The lower class in terms of economic and education level and younger generation age group of predominated with females outnumbering males. Female migrants were mostly older than males and most of the migrants were motivated by economics.
During the period , the gap between out- migration and in-migTation for Jakarta City widened, with the former at , 9. Throughout this decade the population growth for Jakarta City was 2. Despite steady overall growth in the population of Jakarta City, Central Jakarta District experienced negative growth The decrease in population in the center of Jakarta is attributable to out-migration.
According to a study in one of the Jakarta suburbs, Bekasi District, by Rustiadi three stages of the suburbanization process can be identified in the Jakarta Metropolitan, namely: 1 presuburbanization process, 2 first stage of suburbanization, and 3 second stage of suburbanization Rustiadi These stages were determined from characteristics of the spatial distribution patterns of the population and of urban and rice field areas; trend of in- and out-migration between Jakarta and its suburbs; and comparison of population and economic growth rates between Jakarta City and Bekasi District.
Changes in Comparative Pwrspeccive Urban development of Bekasi District is mostly a result of out- migration from Jakarta. Initially, it resulted from expansion of kampung- type housing in the area closest to Jakarta's boundaries, followed by development of real-estate-type housing and industry in more distant areas Rustiadi and Kitamura.
Jakarta City is characterized by a market dualism between highly "modern" areas and vast areas of low-income neighborhoods or urban kampung McGee. The Jakarta kampungs are inhabited mainly by rural migrants, mostly absorbed by the informal sectors or margins of the formal sectors of the local economy Somantri, Kampungs are usually located adjacent to urban centers.
Kampung areas surround each of Jakarta's urban centers, from the core to the much smaller tertiary centers. Systematic demolition of kampungs has been ongoing in Jakarta for many years, particularly in he central part of the city, forcing many of the former inhabitants to move to other areas.
Most of the lower classes have moved only short distances intracily migration , while the middle and upper classes have tended to escape to more distant and less populated areas. Only the middle and upper classes can afford such a move, especially to the suburbs Somantri, and they become commuters as a consequence. The poor are prevented from moving into the suburbs by the high cost of suburban housing because of legally required minimum standards for structure size, lot size, and building methods Stanback, Consequently, outward migration of the middle and upper classes dominates the process of suburbanization in the Jakarta metropolitan area.
Rapid population growth and economic development in these regions threaten national efforts to preserve prime rice-producing areas. During the last three decades a substantial amount of prime agricultural land in Java has been converted to industrial use or into large-scale residential areas, especially in Jakarta and its suburbs. The conversion of rural land to urban use in the suburbs of Jakarta is mainly by land and building development in the private sector, and can be divided into formal and informal private development Archer, Real-estale companies carry out most formal development.
The core constitutes all areas within Jakarta City boundaries, zone I consists of the most dynamic suburban region, covering the Botabck areas closest to Jakarta, and zone 2 the most remote areas in Jabotabek peripheral region.
Tables 3. Zone 1 is the most dynamic region, characterized by a high population growth rate. The contribution of natural growth to population growth is relatively low low rate of RNI ; the main source of growth is migration high rate of RSI. The core region is a typical relatively stabile region in which population density has peaked and population growth no longer high but still higher than zone 2. Service activities including trading, finance, and official activities and the most educated class are predominant in the core region.
Manufacturing activities predominate in zone I and agricultural activities in zone 2. Suburbanization and commuting show a strong correlation since most of the population living in suburb areas are out-migrants or people who conduct business in Jakarta City. According to a survey conducted by Central Bureau of Statistics in , about The percentage of Botabek inhabitants working in Jakarta City and suburbs is The center Core of the metropolis tends to be the center of service sector activities that shifts settlement areas containing small proportion of agricultural land use and characterized by negative net migration.
Employed Unernployea 5. Main Industry 1. Agriculture oa 3. Manufacturing Trade France 7. Service Others 6. Main Occupation 1. Professional 8. Administrative 2. Clerical Sates 25 8 Services Production Others 15 0. Has nofdoes not attend school 4. Attending school No longer attending Primary school Junior High School High School Y9 Conld.
The second layer, the remote region Zone 2, is characterized by agricultural activities agricultural land use predominated areas , relatively low income, and lower educational level of inhabitants. References Archer, R. Urban land consolidation for metropolitan Jakarta expansion, Habitat International, 18 4 ; Drewctt, D.
General urbanization trends in Western Europe. In: Dynamics of Urban Development. Van den Berg, L. Molle, W. M; and Paelinck, J. Cower, Abingdon, UK. Jansen J. C and Paelinck, J. The urbanization phenomenon in the process of development: some statistical evidence. Integrated rural development and land use. In: Proc. Japan National Committee for Rural Planning, pp. Kammicr, D. Equity with Growth? Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok. Kitamura, T.
Indonesia Model. Center for Global Environmental Research. ISSN The suburbanization of Jakarta, A concurrence of economics arid ideology. TWPR, 16 4 : Mantra, Ida Bagus. Matheur, O. Mazumdar, D. In Britain the suburbs are predominantly residential in nature and have often rural characteristics such as larger gardens and to tree-lined avenues. However, Suburbanisation should not be limited to housing, as industries have also suburbanised. Not all suburbs are the same, and there are several distinguishable types.
Although many suburbs are populated by the urban middle class, they are not uniform in many respects. The TIME when they were built, the planners that were involved and the physical surroundings of the environment can all influence the characteristics and layout of a suburb.
During the industrial revolution, richer classes fled to suburbs away from industrial areas, living in large terraced town houses e. Jesmond in Newcastle is North of the city and well away from the old industrial areas south along the river.
During the interwar period plot sizes where ample and semidetached housing was favoured in many locations, High Heaton in Newcastle is a good example of this. Recreational facilities, local shops and low building densities were characteristic features. More recently land prices have risen and land is at a premium as population grows in Britain, so building densities have increased and many modern suburbs include flats and taller town houses with smaller gardens. Cunning developers can also market detached houses with little space between the buildings.
Suburban house building has also been affected by transport and communication innovations - continuing improvements of arterial routes to the city centre, the development of underground railways, tram lines, etc. All of these factors mean that suburbs may actually be quite varied in their size and type of housing. Newcastle Great Park, for example, is perfectly placed alongside the A1 in Newcastle. In addition, it should be considered that suburbs in Britain are not the same as suburbs in other European cities and suburbs in the USA and Australia.
These tend to be much lower density and increase dependency upon the car. You can read more about these types of suburb here. Positives and negatives of suburbs: Negatives Inner city Suburbs mean that there is less need for high-rise, high-density housing, such as in deindustrialised areas of Newcastle, leading to clearance and replacement by low-rise, low-density housing. Suburbanisation can lead to the decline of inner city areas as skilled people and businesses move away.
This means that the suburbanisation of jobs leads to employment opportunities, leading to lower employment opportunities which leads to a spiral of decline.
Communities are split up and damaged as people migrate out to the suburbs. Suburbanisation means that more buildings are left vacant. These buildings might be dangerous, look bad and stop people investing in the area inward investment. The large income gaps between suiburb and inner city lead to polarisation and resentment.
Rural urban fringe The local tax base increases which means that councils can afford to develop new facilities and services in the expanding suburbs.
As wealthy people move in there is increasing demand for recreational facilities such as golf courses and gyms Wealthy people also want to shop, and in Britain this has created demand for retailing which has resulted in the development of retail parks at the edge of the city There are increasing employment opportunities in offices and shops such as at Baliol Business park in Longbenton Land increases in price as demand increases at the city edge.
The green belt, designed to limit city growth, is put under increasing pressure There is increased commuting therefore increased congestion and pollution. Decay of local village community atmosphere The city increases in size as the demand for low density housing increases. Suburbanisation In Newcastle-upon-Tyne Suburbanisation is a big issue in the UK because it is a reasonably small country in terms of surface area which has a large and growing population the ONS thinks we could hit 70million people in This gives Britain a high population density, particularly in the South of the country.
The result of this is housing shortages and high property prices. This is coupled with rising life expectancies and high levels of immigration, all combining to produce a housing shortage. There are 2 possibilities, on brownfield sites or on greenfield sites. Green belt — a tract of open land consisting of farmland woodland, and open recreational areas surrounding urban areas.
It has gradually become clear that a dichotomy between urban and rural societies is more contrived than actual.
In , the total population living in urban areas cities and towns reached As wealthy people move in there is increasing demand for recreational facilities such as golf courses and gyms Wealthy people also want to shop, and in Britain this has created demand for retailing which has resulted in the development of retail parks at the edge of the city There are increasing employment opportunities in offices and shops such as at Baliol Business park in Longbenton Land increases in price as demand increases at the city edge. Consequently, outward migration of the middle and upper classes dominates the process of suburbanization in the Jakarta metropolitan area.
Rustiadi, E. The growing concentration of socioeconomic activities in Jakarta and its surrounding areas has attracted many people, particularly from rural areas, to the metropolitan region. Migration is a response of individuals to better opportunities and should in principle increase economic welfare unambiguously.