List the three components of an ATP molecule. What is its function? The three components are the backbone of the ATP molecule is in the 5 carbon sugar ribose. The second component is adenine — one of the bases found in DNA. The third is a chain of three phosphate groups attached to the ribose backbone. Describe how ATP stores energy. The key to how ATP stores energy is found in the bonds between the three phosphate groups; they are bound to each other by unstable high-energy covalent bonds.
When the bonds are broken, a large amount of energy is released and is immediately available for use in any cellular function that requires energy. Which holds more energy? ATP is a compound that serves as a temporary energy storage molecule in all cells and ADP is the molecule that is produced when ATP is split to yield energy.
ADP holds more energy. Photosynthesis The process whereby simple sugars are formed from carbon dioxide that water in the presence of light and chlorophyll. Chlorophyll The green pigment of plant cells that is necessary for photosynthesis Accessory Pigment The name for the other two types of chlorophylls c and d.
Light-dependent phase The first phase of photosynthesis Light-independent phase The second phase of photosynthesis Photolysis The breaking apart of a water molecule by energized chlorophyll Chemosynthesis A process whereby certain organisms obtain cellular energy from the breakdown of inorganic chemicals C3 pathway The most common pathway of photosynthesis CAM pathway An alternative pathway of photosynthesis that can occur during high levels of oxygen and low levels of carbon dioxide C4 pathway An alternative pathway of photosynthesis that can occur during high levels of oxygen and low levels of carbon dioxide What is the primary purpose of photosynthesis?
To convert light energy to chemical energy List a the primary materials necessary for and b the materials produced by photosynthesis. CO2, H2O, light energy b.
What colors of light does it absorb? In what part of the chloroplast does the Calvin cycle take place? Some PGAL is converted into other organic compounds including amino acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. The stomata control the passage of water and carbon dioxide.
What is a C4 plant? A C4 plant takes in CO2 and fixes it into four-carbon organic compounds inside certain types of cells. Photoactivation of chlorophyll a results in the splitting of water molecules and the transfer of energy to ATP and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate NADP. The light-dependent reactions When light energy is absorbed by a chlorophyll molecule its electrons gain energy and move to higher energy levels in the molecule photoexcitation.
Sufficient energy ionises the molecule, with the electron being 'freed' leaving a positively charged chlorophyll ion. This is called photoionisation. In whole chloroplasts each chlorophyll molecule is associated with an electron acceptor and an electron donor. These three molecules make up the core of a photosystem.
Two electrons from a photoionised chlorophyll molecule are transferred to the electron acceptor. The positively charged chlorophyll ion then takes a pair of electrons from a neighbouring electron donor such as water. An electron transfer system a series of chemical reactions carries the two electrons to and fro across the thylakoid membrane. It is named because it was the second to be discovered and hence named second. The energy changes accompanying the two sets of changes make a Z shape when drawn out.
This is why the electron transfer process is sometimes called the Z scheme. Key to the scheme is that sufficient energy is released during electron transfer to enable ATP to be made from ADP and phosphate.
Photosynthesis The shared evolutionary history of all photosynthetic organisms is conspicuous, as the basic process has changed little over eras of time. A reduction is the gain of an electron by an atom or molecule. Aerobic bacteria moved toward the blue and red portion of the spectrum, as the cells of this region produced most of the oxygen. Most of the actions of an organism involve a complex series of energy transformations.
What is a C4 plant? The function of carotenoids are: a act as accessory pigment as they transfer light energy to chlorophyll a b protect chlorophyll from excess of light c protect chlorophyll from oxidation by oxygen produced in photosynthesis d attract insects, birds and other animals for pollination and dispersal. The molecules of chlorophyll contained in the chloroplasts absorb energy in the form of light from the sun.
Chlorophyll — function is to catch light energy and use it for photolysis and also making ATP. The light dependent reactions are the energy capturing reactions.
Fig: 4. Heterotroph Organisms that depend on other organisms for their energy.
Only one percent is absorbed and the rest of the light is reflected or transmitted. Tell how the light-dependent and light-independent phases of photosynthesis are dependent upon each other. Plants also produce some carbon dioxide by their respiration, but this is quickly used by photosynthesis. What is Photosynthesis?