As such, they only used classroom learning as background knowledge for crafting their argumentation, not as relevant sources to support their claims. On the contrary, students in the VH group used extensively the sources provided to them in the VH library.
The problem, however, is the type of sources and the analytical approaches used by students. Without exception, all essays focus exclusively on print sources from the VH library e.
Although students had access to, and in fact manipulated several visual artefacts and dynamic texts news clip, digitized photographs, satellite map, and historical poster , they appear to have considered them exclusively for computer entertainment 4.
Students acted as if visual texts could not be used critically to supplement, corroborate, or contradict print sources on the subject.
This is a mistake. The analytical approaches taken by VH students also need further evaluation. Many of the students appeared to have problems understanding that sources, whether they are primary or secondary, must be questioned and analyzed critically in order to be used as historical evidence. Too often the answers in the tests and the arguments presented in the essays reveal a limited ability to read beyond factual knowledge.
The predicable result is the inability of many students to work through the sources, even when they are provided with an instructional program geared toward authentic historical inquiry. It was found that students from the VH group significantly improved their understanding of the discipline and subject-matter. Recent U. This study appears to confirm that the VH, as a digital history program, favours engagement with the subject-matter and focuses student attention on the resolution of an historical investigation.
Students in the VH group did not appear to see a disconnection between the web-based inquiry and the writing of their argumentative essay as did students in the comparison group. More than this, they had the feeling they could investigate and go into greater depth in the study of a key episode in Canadian history.
On the one hand, the VH provides students with a multiplicity of conflicting sources for each historical investigation for the October Crisis, students had access to over 20 different print and visual texts. Several students were initially slowed down, even discouraged by their textbook-type reading approach to historical sources. These boxes allow students to get in a snapshot a description of the source in terms of the type of source what is it?
With this in hand, students could more effectively search and collect the necessary sources to structure their argumentative essay.
The role of the instructor was key in helping students make best use of VH. Figure 3. The Virtual Historian Interactive Source Description October Crisis, On the other hand, this digital history program, in its current design, does not allow for a completely interactive network environment as offered by client-server software.
These powerful innovative technologies enable users to access and share online server-software than are typically available on stand-alone computers. The VH version 1. As a result of this, students still have to work with a mixture of conventional documents print worksheets , online program tools and digitized sources, and finally a separate word processor to write their essay.
That being said, the recent study by Saye and Brush b offers useful cautionary notes on the use of scaffolds. On the one hand, it is not clear from their multiple, longitudinal studies that students exposed to inquiry-based learning gradually develop sufficient expertise in the domain to operate independently from learning support. On the other hand, even the most intensive and descriptive web scaffolds provided to students in their learning program proved to be inadequate.
As useful and powerful as they might be, computers and instructional programs cannot, at this point in time, replace effective classroom history teaching. In light of the findings, we recognize that students who spend the great majority of their class time taking part in lectures and reading from authoritative textbooks cannot magically engage in complex or even simple historical inquiries, using the tools and objects of the historians, when exposed to technology alone. Teaching with computer technology must become a learning experience for both students and teachers.
In short, educators and computer-assisted program designers should not put unrealistic expectations on new technologies. Inquiry-based learning—whether it is with our without technology—puts significant demands on students and teachers. To have taught well with this approach does not mean to design perfect inquiries that students can accomplish on their own.
Rather, it implies a series of steps and actions that cause understanding through guided questioning, reasoning, and investigation. The VH should therefore be conceived as an affordable learning tool that both students and teachers can use to foster historical thinking and sophisticated understanding of events in Canadian history.
References Bain, R. Ahsburn and R. Floden, Eds. New York: Teachers College Press. Barthes, R. Paris: Seuil. Translated in Barton, K. Social Education, 67 6 , Bruner, J. The Process of Education, 2nd Ed. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Cohen, D. Digital history: a guide to gathering, preserving, and presenting the past on the web. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Evidence in history and the classroom. Dickinson, and P.
Lee Eds. By , 23 members of the FLQ were in prison, including four convicted of murder. The kidnappers are disguised as delivery men bringing a package for his recent birthday. Once the maid lets them in, they pull out a rifle and a revolver and kidnap Cross. This is followed by a communique to the authorities containing the kidnappers' demands, which include the exchange of Cross for "political prisoners", a number of convicted or detained FLQ members, and the CBC broadcast of the FLQ Manifesto.
The terms of the ransom note are the same as those found in June for the planned kidnapping of the U. At this time, the police do not connect the two. October Montreal, Quebec: Members of the Chenier Cell approach the home of the Deputy Premier of the province of Quebec , Pierre Laporte , while he is playing football with his nephew on his front lawn.
The Quebec Government appoints Robert Demers. When Ralfe asks Trudeau how far he would go Trudeau replies, " Just watch me ". October Premier Bourassa formally requests that the government of Canada grant the government of Quebec "emergency powers" that allow them to "apprehend and keep in custody" individuals.
This results in the implementation of the War Measures Act , allowing the suspension of habeas corpus , giving wide-reaching powers of arrest to police. The City of Montreal had already made such a request the day before. He was strangled and then stuffed in the trunk of a car and abandoned in the bush near Saint-Hubert Airport , a few miles from Montreal.
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Yet educators, and even historians themselves, are not always clear about the meaning and nature of inquiry. Although three members escape the raid, Bernard Lortie is arrested and charged with the kidnapping and murder of Pierre Laporte. The two classes were not exposed to randomization as the school and classrooms were selected on their willingness to participate and typicality i.
This basic safety in Speech owners during Quebec was first as well some sort of huge component seeing that many people were that marks associated with rubens venus and even adonis painting like a pro exploration essay bombings and even harassment. Many of the students appeared to have problems understanding that sources, whether they are primary or secondary, must be questioned and analyzed critically in order to be used as historical evidence.
Without a doubt the idea was first a fed govt who, by way of advantage in their constitutional capability throughout legal legal requirements, used typically the WMA, nonetheless around retrospect the actual provinces in addition currently have all the expertise in order to question a ownership involving a WMA, with regard to all the equal points Tetley, This results in the implementation of the War Measures Act , allowing the suspension of habeas corpus , giving wide-reaching powers of arrest to police. Lipscomb, G. On April 3, , Trudeau announced that Canada would stay in NATO after all, but he drastically cut military spending and pulled out half of the 10, Canadian soldiers and airmen stationed in West Germany. The selection of the VH group which met on afternoon classes was made according to the computer lab schedule for the week of the experiment. Having said that, this comparable version involving typically the decision was first though to help you get stated to.