano la massima attenzione. After the short time of fascinations with regained freedom, there arrived a period of disillusion between and when the Church was blamed, because the real version of free society life was different from its imagined versions. When the initial disappointment was replaced by a realistic approach, the positive appraisal of the social role of the Church increased. It is the highest value ever noted in a social survey after the collapse of Communism. It seems to suggest that both the Polish clergy recognises its new duties in a free society and that society itself is aware of the importance of the mission of the Church. Post-Communist contamination of mentality A few years ago there was a time when a Polish version of xenophobia assumed a new form of clerophobia. Priests were attacked at that time because, among other things, they were against abortion and supported teaching religion in elementary schools. To illustrate this attitude one can refer to a paper concerning the abortion debate. During this debate John Paul II, in a public statement, repeated the main ideas of Evangelium vitae and expressed his support for a culture of life. He was attacked in a daily paper which interpreted his statement as an interference in Polish internal affairs. To make the situation even more grotesque, the paper was originally submitted for publication in a Catholic weekly, Tygodnik Powszechny. When the editorial board of Tygodnik did not qualify the text for publication, the young author decided to publish it in the Gazeta Krakowska, formerly the official daily newspaper of the Cracow Committee of the Communist Party. In this period of irrational aggression against the Church, two leading representatives of the Polish cultural milieu, Andrzej Wajda and Krzysztof Zanussi, were accused by their colleague of being Vatican spies infiltrating circles of independent originators. In the post-Communist period some relics of the Communist mentality continued, and if someone at that time defended human values and rejected moral relativism he was immediately classified as a Vatican agent. On the other hand, it is true that certain priests contributed to anticlerical feelings at that time either by expressing publicly their political support for those parties which declared their commitment to Christian tradition or by critique of post-Communist candidates to main State offices. This situation became difficult when, among leading aggressive defenders of Christianity, several politicians appeared who earlier collaborated either with the PAX movement or with various groups supported by Communist authorities. This phenomenon was described in the Instrumentum laboris for the II Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, where we read: "there are also in some Eastern European countries those who use religion and the Church for political and nationalistic ends". This attitude was expressed in its grotesque form by a former mayor of Moscow, when in contradistinction to Western slogans, "God yes, Church no" he declared, "Church yes, God no". In this framework, religion is reduced to a social level and the main role of the Church is to provide possible supporters in an election campaign. In the past, this attempt at political involvement of the Church was practised by the Communist Party and its ideological satellites. It is worthy to note that many former collaborators representing Catholic groups of intelligentsia now want to play the role of the only defenders of Christianity while many former dissidents, who defended human rights and dignity in the Communist era, now try to spread the Gospel of peace and freedom without aggression and without ideological bias. This pattern has been observed not only in Poland but also in the Czech Republic and in Slovakia, where many former members of the pro-Communist organisation Pacem in terris try to behave as a "leading force" in the contemporary Catholic Church. Their version of ideological Christianity inspires protests from those Catholics who paid the price of their commitment to the Church in the past. Consequently it yields polarisation within the Church. Consequences of the polarisation at stake are relatively strong because, in the Communist period, Catholics in Poland practically had no experience of pluralism and their reactions to basic problems were uniform in nature. In this new social situation they must adjust to cultural pluralism without accepting doctrinal relativism. This, certainly, is a long process which of its nature brings many negative by-products. The polarisation of attitudes among Catholics in Poland became even more complicated when Radio Maryja, a nation-wide radio system organised by the Redemptorist Fathers, became much more involved in spreading risky politics than in spreading the Gospel. The radio attacked many honest and trustworthy Polish politicians because they did not follow the radical and simplified vision accepted by nationalists. Since a part of society regarded the radio as the Church radio station, many of them were disappointed that such a primitive form of politics was accepted by the Bishops. Trivialisation of evil and the search for reconciliation The perspective of the Great Jubilee brings into focus the important issue of social reconciliation between former supporters of the Communist regime and those who suffered persecution under that regime. There were some attempts at inspiring a search for new social unity when many ordinary members of the Communist party acknowledged their fault and recognised the moral evil of the totalitarian system. Unfortunately, their practice was not followed by high party functionaries, who consistently try to trivialise the moral aspect of the violation of human rights under Communism. In their approach, nobody should be blamed for totalitarian practices and nobody is morally responsible for inhuman elements contained in the Leninist version of Marxism. This lack of moral responsibility seems to be a large-scale phenomenon among former Party activists, even beyond the ex-Communist block. The most shocking examples are found in comments in which even genocide is regarded as a trivial and ordinary attribute of contemporary culture. This radical asymmetry in approaching ideologically justified genocide raises important axiological problems for any intellectual evaluation of tragedies that took place in our epoch. To overcome these relics of the post-Communist mentality and to bring moral categories into our evaluation of the totalitarian systems of the past, the Conference of Polish Bishops in published a pastoral letter about the importance of dialogue and tolerance in the process of the construction of democratic society. Its plea for reconciliation based on truth expressed in general recognition of the moral evil contained in Communism was ignored by influential Party activists. In the radically new social situation, former critics of Kautsky now preach his social democratic philosophy and, in the spirit of postmodern rhetoric, they try to replace moral values by pragmatic rules. Pragmatism instead of ideology Though dialectical materialism has collapsed, practical materialism dominates many post-Communist countries. It is no longer imposed by force, but its relative independence of ideological centres even fosters the attitude in which people behave as if there were no God. Consumerism, as an effect of secularisation, has already penetrated the Eastern part of the European continent. Some countries in this area suffer from a most primitive version of capitalism that is supported by a mafia-like organisation, seriously threatening public life. Many former Marxists have radically changed their ideological background and now express their support for a postmodern critique of modernity. It is hard to find in their arguments either logical consistency or rational justification. They just preach freedom without defining what freedom means for them. The Church reminds us that this kind of liberation rhetoric was already practised by the Nazis when at the entrance to the concentration camp in Auschwitz they placed the inscription: Arbeit macht frei. After passing through such painful experiences we should determine the hierarchy of values basic for free society and we cannot end in an optimistic conviction that pragmatic regulations characteristic of liberal democracy would bring an automatic solution to difficult moral issues important for our society. The social teaching of the Polish Church proclaims the basic truth contained in papal encyclicals, and specifically in what Centesimus annus says on democracy. It emphasises that stable democratic institutions cannot function in a society which rejects moral values and reduces its attention to purely pragmatic principles accepted by a majority in democratic voting. Being realistic we should not expect that in such a society everyone will approve juridical regulations without being convinced that they are morally sound and rationally justified. Accordingly, it seems that a system of oppression must be introduced into such a society to guarantee the social acceptance of the imposed juridical regulations. Since rational arguments have been discredited by supporters of this form of pragmatism, one could use only rhetoric or propaganda in order to justify these regulations. As a result, in this version of liberal pragmatism rational arguments are replaced by propaganda persuasion and the axiological foundations of democracy by an effective system of repression. This type of social system could easily result in a form of pragmatic totalitarianism. A police state will emerge in this framework as a result of uncritical liberal pragmatism. The argument that its principles were accepted in a democratic choice has no special value since one cannot show that the accepted principles were either objectively true or morally just. Accordingly, the belief that we can eliminate from our culture all elements which are fundamental to our intellectual tradition seems as optimistic as the Leninist claim that Marxism opens a radically new epoch in the history of humankind and that it brings a completely new anthropology in which the human person is no longer subjected to the alienating processes characteristic of bourgeois society. Certainly, Marxism influenced the new mentality of the so called homo sovieticus. This mentality, however, is considered to be a pathological consequence of absurd social-political conditions rather than a breakthrough achievement in anthropology. Looking for new forms of social pathologies can be an attractive accomplishment only for those bored intellectuals who have never paid attention to the dramatic events of our century in which the dignity of the human person was subordinated to ideological schemes, devoid of rational justification. After the unique experience of two totalitarian systems experienced by Europe in the 20th century, one can expect that the advocates of new social experiments will look for their supporters in America and Africa rather than in Europe. When we eliminate rationality and moral responsibility from our intellectual discourse there is always a risk that sharp discussions free of social control could result in conflicts similar to that between the Tutsi and Hutu.

The book is by Holbach. It has gone through many editions and been translated into English and Spanish. Foi first edition had an introduction by Naigeon. According to him manuscripts of this book became quite rare at one time and were supposed to have been lost.

Later they became more common and les edition was corrected by collation with six others. A sentence introducing the fifth book in this list, "Letters to Eugenie", has evidently been lost.

Culture e fede - Cultures et foi - Cultures and Faith - Culturas y fe - 1/ - Plenaria (2)

Her young husband was a great essay of the Holbachs, but having had a strict Catholic bringing up she was shocked at their infidelity and warned by her confessor to keep away from them. Her natural good sense and love les her les struggled with her monastic education and reverence for the priests. The conflict rendered her miserable and she returned to her country seat to brood over it. In this state of mind she at length foi to the Baron and laid open her situation requesting him to comfort, console, and enlighten her.

They were carefully revised before they were sent to foi press. All the purely personal passages were omitted and essays added to hide the identity of the persons concerned.