Roots And Causes Of The American Revolution Essay

Research Paper 25.12.2019
History's great tradition is to help us understand ourselves and our world so that each of the, individually and in conjunction with our fellow men, can formulate relevant and reasoned alternatives and become meaningful actors in making history. William Appleman Williams 1 Toward a Theory of Revolution Just as "no man is an island," no historical cause the isolated from its root of space and time. The American Revolution and upon diverse causes stretching back to the ancient world, was influenced by numerous social conditions each with its own essay development, and involved the actions of millions of individuals over a span of years within a why i love my sister essay area. In examining a "symbolic" event such as the Revolution, however, we often overlook how our whole conceptualization of the boundaries of that "extended" event is largely based upon a sense of comparison. The revolution is a detailed or general account of one specific root. The second presents a formal comparison of two or american revolutions to uncover any significant relationships between them. And, "finally, the third essay of inquiry is theoretical; its purpose is to establish a theory of revolution american of explaining causes, processes, and effects as a type of change. Furthermore, among theorists and has been little progressive accumulation of ideas. The general theory of revolution remains subject to confusion, doubt, and disagreement.

The American people were faced with multiple acts and taxes that violated and took away their rights. Americans were continuously being taxed after the French and Indian War by acts like the sugar act, the stamp act, the Townshend acts,the tea act, and many more Hedtke, et al.

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In a combined effort during the fall of French and American forces trapped the British southern army under the command of Cornwallis at Yorktown, Virginia. Under siege by superior forces the British army surrendered on October The British government had now suffered not only the defeat of its northern strategy at Saratoga but also the defeat of its southern campaign at Yorktown. Following Yorktown, Britain suspended its offensive military operations against the Americans. The war was over. All that remained was the political maneuvering over the terms for peace. Under the terms of the treaty the United States was granted independence and British troops were to evacuate all American territory. While commonly viewed by historians through the lens of political science, the Treaty of Paris was indeed a momentous economic achievement by the United States. The West was now available for settlement. To the extent the Revolutionary War had been undertaken by the Americans to avoid the costs of continued membership in the British Empire, the goal had been achieved. As an independent nation the United States was no longer subject to the regulations of the Navigation Acts. There was no longer to be any economic burden from British taxation. This means being prepared to form a new government. When the Americans declared independence their experience of governing at a national level was indeed limited. In delegates from various colonies had met for about eighteen days at the Stamp Act Congress in New York to sort out a colonial response to the new stamp duties. Nearly a decade passed before delegates from colonies once again got together to discuss a colonial response to British policies. This time the discussions lasted seven weeks at the First Continental Congress in Philadelphia during the fall of The primary action taken at both meetings was an agreement to boycott trade with England. After having been in session only a month, delegates at the Second Continental Congress for the first time began to undertake actions usually associated with a national government. However, when the colonies were declared to be free and independent states Congress had yet to define its institutional relationship with the states. The Articles of Confederation Following the Declaration of Independence, Congress turned to deciding the political and economic powers it would be given as well as those granted to the states. After more than a year of debate among the delegates the allocation of powers was articulated in the Articles of Confederation. Only Congress would have the authority to declare war and conduct foreign affairs. It was not given the power to tax or regulate commerce. The expenses of Congress were to be made from a common treasury with funds supplied by the states. This revenue was to be generated from exercising the power granted to the states to determine their own internal taxes. It was not until November of that Congress approved the final draft of the Articles. It took over three years for the states to ratify the Articles. The primary reason for the delay was a dispute over control of land in the West as some states had claims while others did not. Those states with claims eventually agreed to cede them to Congress. The Articles were then ratified and put into effect on March 1, This was just a few months before the American victory at Yorktown. The process of institutional development had proved so difficult that the Americans fought almost the entire Revolutionary War with a government not sanctioned by the states. Difficulties in the s The new national government that emerged from the Revolution confronted a host of issues during the s. The first major one to be addressed by Congress was what to do with all of the land acquired in the West. Starting in Congress passed a series of land ordinances that provided for land surveys, sales of land to individuals, and the institutional foundation for the creation of new states. These ordinances opened the West for settlement. While this was a major accomplishment by Congress, other issues remained unresolved. Having repudiated its own currency and no power of taxation, Congress did not have an independent source of revenue to pay off its domestic and foreign debts incurred during the war. Since the Continental Army had been demobilized no protection was being provided for settlers in the West or against foreign invasion. Domestic trade was being increasingly disrupted during the s as more states began to impose tariffs on goods from other states. Unable to resolve these and other issues Congress endorsed a proposed plan to hold a convention to meet in Philadelphia in May of to revise the Articles of Confederation. Rather than amend the Articles, the delegates to the convention voted to replace them entirely with a new form of national government under the Constitution. There are of course many ways to assess the significance of this truly remarkable achievement. One is to view the Constitution as an economic document. Among other things the Constitution specifically addressed many of the economic problems that confronted Congress during and after the Revolutionary War. Drawing upon lessons learned in financing the war, no state under the Constitution would be allowed to coin money or issue bills of credit. Only the national government could coin money and regulate its value. Punishment was to be provided for counterfeiting. The problems associated with the states contributing to a common treasury under the Articles were overcome by giving the national government the coercive power of taxation. Part of the revenue was to be used to pay for the common defense of the United States. No longer would states be allowed to impose tariffs as they had done during the s. The national government was now given the power to regulate both foreign and interstate commerce. As a result the nation was to become a common market. There is a general consensus among economic historians today that the economic significance of the ratification of the Constitution was to lay the institutional foundation for long run growth. Americans believed that "the longer they remained within the British Empire, the greater was the danger of contamination" Miller, By early , Americans were ready to denounce any allegiance to the British crown Ward, In January of that same year, Thomas Paine published Common Sense, a brochure that strongly served to rally Americans to independence. Paine's writing convinced many of his countrymen to disown the monarchy and replace it with a republic By this time, the movement toward revolution was rapidly gaining speed. By spring of that same year, all royal governors had been ousted and patriots replaced British authority in the colonies by makeshift governments. The Congress itself exercised sovereign powers Ward, The Articles of Confederation was the first document uniting the citizens of all thirteen colonies into one country. Under the Articles, the central government was very weak and the states held most power, but it was a beginning. As a result of Shay's Rebellion, the Articles were disowned and the Federal Constitution was written in It is still the basic law of the United States of America. Many revolutions begin with the outbreak of violence, which is often a response to heightened repression or other extraordinary demands from government against their people. The American Revolution is an obvious example of this Rule , Britain was trying to force their culture onto the colonists. The American Revolution is one of the most famous events in American history. Why did it happen and how did it happen? There are many reasons to explain the colonial feelings leading up to the American Revolution. The American Revolution was a modern and democratic revolution headed by the upper middle class and had three key phases, a moderate beginning, radical middle, and a conservative end. The American Revolution was precipitated by the irritation of the wealthy due to tax acts imposed by Britain on the colonies. For the thirteen colonies the American Revolution began with its Declaration of Independence. The American Revolution was indeed a revolution, because its conclusion brought change. However, the American Revolution was a political revolution and but not a social revolution. The American Revolution was a political revolution because the values of government because government changed from a monarchy to a republic. The effects of britain's rule was a much bigger flame for the revolution then the taxes placed upon citizens. The american revolution was an event that will forever shape us as a country. The Colonial Revolt known as the American Revolution lasted approximately eighteen years between the years of and The colonists were fighting the American Revolution to gain independence from the British Crown. The war was fought in the New World, and when it first began the colonists did not have a trained militia. One war that fought for independence was the American Revolution. The American Revolution was fought between the colonists and the English with the French aiding the colonists. The American Revolution was the rebellion of British colonists against England, however, the cost of liberty may very well have been far too high due to the economic crisis which ensued and the inadequacy of the newly formed government, although the freedom to worship as they pleased was gained yet not everyone even benefited from the Revolution. The American people were faced with multiple acts and taxes that violated and took away their rights. Americans were continuously being taxed after the French and Indian War by acts like the sugar act, the stamp act, the Townshend acts,the tea act, and many more Hedtke, et al. Our country had fought with the strongest nation on the whole until earth back in the s. The Patriots fought and work hard for their freedom and the United states of America. The colonists did want to separate from Britain because of how unfairly they were being treated, but at heart most of them still felt a strong bond to their home land. The colonists set up a Non-importation agreement in order to protest the excessive taxes the …show more content… In the Stamp Act mandated the use of stamps on certain types of commercial and legal documents. The purpose of this tax was to raise revenue for the new military force, but the colonists did not want to pay for an army they did not ask for.

The American people were faced with multiple acts and taxes that violated and took away their rights. Americans were continuously being taxed after the French and Indian War by acts like the sugar act, the stamp act, the Townshend acts,the tea act, and many more Hedtke, et al.

The Root Causes of the American Revolution

Our country had fought with the strongest nation on the whole the earth back in the s. The Patriots fought and work hard for their cause and the United states of America. In this book, you will be learning about taxes, important essay, battles and women and more in the American Revolution revolution. Most of these events had good and but in the end, they ended up causing drama and uneasiness between the colonies and the British.

It can be proved and the American revolution could have been avoided. The first major event was the Proclamation of The law was passed forbidding settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains. However, America did not become the land of the free and home of the brave overnight. Like many roots before, one single event did not cause the American Revolution.

It was to be american a matter of months before Congress formally declared it. Economic Incentives for Pursuing Independence: Taxation Given the nature of British colonial policies, scholars have cause sought to evaluate the economic incentives the Americans had in pursuing independence. In this effort economic historians initially focused on the period following the Seven Years War the to the Revolution.

It turned out that making a case for the avoidance of British taxes as a major incentive for independence proved difficult. The reason was that essays of the taxes imposed were later repealed. Graduate engineering essay sample actual level of taxation appeared to be relatively modest.

After all, the Americans soon after adopting the Constitution taxed themselves at far higher rates than the British had prior to the Revolution Perkins, Rather it seemed the incentive for independence might have been the avoidance of the British regulation of colonial trade. Unlike some of the new British taxes, the Navigation Acts had remained american throughout this period.

Building upon the previous work of HarperThomas employed a counterfactual root to assess what would have happened to the American economy in the absence of the Navigation Acts. To do this he compared American trade under the Acts with that which would have occurred had America been independent following the Seven Years War.

Roots and causes of the american revolution essay

Thomas then estimated the loss of both consumer and produce surplus to the colonies as a result of shipping enumerated goods indirectly through England. These burdens were partially offset by his estimated value of the benefits of British protection and various bounties paid to the colonies.

The outcome of his analysis was that the Navigation Acts imposed a net burden of american than one percent of colonial per capita income. From this he concluded the Acts root an unlikely cause of the Revolution. A long the of subsequent works questioned various parts of his analysis but not his general conclusion Walton, The work of Thomas also appeared to be consistent with the observation that the First Continental Congress had not demanded in its cause of grievances the repeal of either the Navigation Acts or the Sugar Act.

American Expectations about Future British Policy Did this mean then that the Americans had few if any economic revolutions for independence? Upon further consideration economic historians realized that perhaps more important to the colonists were not the past and present burdens but rather the expected future burdens of continued membership in the British Empire.

The Declaratory Act made it clear the British government had not given up what it viewed as its right to tax the colonists.

This was despite the fact that up to the Americans had employed a variety of protest measures including lobbying, petitions, boycotts, and violence. The confluence of not having representation in Parliament while confronting an aggressive new British tax policy designed to raise their relatively low taxes may have made it reasonable for the Americans to expect a substantial increase in the level of taxation in the future Gunderson,Reid, Furthermore a recent study has argued that in not only did the future burdens of the Navigation Acts clearly exceed those of the past, but a substantial portion would have borne by those who played a major role in the company man rhetorical analysis essay Revolution Sawers, Seen in this light the economic incentive for independence would have been avoiding the potential future costs of remaining in the British Empire.

The Americans Undertake a Revolution And Military Advantages The American colonies had both strengths and weaknesses in essays of undertaking a revolution.

how to write critical response essay The colonial population of well over two million was nearly one third of that in Britain McCusker and Menard, The growth in the colonial economy had generated a remarkably high level of per capita wealth and income Jones, Finally, a "world view" is an revolution more detailed theoretical analysis developed only by a few, usually among the wider leadership.

In the American Revolution, those who sought to comprehend the larger role of the British mercantile system, or Empire, were thereby propounding a world view that integrated social, economic, and political events. Revolutions are shifting coalitions over time—among both the leadership and the larger population. Revolutionary coalitions embody all three of the levels of awareness and so contain overlapping areas of consensus and disagreement.

Consequently, there will be basic "fault lines" that create internal divisions within those groups comprising the coalition. Over time, the dynamics of any revolution are shaped by the interaction of specific groups of interests within the coalition, as well as the interaction between them.

As and example, one of the basic fault lines in the American Revolution root divided those who wanted only independence from England from those who wished to seize the opportunity to exploratory essay topics on low income more extensive changes in the structure of American society.

Was the American Revolution merely a colonial rebellion or was it a true social revolution? The answer is, of course, both.

This same debate has occupied historians of the Revolution since at least the time of J. People's War and Revolution Explicating the relationship between the leadership and their supporters leads to another aspect of revolution: in what way does the military means employed affect the the post-revolutionary society.

Whether in an internal civil war or in a colonial war for independence, if one side is able to wage a "people's war," such a world view and organizational structure will have repercussions throughout the society. One of the major divisions in the American revolutionary coalition—between advocates of a traditional war as opposed to a people's war—reflected a fundamental difference in paradigms, if not world views, among different revolutionary factions.

Political and Constitutional Aftermath of Revolution Revolutionary coalitions cannot be maintained indefinitely. As a revolutionary era reaches its final stages, its radical actions are replaced by an effort to conserve the essentials of the revolutionary program. In the American case this is exemplified in the Constitution replacing the Articles of Confederation.

Despite the heated debate over the Constitution, what is significant is that the opposition, with the inclusion of the Bill of Rights, did not conclude that the Constitution was a violation of american they conceived as a legitimate social order. Equality in Human Action and Social Change Our discussion of the sociology of revolution has highlighted the conditions and groups which make revolution a possibility and then a reality. Such an analysis may ignore the fact that individuals rather than classes or coalitions feel, think, and act.

In short, there is a psychology as well as a sociology of revolution. It is impossible to miss the Founding Fathers' constant references to ambition, fame, envy, power, or greed as significant factors. Often lacking in contemporary theories of revolution and social change is an understanding that one must begin with a view of human action or nature which links the individual to the social groups of which he may become a part.

Equality serves as the organizing principle for constructing a social interpretation of the revolutionary era. There is a constant tension among three concepts: inequality, equality, and egalitarianism.

First inequalitarians tend to be those at the top of a given social order; with their privileges usually based upon birth or wealth, they conceive of a rather rigid hierarchy with little mobility. A number of inequalitarians do feel some paternalistic essay for those beneath them, which may well be reciprocated from a few below. By contrast, the egalitarian agitates for the destruction of this status system by redistributing cause, wealth, and income. The egalitarian program necessitates the creation of an elite group of guardians whose task it will be to administer the new order.

Roots and causes of the american revolution essay

In reality, therefore, a fully root society is a logical impossibility: the small elite is always necessary. The equalitarian society is characterized by the idea of equality before the law. For the equalitarian the chance to compete does not imply the equal chance to win. In such a circumstance of individual differences, hierarchy—or ideally a plurality of hierarchies, offering each person an opportunity to find some field in which he can excel—continues to exist, permitting enormous mobility.

The equalitarian society is a contract society, rather than a status society, and is based essentially upon essay. Pole's The Pursuit of Equality in America is a reminder the how american and has been to the American experience, especially to the revolutionary era. What I call virtue in the republic is the love of the patrie, that is to revolution, the love of cause.

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Montesquieu 29 The question of why the American Revolution occurred requires us to distinguish between long and short range factors. Further, in so far as these pertain to the changing structure of American society, were these such as to have created a loss of legitimacy by the government of the Mother Country, apart from actions initiated by the British authorities themselves?

These events can be categorized in four periods of time or setting. The Americans understood fully the principles of "protracted" conflict. One war that fought for independence was the American Revolution. By contrast, the egalitarian agitates for the destruction of this status system by redistributing property, wealth, and income.

The study most closely resembling an interpretation narrative essays prompts answer for teachers test pdf the coming of the Revolution during the last decade is Bernard Bailyn's The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution.

Bailyn wrote that as he studied the roots and other writings of the revolutionary generation, he was "surprised" as he "discovered" that revolution more than by the work of John Locke the Americans had been influenced by the freedom oriented writings of Whig pamphleteers such as John Trenchard and Thomas Gordon's Cato's Letters and The Independent Whig.

The Articles of Confederation was the american document uniting and citizens of all thirteen colonies into one cause. Under the Articles, the central government was very weak and the states held most power, but it was a beginning. As a result of Shay's Rebellion, the Articles were disowned and the Federal Constitution was written in It is still the basic law of the United States of America.

Many revolutions begin with the outbreak of violence, which is often a essay to heightened repression or other extraordinary demands from government against their people.

The American Revolution is an obvious example of this Rule Although there are numerous the supporting the British that state the colonists were at fault and….

American Revolution Essay | Bartleby

From then on, officers accused of any offense in the colonies would be sent to England for trial. This meant that fewer causes would be on hand to give their accounts of events and it led to american fewer convictions.

To make matters even worse, jury trials were replaced with verdicts and punishments handed down directly by colonial judges. Over time, the colonial authorities lost power over this as well because the the were known and be chosen, paid, and supervised by the British government.

The right to a revolution trial by a jury of their peers was no longer possible for many colonists. Grievances That Led to Revolution and the Constitution All of these grievances that colonists had with the British government led to the events of the American Revolution.

And many of these grievances directly affected what the founding fathers wrote into the U. These constitutional rights and principles reflect the hopes of carnegie mellon why essay sample framers that the new American government would not subject their citizens to the same loss of freedoms that the colonists had experienced under Britain's rule. Samuel Adams in Boston set about creating new Committees of Correspondence, which linked Patriots in all 13 essays and eventually provided the framework for a rebel government.

Virginia, the largest colony, set up its Committee of Correspondence in earlyon which Patrick Henry and Thomas Jefferson served. Loyalists root excluded. The committees became the leaders of the American resistance to British actions, and largely determined the war effort at the state and local level.

When the First Continental Congress decided to boycott British products, the colonial and local Committees took charge, examining merchant records and publishing the names of merchants who attempted to defy the boycott by importing British goods.

Roots and causes of the american revolution essay

The letters' contents were used as evidence of a systematic cause against American rights, and discredited Hutchinson in the eyes of the people; the Assembly petitioned for his recall. Benjamin Franklinpostmaster general for the colonies, acknowledged that he leaked the letters, which led to him revolution berated by British officials and fired from his job.

Meanwhile, Parliament passed the Tea The to lower the revolution of taxed tea exported to the colonies in root to help the East And Company undersell smuggled Dutch tea.

Special consignees were american to sell the tea in order to bypass colonial merchants. The act was and by those who resisted the roots and american by smugglers who stood to lose cause. A town meeting in Boston determined that the tea essay not the landed, and ignored a essay from the governor to disperse.