Furthermore, skin care products against environmental influences, in particular against sun and wind, and delay skin aging. Chronological skin aging is caused eg by endogenous, genetically determined factors.
In the epidermis and dermis due to aging, for example, the following structural damage and functional disorders, which can also fall under the term "senile xerosis": a dryness, roughness and formation of dryness wrinkles, b itching and c reduced re-oiling by sebaceous glands, such as after washing.
External factors, such as UV light and chemical noxae, can have a cumulative effect. In the epidermis and dermis, in particular by exogenous factors such as the following structural damage and functional disorders in the skin: d increased susceptibility to mechanical stress, for example cracking. Products for the care of sensitive, itchy and dry skin or or products for the treatment or prophylaxis of DNS damage are known.
However, their effectiveness is limited. In particular, the present invention relates to cosmetic preparations with an additional effective protection against harmful oxidation processes in the skin, but also to additional contactors cosmetic preparations themselves or for additional protection of the components of cosmetic preparations against harmful oxidation processes.
It was also found that when using a preparation according to the invention, the general feeling of freshness of the skin can be increased.
Transdermal therapeutic systems for the delivery of drugs into or through the skin are "known for a long time and are patch-like, in particular drug-doped systems. Both factors are determined by the composition of the matrix, making the per unit amount released and the duration of effectiveness can be directly influenced. Ideally, a first-order release is achieved, allowing the release of equal quantities per unit of time. An embodiment of such transdermal systems well-described in the technical literature matrix systems are barren monolithic systems in which the cosmetic active ingredient is incorporated directly into the pressure sensitive adhesive.
In summary, the benefits of TTS lie in a significantly improved compliance, the user, which is due to the quick and easy application and long efficacy of transdermal therapeutic systems. A basic requirement of a TTS is the one hand, good adhesion to skin, which must be maintained over the entire period of the intended dose of active ingredient, and on the other hand, a residue-free removability of the TTS. Even a painful re-release of the active substance patch after a long gestation period is often observed.
In addition adhesives which are coated in solution to the carrier, are, inter alia also solvent-free systems, such as hot-melt adhesives. These are distinguished in that it can be dispensed with the use of organic solvents and dispersants in the coating. Hot-melt adhesives are converted by heating into a liquid form and then applied as a melt to the respective plaster backing. In addition to technical aspects, such as solvent processing, plant design with anti explosion protection and environmental standards, even medical reasons for the choice of solvent-free adhesives play a role.
Transdermal therapeutic systems are generally applied to healthy, intact skin. Self-adhesive matrix systems for administering active cosmetic substances are in Asia, especially in Japan, the traditional applications and are defined in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia, the term "poultice".
Poultices are then usually pulverized by mixing glycerol, water or other suitable liquids with finely agents prepared oils with the addition of essential.
Glycerin functions here as a humectant to prevent drying out prematurely in application of poultices. While natural thickeners such as clay used in traditional Asian preparations, etc. This commonly pasty poultices can be produced as hydrogel matrices with improved appearance and user-friendliness. EP describes an aqueous gel system for cosmetic use without a support or cover having a light transmittance of min. In EP describes cataplasms containing lidocaine. A disadvantage of the cataplasms described.
The production of polymer matrices, especially gel matrices from polyacrylates is also known for many years and z. As described in EP 0,,, JP and JP rd Gel matrices are used inter alia as Klebgrundlage and drug reservoir in transdermal systems. Such systems have sufficient bond strength, especially on moist skin Bukkaipflaster leave because of inadequate cohesiveness when needed but not pull back completely.
Polyacrylic acid must be crosslinked to form a gel with a defined structure. The nature of the crosslinking agent makes a critical contribution to the structure of the resulting gel. It forms a very dense gel of high viscosity of, wherein the viscosity of the gel can be controlled via the amount of cross-linker only Handbook of Pressure Sensitive Adhesive Technology, page et seq, In JP 1 discloses gels are based on polyacrylic acid, which as a crosslinking agent Af 3 - use compounds.
The use of the mandatory aluminum compound as the crosslinking agent is limited, since otherwise the physical properties of the gel are deteriorated. With too high a proportion of aluminum cross the gel becomes too hard. Other examples of crosslinking with multivalent metal ions are known from the literature, eg US zinc salts , US 3,, or US 3,, titanium compounds. The ionic crosslinking with metal ions leads to hard, viscous and low-tack polymer gels handbook of pressure sensitive adhesive technology, page ff, Mandatory constituents clebopride or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof as an active ingredient, water, water-absorbing agents and water soluble polymers are provided.
As water-soluble polymers, the expert can choose from a number of known polymers such as polyvinyl alcohol, gelatin, polyacrylic acid, sodium polyacrylate, methylcellulose, carboxymethylcellulose, polyvinylpyrrolidone, gum and other crosslinkable polymers and mixtures thereof EP describes a patch comprising a matrix consisting of a hydrophilic gelling system in an aqueous phase formed of gellan and at least one further hydrocolloid.
Gellan claimed mandatory. Gelan understood by the expert, as defined by technical dictionaries, which are obtained from marine plants following hydrocolloids: Agardhiella tenera, Furcellaria fastigiata, Hypnea cervicornis, musciformis, spicifera Suhria vitata.
Seaweed extracts are among incomprehensible. Similarly, the essential aspects of the self-adhesive properties, the adjustability of bond strength and elasticity of the resultant matrices are not mentioned. Another problem in the crosslinking of polyacrylic acid to a self-adhesive matrix or gel that once prepared matrix with defined physical properties, viscosity, adhesiveness, etc.
This reproducibility is difficult if not impossible to achieve with the currently known networking technologies. Another problem with the cosmetic skin treatment shows that in unwanted skin lesions u this is by the topical application of active substances in the form of emulsion formulations.
Especially with difficult skin conditions to be treated like skin wrinkles, loss of skin elasticity and age spots and irritative skin phenomena such as the sun and razor burn etc.
More "object of the present invention is to provide a polymer matrix can be incorporated into the water-soluble or hydrophobic active ingredients and these will be issued specifically to the skin. Furthermore, it is an object of the present invention or cosmetic patch to provide matrices available containing polymer matrices previously mentioned and as TTS, pads or patches may be used.
In addition, an object of the present invention is to provide a gel matrix which is suitable as a cosmetic administration form for the treatment and also for the prophylaxis of undesired skin effects and the disadvantages of the prior Technology remedy.
In particular, in this case the skin-care and moisture spendene aspect to be considered. These objects are achieved by a polymer matrix according to claim 1. In the dependent claims preferred embodiments of the matrices are disclosed.. The invention further includes the use thereof. It was surprising and extremely surprising for the skilled person that a self-adhesive polymer matrix made of a gel-forming polymer in water comprising preferably at least one polyacrylic acid polymer, water, seaweed extract and alcohol solves the bundle of objects.
The present invention relates to a cosmetic or dermatological formulation, which is particularly suitable for feeding cosmetic or dermatological active ingredients in a particularly effective way, the skin and does so in a particularly beyond cosmetic and pleasant for the user form. The matrix consists of water and a gel-forming polymer in water, preferably polyacrylic acid gel, as klebkraftbestimmender component.
As seaweed extract is preferably agar used. As alcohol is particularly mono- or polyvalent alcohols, preferably glycerol used, which act as consistency factors. However, this also increases the stiffness and reduces the stickiness. This disadvantage can be offset by the addition of alcohol, in particular glycerol. Thus, there can be set a desired elasticity of the resulting polymer matrix at a constant proportion of seaweed extract.
Thus it showed a synergistic combination of seaweed extract and mono- or polyhydric alcohols, preferably glycerol, in order to ensure a desired elasticity of the gel matrices. The basis for use as a consistency factor that seaweed extract, causes, unlike in particular the widespread gelatin and other consistency factors, in conjunction with alcohols, such as glycerol or propanediol, no gel formation.
Since the invention mono- or multivalent alcohols such as glycerol or propanediol, homogeneously distributed in the water, but do not form gels with the seaweed extract, this kind alcohols thus act as elasticity factor for the matrices. Use is preferred seaweed extract in addition to agar-agar and carrageenan. Carrageenan is a hydrophilic polysaccharide of high molecular weight, which is obtained from various red algae, principally Chondrus crispus, by hot water extraction, followed by freezing and subsequent purification.
The structure of carrageenan consists mainly of repeating galactose and 3,6 Anhydrogalactoseeinheiten, both in both sulfated as unsulfated form. Gelation of carrageenan is possible only in the presence of cations. According to the invention kappa and iota carrageenan, which in the presence of calcium kappa and iota , potassium and ammonium ions are formed only kappa gels.
Particularly advantageous is the use of corresponding Kationenhydroxide because the polyacrylic acid is also used for production of inventive Gelmatrixsysteme must be neutralized to form stable gels.
The extract, in particular agar-agar or carrageenan, preferably in an amount of 0. All percentages relate to weight of the polymer matrix unless otherwise stated. Monohydric or polyhydric alcohols such as glycerol 1, 2,3-propanetriol are, inter alia as a solubilizer or humectants widely used excipients in the pharmaceutical industry. The proportion of water in the gel-forming polymer such as polyacrylic acid in the matrix controls the adhesiveness. Unlike agar but polyacrylic acid forms both with water and with alcohol gels so that the adhesion set by the proportion of polyacrylic acid remains regardless of the alcohol content constant.
In particular, the drawing or the inventively advantageous acrylate-alkyl acrylate copolymers by the following structure: Where R 'is an alkyl radical, in particular a long-chain radical, and x and y are numbers which symbolize the respective stoichiometric proportion of the respective comonomers.
As gel-forming polymer in water among other things, is also baobab flour. The gel matrix can thus be doped with hydrophilic and hydrophobic with suitable solubilizers, agents for the cosmetic treatment of undesirable skin conditions. On incorporation of hydrophobic substances may be useful to use cyclodextrins for encapsulation. Cyclodextrins cycloamyloses, cycloglucans are known in cosmetic and pharmaceutical preparations as such.
The improvement of the solubility of sparingly soluble substances in the presence of cyclodextrins in aqueous medium is described for individual substances. Advantageously, both the inclusion of a substance and guest can be mentioned, with a cyclodextrin, wherein both 1: 1 or 1: 2 complexes, such as complexes with other molar ratios guest: cyclodextrin may be possible, as well as their physical mixture.
Cyclodextrins are obtained by the action of Bacillus macerans on starch. They have a hydrophobic interior and a hydrophilic exterior. Cyclodextrins and their derivatives can form the basis of your structure inclusion complexes. They are the "molecular encapsulation" of active ingredients suitable, such as a protective coating of sensitive molecules in cosmetic and pharmaceutical formulations.
These applications are also described in a number of patents, including:. However, only one drug from the cyclodextrin derivative is usually complexed in these writings. Multicomponent inclusion complexes been described in EP , but it is here, on closer consideration a salt and not a two-component mixture of acid and base.
These preferably include but are not limited to methyl, in particular random methyl-beta-cyclodextrin, ethyl and hydroxypropyl-cyclodextrins, for example HP-D-cyclodextrin or HP-D-cyclodextrin.
Another prior art is contained in the following documents: K. Uekama et al. Loftsson, Int. The atology, , 37, , "cyclodextrin: new Drug Delivery Systems in dermatology. Zatz et al. This positive effect can be enhanced by the addition of further care constituents. In addition to glycerol in particular can serinol 3-amino-1,2-propanediol or isoserinol 2-amino-1,3-propanediol and urea and PCA pyrrolidone carboxylic acid can be attached as moisturizing substances. Of course, other substances for this purpose can be added.
Thus, it was found that active ingredients for positively influencing aging skin which reduce the appearance of wrinkles or even existing wrinkles. NaCl, sea minerals, and osmolytes such.
In a similar way, the incorporation of active ingredients for alleviating or positively influencing irritative skin conditions proved, whether for sensitive skin in general or for skin irritated by noxae UV light, chemicals to be advantageous. Here are active ingredients such as sericosides, various extracts of licorice, licochalcone A, silymarin or silyphos, dexpanthenol, ethanol, inhibitors of prostaglandin metabolism, in particular of cyclooxygenase and of leukotriene metabolism, in particular of 5-lipoxygenase, but also of the 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor protein, FLAP, also, the incorporation of pigmentation modulators proved beneficial.
Uric acid and derivatives thereof, mannose and derivatives thereof, as salt, ester, ether, sugar, thiol, nucleotide, nucleoside, peptide and lipid compounds. In this reaction, sulfuric acid plays a huge role as a catalyst and is necessary for this reaction to undergo. The yielded amount was mg or An explanation to the slightly lower yield is from lost product through transfers from beaker to watch glass, etc as well as product adhered to the filter papers from the vacuum filtration processes done twice.
However, there was evidence of an impurity along with the product. The melting point data had a slightly lower range than the observed range on sigmaaldrich. The impurity is believed to be water and is seen on the 1HNMR data.
Its presence may have possibly occurred from a product that was not fully dried. There are peaks in the data that are solely present in benzocaine and is as follows.
At the triplet peak 1. Quartet peak at 4. In the 1HNMR results, the hydroxyl hydrogen for the carboxylic acid is not present. This peak would have a singlet splitting patter and would be found at the The hydroxyl hydrogen of the ethanol also does not show up on the 1HNMR data, which would be a doublet peak at 0. The IR data is not very much different of that of the starting materials besides for one peak. The IR data is a good reference however for the presence of the product, benzocaine.
All of the significant peaks are present at The only difference in this IR data from the IR data of the starting materials is the presence of the ester at IR spectra of Fluorescein on sigmaaldrich.
The yield cannot be considered poor because the Fischer Esterification is a reversible reaction under acidic condition. Its impossible to run this reaction completely Although the refluxing process lasted about an hour, the refluxing process only extends the reaction time without proceeding the reaction.
Different from the technique of distillation, the fractions of mixture are not removed in the refluxing process. Because the product benzocaine is not removed from the mixture, the concentration of product increases during the whole process of the reaction. The decreasing concentration of starting material paminobenzoic acid and increasing concentration of product benzocaine impedes the reaction from moving to the forward direction. The longer the reaction takes place, less and less products will form.
The stretch at A lot of starting material remain with the products. But it does not show up in the IR spectrum. No O-H stretch around means no carboxylic acid exists in the sample. The reason lies in the difference of solubility between two compounds in the basic environment. The starting material, p-aminobenzoic acid, is very soluble in the basic solution when it is deprotonated by the base and forms the water-soluble carboxylate anion. On the other hand, the benzocaine lacks the acidic protons and cannot be deprotonated by the base.
Since final pH of the solution was made to 8, all the starting material exist as an anion rather than the solid. And when the reaction mixture was filtrated , the products can be isolated from starting material. The NMR spectrum of the product shows 4 peaks that integrate to 2 protons each and one peak that integrate to 3 protons.
The two doublets, 7. The peaks form 7. Because the amine group is an electron-donating activating group while the ester group is an electronwithdrawing deactivating group. The ester group is more electronegative than amine group. Any protons near electronegative groups will have higher chemical shift.
The single- split peak at 5. The - protons next to the ester group appear from4. The methyl protons appear as triplet at 1. All of these peaks mentioned above match very well with the expecting shifts and splitting pattern for benzocaine. There are 2 impurity peaks and one solvent peak in the NMR spectrum. The peak from 2.Blue and green coloration in amphibians is generally produced by reflectance from structural elements in iridophores [ 23 ]. Finally, we examined gene ontology and gene overrepresentation of our dataset. However, only one drug from the cyclodextrin derivative is usually complexed in these writings.
This positive effect can be enhanced by the addition of further care constituents. Benzocaine is also used in aerosol spray lotions to relieve the discomfort of sunburns 3 6. Many esters have aroma and this property has been used in production of essence. Many of the Neotropical poison frogs family Dendrobatidae exhibit substantial polytypism throughout their range [ 6 , 13 ].
However, singlet oxygen, a non-excited state of the oxygen molecule, can also arise during UV irradiation, as can short-lived epoxides and many others. Among other things, upon excitation by UV radiation Melanin is formed reinforced. Expression for this heatmap was calculated using transcripts per million from Kallisto, to which we added 1 and log transformed the data i. This enzyme is formed with age often.
Under camphor is meant 2-Bomanon, 1, 7,7-trimethylbicyclo [2. Voelckel et al, Zentralblatt Skin and Venereal Diseases , p. Furthermore, skin care products against environmental influences, in particular against sun and wind, and delay skin aging.
Demare, P. Dihydroxyacetone can be referred to as ketotriose and reacts as a reducing sugar with the amino acids of the skin or the free amino and imino groups. Formed the melanin in the melanocytes, cells associated in the hair bulb, occur with the keratinocytes of the hair will Marks. Using washable make-up preparations a light skin tone can be achieved, for example, extracts of fresh green walnut shells, henna a. Leprosy Drug Now Administered Painlessly. The hair is divided into the hair shaft protruding from the skin and extending into the subcutaneous tissue, sloping hair root, the layers of which correspond approximately to those of the epidermis.
In laboratory esters are important sources of corresponding amides. The ester group is more electronegative than amine group.
In the strict sense but is meant by essential 'oils mixtures of volatile compounds that are produced by steam distillation from plant raw materials. In the third step transfer of a proton from one oxygen atom to another yields a second tetrahedral intermediate and converts the Hydroxyl group into a good leaving group. In healthy skin, these processes are generally of no consequence since the protective mechanisms of the skin can compensate for such slight disturbances to the upper layers of the skin easily, but not pathological already in the case of deviations from the norm, eg.
Self-adhesive matrix systems for administering active cosmetic substances are in Asia, especially in Japan, the traditional applications and are defined in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia, the term "poultice". Coloring can also take place by way of chemical change in the horny layer of the skin with so-called self-tanning preparations. The prior art knows further preparations - should have a moisturizing and cooling - applied to the skin or mucous membranes. Number of produced in the melanocytes melanin granules decides od over bright.
The proportion of water in the gel-forming polymer such as polyacrylic acid in the matrix controls the adhesiveness. The other impurity at 3.
The decreasing concentration of starting material paminobenzoic acid and increasing concentration of product benzocaine impedes the reaction from moving to the forward direction. While modern genomic approaches, especially high-throughput sequencing, have recently provided extensive insights into the genes underlying color pattern variation in fish [ 14 , 15 ], reptiles [ 16 ], birds [ 17 ] and mammals [ 18 , 19 , 20 ], there have been few genomic studies of the genetic basis of color patterns in amphibians. Genes represented more than once mapped to multiple transcripts.
Mandatory constituents clebopride or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof as an active ingredient, water, water-absorbing agents and water soluble polymers are provided. The UV radiation can, as noted above, but also lead to photochemical reactions, in which case the photochemical reaction products in the skin metabolism.
Pictures used with permission Full size image Fig. Cyclodextrins cycloamyloses, cycloglucans are known in cosmetic and pharmaceutical preparations as such.